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Full text of "Fire technology abstracts / prepared by Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University"




VOLUME 
NO. 6 



H 






MAY-JUNE 1977 



FIRE 

TECHNOLOGY 

ABSTRACTS 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERC 

National Fire Prevention 

and Control Administration 




NOTE . . . 



Fire Technology Abstracts is sponsored and published by the National Fire 
Prevention and Control Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Issues of 
this abstract journal will be published bi-monthly. Subscriptions may be ordered 
directly from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. The price is $11.50 per year ($14.50 foreign). Send 
check or money order payable to: Superintendent of Documents. Or charge your 
Supt. Docs. Deposit Account if you have one. 



VOLUME ^- 
NO. 6 

MAY-JUNE 1977 



FIRE 

TECHNOLOGY 

ABSTRACTS 







8 
a 
« 
a 

to 

3 







^TES O* *" 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
National Fire Prevention 
and Control Administration 
Fire Reference Service 

Prepared by 

Applied Physics Laboratory 

The Johns Hopkins University 



For further information contact 
Fire Reference Service 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington. DC 20036 
Telephone 202/634-3913 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY 

Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20810 



L. J. Holtschlag 

Chief Editor 



B. W. Kuvshinoff 

Associate Editor 



J. B. Jernigan 

Assistant Editor 



G. T. Trotter 
Programming Consultant 



B. E. Hess 
Technical Assistant 



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EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD 



I. A. Benjamin 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

W. G. Berl 

The Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

J. E. Bihr 

International Conference of 
Building Officials 

J. L. Bryan 

University of Maryland 
Fire Protection Curriculum 

R. M. Fristrom 

The Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

A. F. Robertson 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

P. S. Schaenman 

National Fire Prevention and 
Control Administration 

P. G. Seeger 

University of Karlsruhe (FRG) 
Fire Protection Engineering 
Research Facility 



J. H. Shern < 

City of Pasadena, California 
Fire Department 

G. W. Shorter 

National Research Council (Canada) 
Division of Building Research, 
Fire Research Section 

V. Sjolin 

National Defense Research 
Institute (Sweden) 

R. E. Stevens 

National Fire Protection Association 

A. R. Taylor 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 

P. H. Thomas 

Building Research Establishment (UK! 
Fire Research Station 

T. Wakamatsu 

Ministry of Construction (Japan) 
Building Research Institute 

I. J. Witteveen 

TNO for Building Materials and 
Building Structures (The Netherlands) 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Technology Abstracts is an abstracts journal being 
prepared bimonthly by the Fire Problems Program Group 
of the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins 
University, Laurel, Maryland, USA, under the sponsor- 
ship of the National Fire Prevention and Control Adminis- 
tration (NFPCA) of the US Department of Commerce. 
It complements the Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews 
published under the auspices of the US National Academy 
of Sciences/National Research Council in cooperation with 
the NFPCA. 

SCOPE AND COVERAGE 

The aim of Fire Technology Abstracts is to provide 
comprehensive reference to the applied fire literature in 
the broad range of topics outlined in the "Table of Con- 
tents." Most topics are covered fully; a few topics, such 
as forest fires and mine fires, are referenced selectively, 
because they are covered systematically in other special- 
ized indexing and abstracting serials. For such topics an 
appropriate notice has been entered under the respective 
category. 

The information contained in Fire Technology Abstracts 
has been gleaned from a wide variety of sources (journals, 
books, reports, patents, codes, and standards), with par- 
ticular emphasis on the report and patent literature, for 
which referencing heretofore has been inadequate. 
Although the English-language literature comprises the 
majority of the entries, the coverage includes selections 
from the world fire literature, identified in part through 
such sources as Safety in Mines Abstracts of the Safety 
in Mines Research Establishment (UK), identified in the 
abstracts as (SMRE), the Soviet Abstracts Journal, Series 
68, "Fire Protection," identified as (RZh), and the card 
abstracts issued monthly by the Fire Literature Documen- 
tation Section of the German Fire Technology Research 
Center at the University of Karlsruhe, identified as 
(Fachdok). 

Many of the entries in Fire Technology Abstracts are 
being used with the permission of the copyright holders. 
Any abstract terminating with (Author) should be con- 
sidered as possibly subject to copyright restrictions. 

ARRANGEMENT 



scheme, as well as filing and disclosure dates, priorities 
and, if available, assignees. The abstracts are classified 
under the 13 main categories listed in the "Table of Con- 
tents" and a suitable number of subcategories, which are 
subject to revision as the necessity for finer classification 
arises. The page-keyed categories and subcategories of 
the "Table of Contents" are repeated on the appropriate 
pages in the abstracts section to assist the reader in rapid 
identification of the topical field of interest. 

The Index section consists of four indexes: author, sub- 
ject, source, and report number. Each entry in each index 
is keyed to an abstract number. Annual cumulative in- 
dexes will be published. 

The Author Index is an alphabetical list of all authors 
cited in the abstracts section, whether principal or secon- 
dary. 

The Subject Index entries consist of up to three 
hierarchic descriptive levels to characterize the nature of 
the subject content. 

The Source Index displays citations in alphabetical order 
of the sources under the headings: Books, Codes, Con- 
ferences, Congresses, Dissertations, Journals, Meetings, 
Patents, Reports, Seminars, Standards, and Symposia. 

The Report Index lists in alphanumeric order the num- 
bers of all the reports entered in each issue, including 
multiple numbers, as well as the accession numbers under 
which reports are available from document repositories. 

These indexes (as indeed the entire journal) are com- 
posed and printed out by an IBM 360/91 computer, using 
the INFO-360 Document Writing Package of programs 
developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The final 
edited file is reformatted to drive a photocomposing 
machine. All but the subject index are produced directly 
from the printed portion of the entries. The subject index 
terms are typed in at the ends of the abstracts, but are 
not printed in the body of the journal. Author affiliations, 
whenever available, are also included in the records. 
These are not printed or listed, but are reserved for future 
use in developing directories and the like. 

AVAILABILITY 



The journal is arranged in two sections: Abstracts and 
Indexes. 

The Abstracts section contains complete bibliographic 
description required for identification of the item, along 
with a brief description of the contents of the item, 
usually consisting of the author's abstract, summary, or 
conclusions. The patents entries contain, in addition, cita- 
tions of the patent classes, in most cases in accordance 
with the international classification system, in some cases 
preceded by classes according to a national classification 



Fire Technology Abstracts is a literature announcement 
service only and cannot respond to requests for the docu- 
ments announced in the journal. For all literature citations 
an effort is made to provide the information needed by 
the reader to acquire the document. In general, however, 
the full text of many of the journal articles cited in the 
FTA can be purchased through the Original Article Tear 
Sheet service (registered trademark OATS) of the Institute 
for Scientific Information (registered ISI) in Philadelphia, 
PA. The full text of those abstracts terminating with 
(Fachdok plus number) can be purchased by citing the 



number and ordering from the Documentation Center of 
the German Fire Technology Research Center in Karl- 
sruhe, FRG. The addresses of these two organizations 
are given below. 

For books, monographs, conference papers, and 
proceedings the source is, in most cases, either the 
publisher or the sponsoring organization. 

Dissertations are available in xerographic copy from 
University Microfilms of Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Patents can be obtained from the respective national 
Patent Offices. 

US Reports are available for a fee from the National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS) or from the US 
Government Printing Office (GPO). If availability is not 
indicated, the issuing organization should be queried. 

ADDRESSES 



NTIS 



National Technical Information 

Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
PO Box 1553 
Springfield, VA 22161 



Fachdok 



Forschungsstelle tuer 

Brandschutztechnik 
an der Universitaet Karlsruhe 

(T.H.) 
Abteilung Fachdokumentation 
Hertzstrasse 16, Postfach 6380 
Federal Republic of Germany 



Firebase 



Firebase Operations Center 
Boise Interagency Fire Center 
3905 Vista Avenue 
Boise, ID 83705 
Telephone. (208) 384 9457 
FTS: 554 9457 



GPO 



OATS 



Pat Off 



Superintendant of Documents 
US Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402 

Institute for Scientific 

Information 
325 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 

Commissioner of Patents and 

Trademarks 
Washington, DC 20231 



SFPE 



Society of Fire Protection 

Engineers 
60 Batterymarch Street 
Boston, MA 02110 



Univ Micro 



University Microfilms 
300 North Zeeb Road 
Ann Arbor, MI 48106 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization 358 

b. Meetings and Professional Activities 358 

c. Literature and Notices 358 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques 

and Analyses 359 

e. Fire Science Education 360 

f. Legislation 361 

g. Research and Development Programs 361 

2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread 362 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and Extinction 363 

c. Flow of Combustion Products 364 

d. Instrumentation 364 

e. Meteorology 365 

f. Radiation 365 

g. Thermal Conductivity 365 

3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior 

of Materials 365 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability 

Tests and Methods 368 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials 370 

d. Nature of Combustion Products 372 

e. Protection of Modification of Materials 372 

f. Stability of Materials at Elevated 

Temperatures 374 

4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. Field Evaluation 374 

b. Fire Testing, Structures 374 

c. Modeling and Scaling 375 

d. Systems Behavior 377 

5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. Building Design and Construction 

Principles 377 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment 378 

c. Fire and Explosion Risks 384 

d. Fire Loads 385 

e. Heat and Pressure Load Effects 

on Structures 385 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction 386 

g. Protection Devices and Equipment 388 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment 391 

6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. Agriculture and Wildlands 398 

b. Commercial Occupanies 398 

c. Electrical 398 

d. Industrial Occupancies 399 

e. Institutional Occupancies 403 

f. Mining 403 

g. Power Plants 403 

h. Public Buildings 404 

i. Residential Occupancies 404 

j. Transportation 404 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. Administration, Organization, and Management. 405 

b. Education and Training 406 

c. Facilities 406 

d. General Equipment 407 

e. Information Systems 409 

f. Investigation and Reporting 409 

g. Personal Equipment 409 

h. Personnel Affairs 413 

8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND 
SUPPRESSION 

a. Communications and Signalling 413 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives 414 

c. Hydraulics and Water Supplies 415 

d. Inspection 416 

e. Operational Problems 416 

f. Public Education and Public Relations 416 

g. Rescue Operations 417 

h. Tactics 419 

9. PLANNING 

a. Budgeting 420 

b. Logistics 420 

c. Operations Analysis 420 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND 
MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

a. Arson 421 

b. Combustion Toxicology 421 

c. Emergency Medical Services and 

Facilities 424 

d. Injuries and Fatalities 424 

e. Physiology 424 

f. Psychology 424 

11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, 
IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

a. Codes 424 

b. Hazards Identification 425 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials 425 

d. Standards 426 

12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS 
AND PREVENTION 

a. Insurance 427 

b. Losses 427 

c. Restoration 427 

d. Risk Management 427 

e. Salvage 428 

13. STATISTICS 428 

AUTHOR INDEX 1-1 

SUBJECT INDEX 1-5 

SOURCE INDEX 1-27 

REPORT NUMBER INDEX 1-31 

EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 1-33 

v 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Volume 1, Number 6 



May-June 1977 



1. GENERAL 

a. FIRE PROTECTION ORGANIZATION 

1924. Anon 

SECURITY AND FIRE PROTECTION YEARBOOK 

Victor Green Publications Ltd, London, UK; 2nd 
261 pages, 1976 



edit. 



This is the second edition of the Security and Fire Pro- 
tection Yearbook, which will be published annually. Listed 
in 6 sections are all the British governmental departments, 
public authorities, professional institutes, associations and 
companies involved in security and fire protection, as fol- 
lows: Non-Commercial Bodies (Government departments, 
national authorities institutions, associations, research and 
teaching establishments and trade organizations); In- 
surance Companies; UK Police Authorities; Security Com- 
panies (and Buyers' Guide to Equipment and Services); 
UK Fire Authorities; and Fire Protection Companies (and 
Buyers' Guide to Equipment, Materials and Services). 



1925. Brands F 
ORGANIZATION 
FIRE BRIGADES 

Rev Tech Feu: 17(158):26-27 



AND EQUIPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL 

1976 (French) 



It is pointed out that every industrial enterprise in 
France is required to have its own fire unit equipped 
to handle the specific hazards of the plant. The difference 
between public and private fire units is that the former 
extinguish fires in residential and public buildings, on 
board ships in port, etc, while the latter, more specialized 
units handle those in plants. Their personnel are made 
up in both cases of professional firefighters, permanently 
employed for this purpose, but the industrial firefighters 
are often volunteers, even though the ratio of profes- 
sionals to volunteers depends on the premise, the number 
of fires, and other factors. The responsibility for fire pro- 
tection in plants lies in the hands of the fire safety 
manager. At the present time the industrial units are al- 
most fully equipped to handle fires in their plants. The 
trends toward automation and mechanization have resulted 
in a steadily decreasing number of volunteers, with a 
necessity of expanding the use of sprinkler systems, flood- 
ing systems, foam generators, etc, supervised by television 
monitors. (RZh) 



b. MEETINGS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

1926. Anon 

COMBUSTIBILITY ISSUES IN COMMERCIAL CON- 
STRUCTION, RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION, TRANS- 
PORTATION, FURNITURE-FURNISHINGS 

Combustibility Svmp, Annual, 5th, Papers; 1976, Apr 21- 

22, Atlanta, GA 

Sponsor: The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc 

This volume contains the 13 papers presented at the 
5th Annual Combustibility Symposium sponsored by the 
Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI), as follows: (1) SPI 
Attitude Survey; (2) Flammability - What are the Best 
Interests of the Furniture Customer; (3) The Impact of 
Building and Fire Codes on Plastics Used in Residential 
Construction; (4) Furniture - The Molder's View; (5) 
Total Product Responsibility is the Ultimate in the Market 
Place; (6) Problems of the Vehicle Manufacturer in Meet- 
ing Today's Requirements for Fire-Resistant Rapid Rail 
Transit Vehicles; (7) Proposed Standards for Aircraft In- 
terior Materials; (8) The Plastics Problem: (9) Toward 
Fire-Safe Systems for Mass Transportation: (10) The Use 
of Plastics in the Mobile Home Industry: Past. Present, 
and Future; (11) Are Plastics a Problem? It Depends on 
How You Measure It; (12) Plastics in Commercial Con- 
struction; and (13) Emphasis on the Proper Priorities. 

c. LITERATURE AND NOTICES 

1927. Tuve RL 

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE PROTECTION CHEMISTRY 

Nat Fire Prot Assoc, Boston, MA; 265 pages. 1976 

This is the first textbook on fire protection chemistry 
to help students and fire science specialists apply the 
knowledge of chemistry to fire prevention, fire protection, 
and firefighting. The book can serve as either a practical, 
comprehensive classroom text or as a personal reference. 
Suggested readings, reviews and a comprehensive subject 
index are included in the text. The book is intended for 
a broad audience, including chemical engineers, students, 
educators, industrial safety personnel, and fire protection 
engineers. A 54-page Instructor's Manual, a helpful com- 
panion guide to the text with condensed summaries of 
each chapter, including media resources and evaluation 
techniques, is also available. The author is the founder 
and director of the US Navy's Fire Research Laboratory 
and is a consultant for fire research problems at the Johns 
Hopkins University's Applied Phvsics Laboratory. 69 figs. 
29 tables. 



358 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



GENERAL 



d. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INCIDENT CRITIQUES 
AND ANALYSES 

1928. Anon 

LESSONS FROM FIRES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRIES 

Fire Protection Assoc, London; 11 pages, 1976 

Fire losses in the textile group of industries in the UK 
are running at a cost of more than 10 million pounds 
a year in direct damage to property (illustrated by a table 
of textile industry fire statistics convering the years 1970 
through 1974). To this must be added many millions of 
pounds annually from the disruption of work that in- 
evitably follows any serious fire. The case histories 
presented in this booklet (cotton/synthetic fiber 
processing; woolens and worsteds; production of synthetic 
fibers; hosiery; carpets; textile finishing; and jute, can- 
dlewick and others) have been selected from reports 
received by the Fire Protection Association from the fire 
brigades through the Home Office and the Scottish Home 
and Health Department. The examples confirm that the 
special fire hazards in these industries arise largely from 
the highly combustible nature of the materials being han- 
dled, textiles being the material first ignited in almost 
half the fires attended by public fire brigades in 1969- 
1972. 

1929. Bruemmer D 

BEHAVIOR OF CABLES IN CABLE CHUTE AND DUCT 
FIRES. EXAMPLE OF AN INCIDENT: FIRE IN THE 
GERMAN ELECTRON SYNCHROTRON (DESY) 

Brandschutz; 30(12):317-318, 1976 (German) 

On May 6, 1975, a fire broke out in the main cable 
duct of test hall I of the DESY research facility 
(elementary particle research). As demonstrated by the 
report of the fire department attack team, effective 
firefighting was hindered by the numerous structural defi- 
ciencies in the fire-protection system. The entire cable 
system of the test hall was destroyed, and large areas 
of the building and sub-assemblies of the facility were 
damaged, especially because of the HC1 in the fire smoke. 
Based on the experience gained in this fire, a number 
of structural and organizational fire-protection measures 
are being planned for the restoration of the facility. 2 
figs, 1 ref. (Fachdok 13/0302) 

1930. Huebner R 

CAUSES OF FIRES IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 
Electro Rev; 68(33): 800-802, 804-805, 1976 (German) 

The damages reported in Switzerland in 1975 from a 
total of 1 ,520 fire incidents amount to about 90 million 
francs, an increase of 30% compared to 1974. Aside from 
the direct damages resulting from lightning strikes, which 
can be largely prevented by taking suitable precautions, 
about 6% of the fire causes can be attributed to deficien- 
cies and defects in electrical equipment. These causes 
can be broken down into short circuits and ground leaks 
from defective wiring (50%), careless handling of electrical 
appliances (30%), and defective equipment (20%). The 
causes leading to such fires are discussed in detail, and 
tips on how to prevent and fight them are given. 9 figs. 
4 refs. (Author) 



1931. NFPA Fire Anal Dept 
BIMONTHLY FIRE RECORD 

Fire J, 70(4):33-36, 1976 

Sixteen accounts of typical important fires reported to 
the National Fire Protection Association are presented. 
The fires occurred in 1975-1976 in various properties, in- 
cluding educational, manufacturing, institutional, storage, 
and residential. In some cases accounts are based on 
preliminary reports, which are subject to verification. 
Given in most cases are a brief description of the proper- 
ty, circumstances surrounding outbreak of the fire, fire- 
fighting tactics, investigative measures, damages and 
losses. 

1932. NFPA Fire Anal Dept 
BIMONTHLY FIRE RECORD 

Fire J, 70(5):45-48, 1976 

Fourteen accounts of typical important fires reported 
to the National Fire Protection Association are presented. 
The fires occurred in 1975-1976 in various properties, in- 
cluding utilities, residential, storage, manufacturing, and 
wildlands. In some cases the accounts are based on 
preliminary reports, which are subject to verification. 
Given in most cases is a brief description of the property, 
circumstances surrounding the outbreak of the fire, fire- 
fighting tactics, investigative procedures, damages, and 
losses. 

1933. NFPA Fire Record Dept 
BIMONTHLY FIRE RECORD 

Fire J, 70(6):41-44, 1976 

Twelve case histories of typical important fires reported 
to the National Fire Protection Association are presented. 
All the fires took place in 1976 in various types of occu- 
pancies, ranging from basic industry, store and office pro- 
perties, to educational and manufacturing facilities. In 
some cases the accounts are based on preliminary reports, 
which are subject to verification. Given in most cases 
is a brief description of the premise, circumstances sur- 
rounding outbreak of the fire, fire-fighting tactics, in- 
vestigative measures, damages, and losses. 3 photos. 

1934. Sawyer RG and Eisner JA 

CABLE FIRE AT BROWNS FERRY NUCLEAR POWER 
PLANT 

Fire J; 70(4):5-10, 1976 

Although there was no release of radioactivity during 
a major electrical cable system fire at the Browns Ferry 
Nuclear Plant of the TV A, the fire was not extinguished 
for seven hours and caused the shutdown of two nuclear 
generating plants for over a year. Damage was estimated 
at $10 million, and replacement of power cost $10 million 
a month. The fire resulted from a candle used to check 
for leaks through a fire wall penetration seal. Since the 
fire, the penetration design has been altered using silicone 
RTV as a sealant and inorganic fiberboard for fire bar- 
riers. Automatically actuated, fixed, water spray deluge 
systems were installed in areas of high cable concentra- 
tion. 3 figs, 2 photos, 3 refs. (NFPA) 



359 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques and Analyses — Continued 



1935. Rieber M 

TEXTILE FIRES — THEIR ORIGIN, EFFECTS AND 
POSSIBILITIES OF REDUCING THEM 

Lenzinger Ber; (40): 69-79, 1976 (German; English Summa- 
ry) 

Fire accident statistics show that textile fires occur only 
on rare occasions. In relatively few cases are textiles 
themselves the primary cause of a fire, but they may 
contribute to a limited extent to the spread of the flame. 
The progress of the fire, ie, ignition, fire spread and extin- 
guishment, brings about not only the generation of heat, 
but also the formation of flammable and nonflammable 
gases, some of which are toxic. Normal apparel offers 
limited protection against flame. If clothing catches fire, 
the fire can always be extinguished before major damage 
occurs, provided correct procedures are followed. In this 
case the behavior of the person is the decisive factor. 
The aim of this paper is to provide material for a correct 
evaluation of the significance of textile fires. Since textiles 
are used in almost all areas of human activity, data and 
evaluations can be presented on only a selected number 
of examples. (This paper was presented at the 14th Inter- 
national Chemical Fiber Conference held in Dornbirn, 
Austria, on 24-26 Sep, 1975.) 15 figs, 17 refs. (Author) 

1936. Anon 

ACCIDENTS IN PLANTS PRODUCING ALCOHOLIC 
BEVERAGES 

Nihon Jozo Kyokai Zasshi; 71(6):414-417, 1976 (Japanese) 

The causes, circumstances and consequences of several 
accidents, including fires, which occurred in plants 
producing alcoholic beverages in Japan in 1974 are 
described in detail. Also reported are the changes in occu- 
pational labor legislation in the Japanese food industry 
which have been introduced by the unions. The changes 
are aimed primarily at more rigid requirements for the 
safety of the existing production processes. Also modified 
in part is the distribution of responsibilities for the fire 
safety status between administrative and production-line 
personnel, as well as the procedure for investigating the 
causes of fires and other accidents. (RZh) 

1937. Caldo C 

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF FIRES IN ITALY 
FROM 1968 TO 1972 

Textilia; 52(4):71-77, 1976 (Italian) 

It has been found that the number of fires is increasing 
from year to year. The years 1970-1975 formed an excep- 
tion, when, because of the prolonged draught, the number 
of forest fires increased dramatically. The number of fires 
in residential buildings averaged 12% of the total number 
of fires. Data are presented on fire victims by age groups. 
Of particular note is the large number of elderly among 
the victims. A diagram demonstrates the dynamics of the 
increase in losses by year, but it does not include the 
indirect losses which, compared with the direct losses, 
may reach a significant figure. Also presented is informa- 
tion on groups of combustible materials that served as 
the fire source. Fire causes as a whole and in residential 
buildings in particular are classified. In 60% of the cases 
it was not possible to establish the cause of the fire. 
In 10% of the cases the cause of the fire was short 
circuiting and faulty electrical wiring and equipment. 5 
figs, 6 tables, 4 refs. (RZh) 



1938. Berman GA 

COLOR TV FIRES: A PERSISTENT PROBLEM 

Reliability and Maintainability Svmp, Annual, Proc: 1977, 
Jan 18-20, Philadelphia. PA, pages 27-30, 1977 
Sponsor: AIAA, AIIE, ASME, and others 

In June 1970, the National Commission on Product 
Safety (NCPS) published its final report. It identified a 
variety of consumer items deemed hazardous and 
presented statistics citing the frequency and type of ac- 
cidents sustained by their use. Among the so-called 
hazardous items were color television receivers. Problems 
of fire incidence were discussed and a figure was 
presented indicating that 10,000 fires resulted annually 
from faulty sets in the year 1969. Since publication of 
that document, much activity has ensued on the part of 
manufacturers and consumer groups. Numerous hearings 
have been held in which opposing views were presented. 
Manufacturers challenged the validity of the statistics. 
Consumers countered with a barrage of personal ex- 
periences. This paper addresses some of the outcomes 
of these hearings, reviews the case history of an incipient 
TV fire, and assesses the future situation of television 
safety. 3 figs, 15 refs. (Author) 

e. FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

1939. Bare WK 

FUNDAMENTALS OF FIRE PREVENTION 

John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY; 213 pages, 1977 

This book, which is part of the Wiley Series in Fire 
Science, is designed to provide both the student and the 
experienced firefighter with an understanding of the role 
and function of fire prevention. It can be used as a 
reference book for daily problem solving, for training pro- 
grams, as a home study text, and as a basic textbook 
for introductory college courses in fire prevention. 
Emphasis is placed on the practical rather than theoretical 
aspects of fire prevention. The opening section, called 
The Basis, has chapters on: History; Fire: Causes and 
Effects; A Fire Prevention Bureau and Its Resources; 
and Laws, Regulations, and Standards. Part 2 deals with 
the environment, with chapters on Building; Automatic 
Fire Sprinkler Systems; Other Fire Protection and Alarm 
Systems; and the Contents and its Hazards. The last sec- 
tion discusses tools, dealing specifically with Inspection: 
Enforcement; Fire Investigation; Records and Data 
Utilization; Public Education; and Legislative Action. 
Each chapter has a summary, a list of review questions, 
and a bibliography of references. 

1940. Rasbash DJ 

THE EDUCATION OF FIRE ENGINEERS 

Fire Eng J\ 36(104):35-38, 1976 

What is meant by the subject of fire engineering, that 
is, the content of the subject in terms of safety, fire 
engineering, and total approach, as well as the nature 
of those who stand in need of education in the subject, 
that is, those who have a substantial or dominating profes- 
sional interest in the subject of fire safety, are discussed 
in this paper presented at the Institution of Fire Engineers 
Conference at Harrogate (UK) on 11-12 October. 1976. 
Developments in informal education, in which the Institu- 
tion of Fire Engineers and the Fire Protection Assoc are 



360 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

e. Fire Science Education — Continued 

active; formal education, as given at the Department of 
Fire Safety Engineering at the University of Edinburgh; 
the field of use of the MSc degree in fire engineering; 
and bridging the gap between academic knowledge and 
the main areas in which the subject is practiced in the 
UK by specialist classes on particular themes, round out 
the discussion of fire engineers education in the UK. 

1941. Sheen PAD 

THE CHALLENGE TO FIRE ENGINEERS 

Fire Eng J; 36(104):32-34, 1976 

The subject of the fire engineer, his education, training, 
and status is developed in this paper presented at the 
Institution of Fire Engineers Conference at Harrogate 
(UK) on 11-12 October, 1976. It is pointed out that to 
strive after status is useless, but if the education and 
training are right, then status will follow. The idea of 
having this Institution join the ranks of chartered institu- 
tions is rejected. The ideal system being recommended 
is a correspondence course run by the Institution and 
aimed at a graduateship examination. The modalities of 
this scheme, in particular the "learning objectives" syl- 
labus and preparation for examination, are described in 
full on the basis of syllabus and preparation examples. 

f. LEGISLATION 

1942. Smith RB 

SMOKE DETECTORS IN ALL DWELLINGS REQUIRED 
BY RETROACTIVE LAW 

Fire Eng; 130(3):53-54, 1977 

The background of the successful signing of the public 
safety law requiring the installation of smoke detectors 
in all dwellings in Montgomery County, Maryland, by July 
1, 1978, is recounted. 

1943. Selle K 

THE LEGAL POSITION AND RESPONSIBILITY OF 
SAFETY SPECIALISTS 

VFDB Z; 26(l):22-25, 1977 (German) 

According to the Labor Safety Law (FRG) the employer 
bears the main responsibility for labor safety and fire 
protection. He can draw on safety specialists to support 
him. The way in which the individual titles of the Labor 
Safety Law regulate the discretionary powers and respon- 
sibilities, the right of the plant council to voice its opinion, 
and the formation of the labor protection committee are 
outlined. In the case of deliberate or negligent infringe- 
ment of the legal regulations, the safety specialist is liable 
according to criminal, public order or civil law. The 
specific consequences of these legal regulations in the 
case of personal or property loss are discussed. (Fachdok 
13/0413) 

1944. Anon 

FEDERAL FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT OF 
1974. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY. VOL 1. Nat Fire Prev 
and Control Admin, Washington, DC; PB-263 461/6GA, 
612 pages, 1975 
Availability: NTIS 

Various bills introduced in the House and Senate, ex- 
cerpts from the Congressional Record, reprints of hearings 
pertaining to Public Law 93-498 (the Federal Fire Preven- 



tion and Control Act of 1974), and several Senate and 
House reports are included in the legislative history. The 
two volumes are continuously paginated. Vol 1 contains 
an index. (See also Vol 2, PB-263 462.) 

1945. Anon 

FEDERAL FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT OF 
1974. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY. VOL 2. Nat Fire Prev 
and Control Admin, Washington, DC; PB-263 462/4GA, 
657 pages, 1975 
Availability: NTIS 

Vol 2 of a two-vol series continues the legislative history 
of a federal fire control and prevention act. (See also 
Vol 1, PB-263 461.) 

g. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

1946. Anon 

INFORMATION DIRECTORY 1977 

Building Research Establishment, UK; 50 pages, 1977 

In 1972 the Building Research Station merged with the 
Fire Research Station and the Princes Risborough Labora- 
tory (formerly the Forest Products Research Laboratory) 
to form the Building Research Establishment. This directo- 
ry contains details of all the Building Research Establish- 
ment's main publications that are currently available, and 
information on films, seminars and the Building Research 
Establishment. Some publications listed in the directory 
are from series now superseded. "BRE Report" is the 
overall title now applied to major works. The aim of 
this directory is to help professional users to find the 
publications about BRE research of use to them. Titles 
that are out of print are not listed. Papers that are 
published only in journals are also omitted but are listed 
in BRE Annual Reports. Often reprints of these papers 
can be obtained from the authors. Many technical libraries 
keep complete sets of papers but in case of difficulty 
write to the publications officer at BRE Garston. Details 
of where and how to get the publications, packages and 
films are given on page 4. 

1947. Bellet H 

THE MANIFESTATIONS OF FIRE 

Ann Inst Tech Batirn Trav Publics; 29(341 ):50-52, 1976 
(French) 

This article is devoted to general problems associated 
with the outbreak and development of a fire (primarily 
in urban surroundings), its energy characteristics, and the 
way it progresses as a function of temperature and time 
in various cases. The combustion of various materials, 
the phenomenon of synergism, the generation of smoke, 
similarity and modeling in studies of these phenomena 
are discussed. Research is presently being conducted at 
the Fire Laboratory on the initial phase of fires, 
synergism, and three-dimensional fire problems. 

1948. Blair J A 

FIRE RESEARCH: A PROGRESS REPORT FROM THE 
PLASTICS INDUSTRY 

Fire J; 70(6):57-63, 1976 

The technical programs of the Society of the Plastics 
Industry have been altered to deal more directly with 
actual fire hazards that can be adequately defined. Scale 



361 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

g. Research and Development Programs — Continued 

tests are to be developed that will lead to controls for 
proven fire hazards in given product applications. The 
approach to the combustibility research of the plastics 
industry involves hazard data to determine which may 
be "unreasonable" hazards, and research to develop ef- 
fective measurement and control methods for the major 
defined hazards. 6 refs. (NFPA) 

1949. Anon 

FIRE ON THE TEST STAND 

Oesterr Feuerwehr; 30(5):98-99, 100, 1976 (German) 

A new fire research laboratory has been established 
in Mennedorf, Austria, at a cost of 2.5 million florins. 
The laboratory is housed in a large building with a floor 
space of 350 m 2 and a height of 12 m. The building 
is divided into several areas designed for various studies. 
One of the areas (10 m 3 ) is equipped for fire tests in 
which the parameters of the combustion processes of vari- 
ous materials are determined. The research area is 
equipped with modern instruments to measure smoke den- 
sity, temperatures at various points, the CO2 content in 
the air, etc. A climatological device exists for testing fire 
detectors and other apparatus for equipping ocean-going 
vessels. Fire detectors are tested in a wind tunnel at a 
wind speed of up to 20 m/sec. In other sections tests 
are made to determine the effectiveness of various extin- 
guishants (water, CO2 gas, hydrogen halides). Experimen- 
tal data are obtained primarily by automatic electronic 
instruments with indication on large lighted signal panels 
and are recorded on special tapes. The results are 
processed mathematically by computer. 

1950. Anon 

COURSE OF ACTION — EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALI- 
TY (FIRE ENGINEERING STATIONS) 

Pozhar delo; (9):20-22, 1976 (Russian) 

An All-Union Conference of the heads of the Fire En- 
gineering Stations was held in Donetsk (USSR), and the 
course of action taken during the 9th five-year plan to 
specialize research in the various stations was evaluated. 
Papers were presented on the following topics: the ad- 
vances made in the preceding five-year plans; the principal 
directions of research in the fire-protection field; the 
research carried out at the Astrakhan, Kuibyshev and 
Sverdlovsk Stations and ideas on further improvements 
in research; research methods and how to present the 
results; and ways of improving the effectiveness and quali- 
ty of the research done at the Fire Engineering Stations 
and of increasing their effect on fire-fighting organization. 
The advances made in recent years are attributed to col- 
laboration with inter-institutional organizations and enter- 
prises. 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF 
FIRE 

a. FIRE BUILDUP, PROPAGATION, AND SPREAD 

1951. Vogel BM 

A STUDY OF FIRE SPREAD IN MULTIFAMILY RE- 
SIDENCES 

Build Stand; 46(2):56-59, 80, 1977 



This article is a reprint of NBSIR 76-1194. revised to 
reflect Uniform Building Code references. For a review 
of the article, see FTA 1(5), abstract 1536. 

1952. Tourrette J-C and Toyer M 

RATE OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT AS A FUNCTION OF 
TYPE OF COVERING 

Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim; (170):1 17-118, 1976 (French) 

The capability of combustible coverings to promote the 
development and spread of fire, ie. their combustibility, 
is determined by fixed standards, which have been highly 
simplified, since it is impossible to take into account the 
complexity of the phenomena and many parameters. 
Therefore, the total ignition times for an entire enclosure 
are determined by fire tests of building sections, either 
full-scale or 1/3 of full-scale. It has been found that 
floorings do not appreciably affect the development of 
a fire, but when floors are covered with combustible 
materials, eg, parquetry, pulsating generation of volumes 
of smoke was observed as a result of incomplete com- 
bustion owing to inadequate supply of oxygen. During 
fires in an enclosure with a parquet floor, the maximum 
air temperature at the ceiling reached 800°C in 30 min. 
When the walls were covered with a polystyrene foam, 
the maximum ceiling temperature of the air reached 700°C 
in 30 minutes, but complete ignition of the enclosure was 
not observed. The influence of a wall covering of 
synthetic fibers on a paper base was tested only on a 
fragment of reduced dimensions. During the tests the 
material peeled off from the wall, fell, curled up and 
burned before the entire enclosure caught fire, which oc- 
curred five minutes later. 3 figs. 

1953. Sekine T 

EXPERIMENTS TO STUDY THE SPREAD OF FIRES IN 
CITIES 

Kasai\ 26(l):46-65, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description and the results of complex experimental 
investigations to determine the conditions of fire spread 
during fires in large urban tracts by modeling are 
presented. The models of urban structures for the in- 
vestigations were made of natural materials in simplified 
form. The following parameters were varied: the location 
of the seat of the fire and of several fire sites relative 
to each other; the strength and intensity of the simulated 
wind; and the humidity and temperature of the ambient 
medium. The outlines of the spreading flame front were 
recorded in equal time intervals and topographical fire 
fields were made on this basis. Conclusions are drawn 
relative to the most stable trends of fire spread, as well 
as to the most vulnerable sections in urban tracts. 45 
figs, 7 tables. (RZh) 

1954. Anon 

FIRES IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS 

Kasai; 26(l):19-23, 1976 (Japanese) 

The nature and progress of fires in buildings differing 
in purpose, shape, construction, dimensions and location 
are described. The characteristic features of the fire- 
spread process typical of each type of building are 
derived. Data on 14 fire incidents in the last four years 
in Japan were used for this purpose. It is pointed out 
that such an analysis, based on data from 600-800 fires. 



362 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread — Continued 

using modern statistical methods and computer technolo- 
gy, should make it possible to establish objective trends 
in the nature of fire spread and development for each 
of the most widely found building types. It is reported 
that an analagous statistical study was made in the USA 
in 1974 on the basis of data from 2,400 fires of varying 
scale, making it possible to work out specific recommen- 
dations with regard to fire prevention and extinguishment 
applicable to the majority of the types of buildings in- 
vestigated. 7 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

1955. Emmons HW 

COMPUTER FIRE CODE (II). Harvard Univ, Div Eng 
Appl Phys, Cambridge, MA; TR-20, 36 pages, 2 figs, Jan 
1977 

An approach to the development of a method of com- 
puting the history of a fire in an enclosure is proposed. 
Since many people will be studying the components of 
a fire for many years, the enclosed computer flow chart 
has been designed to permit anyone who works on an 
individual component to produce a computer code for 
that part independent of the remainder. Eventually it 
should be possible to compute the progress of a fire with 
any desired degree of precision (although present precision 
is very low). When arbitrarily high precision is possible, 
any practical need can be satisfied by suitably reducing 
the precision and correspondingly simplifying the program. 
(Author) 

1956. Fernandez-Pello AC 

FIRE SPREAD OVER VERTICAL FUEL SURFACES 
UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNALLY APPLIED 
THERMAL RADIATION. Harvard Univ, Dept Eng and 
Appl Phys, Cambridge, MA; TR-19, 84 pages, 20 figs, 
32 refs, Jan 1977 

Upward flame spread velocity over vertical sheets of 
poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and downward flame 
spread velocity over vertical sheets of PMMA, filter paper 
and white pine wood were measured under the influence 
of externally applied radiant fluxes ranging from to 2.0 
W/cm 2 . The flame spread rate was found to be dependent 
on the surface temperature of the fuel prior to flame 
arrival. For both modes of fire spread a power law cor- 
relation exists between the flame spread velocity and the 
difference between the vaporization temperature of the 
fuel and its surface temperature prior to flame arrival. 
An approximated theoretical model for upward laminar 
flame spread was developed and present theoretical 
models for downward flame spread were extended to ac- 
count for the additional effect of external radiation. It 
is shown that the predictions of the theoretical models 
agree qualitatively with the experimental observations. 
(Author) 

1957. Williams FA 
MECHANISMS OF FIRE SPREAD 

Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1281-1294, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

Mechanisms involved in many types of fire spread are 
described in a manner that sacrifices accuracy for the 
purpose of emphasizing general aspects of the underlying 
heat-transfer, fluid-flow and chemical-kinetic phenomena. 



Consideration is given to conditions for transition from 
one mode of propagation to another. Research on fire 
spread has been pursued intensively in recent years, and 
in the present contribution an attempt is made to provide 
a framework within which various studies can be placed. 
F'ntries to current literature are provided. Areas of ap- 
parent importance that do not seem to have been 
emphasized are suggested. 96 refs. (Author) 

b. FLAMMABILITY, IGNITION, AND EXTINCTION 

1958. Tamanini F 

A STUDY OF THE EXTINGUISHMENT OF VERTICAL 
WOOD SLABS IN SELF-SUSTAINED BURNING BY 
WATER-SPRAY APPLICATION 

Combust Sci Technol; 14(1 ,2,3): 1-15, 1976 

Experiments were carried out on the extinguishment of 
burning slabs of three different thicknesses. The results 
are presented in terms of experimental correlations of 
the mass lost during control and time required for control 
of the fire as functions of the rate of water application. 
A simple power law with exponent in the range (-1.5)- 
(-1.75) was found for the dependence of the first two 
variables on the latter. The predictions of a theoretical 
scheme, based on a pyrolysis model for the solid, a simple 
estimate of the flame energy feedback, and an extinguish- 
ment criterion for the flame were found in agreement 
with the experiment. The calculations confirmed the ex- 
istence, already indicated by the experiment, of a 
minimum rate of water application below which no mass 
is saved. Furthermore, the theory indicated an upper limit, 
above which the efficiency of the water spray decreases. 
7 figs, 1 table, 21 refs. (Author) 

1959. Tamanini F 

THE APPLICATION OF WATER SPRAYS TO THE 
EXTINGUISHMENT OF CRIB FIRES 

Combust Sci Technol; 14(l,2,3):17-23, 1976 

A set of correlation parameters, derived from an earlier 
study of the extinguishment of slab fires by water sprays, 
is used to present results obtained with cribs. The parame- 
ters are generally satisfactory, except for the case of cribs 
with large stick size (03/4 in. and up) and low preburns. 
It is proposed that an additional parameter be introduced 
that accounts for the fact that at low preburns, only a 
fraction of the structure is in self-sustained burning. 
Power law correlations are presented for the mass lost 
and the time required for extinguishment as functions of 
the rate of water application. The existence of a critical 
value for the rate of water application below which the 
fire cannot be controlled before total consumption of the 
fuel is also confirmed. 5 figs, 9 refs. (Author) 

1960. Shigenobu S and Mitsue F 
IGNITION OF MP CONDENSERS 

Kasai; 26(2):97-101 , 1976 (Japanese) 

A number of cases of fire breaking out as a result 
of ignition in electrical capacitors made for resonance cir- 
cuits of low-current radio circuits is reported. It is shown 
that the capacitors most susceptible to fire are those made 
of metallized paper (so-called metallized paper type 
capacitors) with an operating temperature of no more than 
125°C. Analyzed in detail is the mechanism of ignition 



363 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and Extinction — Continued 

which, as a rule, occurs in domestic electrical appliances. 
A description is given of the arrangement and operating 
principle of the test stand on which laboratory tests of 
this phenomenon were conducted. Also presented are the 
results of investigations that formed the basis for specific 
recommendations on changes in the production process, 
as well as improvement in the process of soldering leads 
of capacitors made of metallized paper in order to ensure 
the fire safety of the circuits. 17 figs, 2 tables. (RZh) 

c. FLOW OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

1961. Sato K 

SMOKE MOVEMENT IN A BUILDING. PART I — 
CACULATION BY AN APPROXIMATE METHOD AND 
EXPERIMENT ON SMOKE-AIR STRATIFIED FLOWS IN 
THE UNSTEADY STATE 
Rep Fire Sci Inst Japan; (42):28-37, 1976 (English) 

In order to find out whether there is any foundation 
for the fear that the smoke-movement calculation method 
is not actually reliable and, if possible, to dispel this fear, 
a number of investigations and tests were made, as 
described in detail in this article. All the results showed 
that the approximate calculation is completely reliable and 
is in good agreement with the results of other studies 
and trials. There is no reason to abandon this proven 
method. 12 figs, 2 tables, 8 refs. (Fachdok 13/0469) 

1962. Karlsruhe Fire Prot Eng Res Center 

STUDY OF THE REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN OF 
VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS TO 
FULFILL THE FIRE-PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS 
FOR ESCAPE ROUTES IN CASE OF FIRE. Univ Karl- 
sruhe, FRG, Fire Prot Eng Res Center; Forschber T 149, 
52 pages, 14 figs, 3 tables, 8 refs, 1976 (German) 
Availability: Fachdok 

In order to determine the quantities of combustion 
products issuing from an apartment during a fire and flow- 
ing into a compartment ahead of it, a calculation method 
was developed that determined the flow conditions 
between the fire compartment and an adjacent compart- 
ment from the temperature conditions in these compart- 
ments. On the basis of experimental results in a 22-story 
apartment building and other investigations known from 
the literature it was possible to give limit values for the 
tolerable smoke density in escape routes. In addition, 
design temperatures for the air intake and exhaust ventila- 
tors and the associated ducts were established; also found 
were the temperatures that can occur in building com- 
ponents in case of fire when the ventilation system is 
in operation and when it fails. (Fachdok 13/0363) (Author) 

1963. Weinberg FJ and Wang W W-Y 
OPTICAL STUDIES IN FIRE RESEARCH 

Combustion Svmp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 

MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 799-807, 1977 

Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, MIT, Pittsburgh, PA 

In order to characterise the flicker frequency about 
which optical fire detection devices should operate, a 
study of flow and turbulence in fire plumes is carried 
out using optical methods. New laser-based techniques 
for measuring flow and temperature fields over large test 
areas are developed. They include a form of subtractive 



infinitesimal shear interferometry that allows temperature 
gradients to be measured with unprecedented accuracy 
over two-dimensional objects of almost unlimited working- 
space area. The turbulent fire plumes under study are 
produced by burning liquid fuel in pans of various diame- 
ters, both under unconfined conditions and in the presence 
of a "ceiling". Among the conclusions are relationships 
between dish diameter and flame height, plume width, 
horizontal and vertical velocities and intensities of turbu- 
lence, as well as the flicker frequencies that would be 
experienced by a transluminating light beam. The veloci- 
ties are approximately inversely proportional to the square 
of the height in the strongly buoyant lower regions, and 
follow an inverse 1/3 power law in the weakly buoyant 
upper regions, as predicted by theory. 6 figs. 12 refs. 
(Author) 

1964. Hwang CC, Chaiken RF, Singer JM and Chi DNH 
REVERSE STRATIFIED FLOW IN DUCT FIRES: A 
TWO-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH 

Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1385-1395, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

In ventilated duct fires, smoke and other combustion 
products may form a layer near the ceiling and flow in 
the direction opposite to the ventilation flow. Previous 
workers have shown that backing of hot combustion 
products occurs if the ratio of the buoyancy head HAT/T 
to the velocity head V 2 /g is greater than unity. A two- 
dimensional mathematical model of the phenomenon is 
developed based upon the interaction of a steady-state 
fire plume with a cross ventilation flow. The objective 
of the analysis is to gain some understanding of the 
behavior of the hot gas layer flow and its response to 
changes at the fire source and in the ventilation current. 
Through the present mathematical treatments it appears 
possible to predict the effects of ventilation speed, duct 
inclination, mass flux of fire plume, etc, on the critical 
length of the reverse flow layer. The detailed flow 
behavior of plumes and gas layers can also be studied 
with the model. 8 figs, 2 tables, 15 refs. (Author) 

d. INSTRUMENTATION 

1965. San Miguel A and Rieger JL 

CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A SMOKE-MEASURING 
TRANSDUCER 

Fire Technol; 12(4):303-310, 1976 

A smoke measuring transducer was designed for use 
in a Navy A-4 aircraft cockpit subjected to a simulated 
carrier deck fire (JP-5 fuel). The measured levels of smoke 
density were correlated with the other aspects of fire- 
induced structural degradation measured simultaneously. 
A calibration of light attenuation in a standard smoke 
chamber permitted the burn test measurements to be cor- 
related empirically with factors such as human vision and 
the type of material producing the smoke. The use of 
the smoke measuring transducer in the burn test gave 
data not previously available. 7 figs. 13 refs. (NFPA) 



364 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 



e. METEOROLOGY 

f. RADIATION 

1966. LeBotlan Y and Bellet H 

STUDY OF ENERGY FLUXES OF CLASS B-l FIRES 
TO DETERMINE THE SUITABILITY OF EXTIN- 
GUISHERS 

Face au risque: (125):49-51. 1976 (French) 

In a previous article a study was made of the heat 
radiation that can be withstood by humans. In the present 
paper, a study is made of the anomalies that are detected 
when hand fire extinguishers are used on class-B fires. 
Here the prime interest is the distance from the heat 
source. Distances required for heat fluxes of varying in- 
tensity are given in diagrams and the intensities from fires 
of the classes 8-B-l to 59-B-l are given in tables. It is 
then pointed out that different hand fire extinguishers 
must be used for the different kinds of fires. 2 figs. 
3 tables. (Fachdok 13/0429) 

1967. Alpert RL 

PRESSURE MODELING OF FIRES CONTROLLED BY 
RADIATION 

Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1489-1500, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

Pressure modeling involves the reduction of all length 
scales as the minus 2/3 power of ambient air pressure 
in order to preserve gas phase dynamics and solid phase 
thermal response during a fire. This concept has been 
critically tested until now only for convection dominated 
fires. The burning rate and radiant output of large-scale 
PMMA wall and pool fires dominated by radiative heat 
transfer are compared with model results in the present 
study. At ambient pressures from 5 to 35 atmospheres, 
measurements with PMMA walls from 10 to 41 cm high 
clearly show that modeling of fuel mass flux variations 
and overall burning rate of full-scale PMMA walls up 
to 360 cm high is -highly successful. It is found that while 
radiative fluxes from the fire to the environment are often 
not modeled for such large wall fires, the net radiative 
feedback from flames to the fuel surface is approximately 
modeled. The computed magnitude of surface reradiation 
and the computed variation of flame radiation with pres- 
sure explain the detailed behavior of the model burning 
rate relative to that at full-scale. The degree of success 
observed here in modeling burning rates of PMMA pool 
fires up to 122 cm across at 1 atm is shown to be entirely 
consistent with the wall fire results. While the detailed 
behavior of the model pool and wall fires may not precise- 
ly simulate full-scale effects, the accuracy of overall pre- 
dictions based on model results is still impressive. 5 figs, 
1 table, 11 refs. (Author) 

1968. Orloff L, Modak AT and Alpert RL 
BURNING OF LARGE-SCALE VERTICAL SURFACES 

Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1345-1354, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

Measured burning rates per unit area in a large-scale 
vertical poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) wall fire experi- 
ment are found to increase nearly linearly with height 



along the 3.56-m high slab. The radiative heat feedback 
from the flames to the fuel surface is derived from radi- 
ance measurements using a gray flame analysis. Radiative 
heat transfer accounts for 75 to 87% of the total heat 
feedback to the burning surface. Results for thin and gray 
flame models are compared, with fuel scale and flame 
absorption coefficient as parameters. The asymptotic 
burning rate, where the flame emissivity is unity, may 
be as high as 123 g/m 2 s, on the basis of an effective 
flame radiation temperature of 1367°K for PMMA. Com- 
puted PMMA flame transmittance versus radiance charac- 
teristics in the radiance range to 1.5 W/cm 2 sr are shown 
to be similar to that of turbulent ethane and propane 
flames. 5 figs, 1 table, 7 refs. (Author) 

g. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF 
MATERIALS 

[For literature on fire and flame retardants, fire and 
flame proofing, etc see Chemical Abstracts .] 

a. CHARACTERISTICS AND THERMAL 
BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 

1969. Taylor W and Scott KAC 

FIRE PERFORMANCE AND TESTING OF PLASTICS 

The Plastics and Rubber Inst, London; 35 pages, 1976 

This monograph is intended for those especially in- 
terested in the present-day problems of fire and in the 
relation of those problems to plastics. It is not written 
for specialists in the different areas of technology, but 
is primarily meant to provide a reasonable picture of 
present approaches and to stimulate thinking on the sub- 
ject of fire. The monograph contains eight chapters 
devoted to the historical background of plastics in fire, 
today's fire problems, the influence of plastics in fire 
losses, review of some major fires, approach to legislative 
controls of materials, fire tests — present situation, toxic 
gases in fire, and the fight against fire — a critical study. 
A bibliography of 11 references is included. 

1970. Anon 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBLE CON- 
TRIBUTION OF THE MAIN SYNTHETIC INSULATING 
MATERIALS TO THE INCREASE OF HAZARDS IN 
CASE OF FIRE BY VARIOUS LABORATORY TESTS 
Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim, (170):115-1 16, 1976 (French) 

On the basis of various laboratory tests it has been 
found that rigid urethane foam at about 200°C gives off 
large quantities of yellow smoke that reduces visibility 
considerably and can cause suffocation. Hydrocyanic acid 
forms at high temperatures. At a temperature of about 
230°C rigid polyvinylchloride gives off a white smoke that 
not only reduces visibility, but is also hazardous because 
it contains a concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid. 
When these materials burn, they begin to release com- 
bustible gases at 400 and 450°C, these temperatures are 
reached slowly if the insulating materials are retarded. 
Porous polystyrene does not cause smoke logging at tem- 
peratures up to 200°C, but at 330°C it emits combustible 



365 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



vapors and gases. It burns highly exothermically and gives 
off large volumes of black soot. If this material is turned 
over to the unheated side, it disintegrates as a result of 
thermal deformation, the rate of which depends on the 
fire endurance limit of the protective coating. When this 
coating decomposes rapidly, the porous polystyrene melts 
and burns intensely, but combustion stops quickly because 
of the small amount of polystyrene in the structure. 
Phenolic-foam materials are not highly combustible, melt 
slowly in the solid phase, and do not release harmful 
smoke, except carbon monoxide in small amounts. Phenol- 
ic-foam materials are fire retardant, at least in the fire 
development phase, and do not cause an increase in fire 
hazard. When rigid polyvinylchloride or polyurethane are 
used as insulation, the smoke and gas generated within 
the structure should be removed. 2 figs. 

1971. Damant GH and Young MA 

SMOLDERING CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICS USED 
AS UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE COVERINGS 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 4(1):60-1 13, 1977 

This study is an attempt to evaluate in some detail 
the upholstery fabric/filling material interface under condi- 
tions of cigarette ignition. The inherent smoldering quali- 
ties of about 90 representative fabrics, in combination 
with an inert substrate, are documented. The change in 
fabric smoldering qualities as primary substrates are 
changed and the interaction of typical fabrics with com- 
mon primary filling materials are discussed. In addition, 
the effect of fabric variables, such as fiber content, 
weight, backcoating, test direction, and construction on 
smoldering characteristics of fabrics/substrate systems is 
examined. Twenty-nine general conclusions are drawn. 2 
figs, 30 tables, 30 refs. (Author) 

1972. Christian WJ, Castino GT and Beyreis JR 

FIRE BEHAVIOR OF BUILDING INTERIOR FINISH 
MATERIALS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(l):41-58, 1977 

Full-scale and laboratory experiments have been per- 
formed using 29 materials, including plastic, mineral, and 
wood products. In the full-scale experiments, the materials 
were applied as surface finish in corner and room 
geometries and exposed to ignition sources of various in- 
tensities. Observations were made of fire propagation, 
temperature, and radiant heat flux. Laboratory-scale fire 
tests conducted on the same materials included the Steiner 
Tunnel (UL 723, ASTM E-84, NFPA 255, ANS A2.5), 
radiant panel (ASTM E-162), the NBS Heat Release Rate 
Calorimeter, and the Ohio State Heat Release Rate Ap- 
paratus. Results of the full-scale experiments and relation- 
ships with the laboratory fire tests are presented. 6 figs, 
2 tables, 22 refs. (Author) 

1973. Starrett PS 

FACTORS INFLUENCING FLAME SPREAD RATES IN 
SOLID MATERIALS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(l):5-25, 1977 

The developing technology of mathematical fire model- 
ing requires accurate input data from laboratory flame- 
spread tests. Current test methods produce confusion and 
often contradictory results. The observed flame-spread 
behavior of cellulosic specimens could be predicted on 



the basis of a simple heat-transfer model. Geometrical 
factors, such as orientation and specimen surface area 
per unit weight, were shown to have a dominant influence 
on flame spread. The effect of altitude on flame spread 
in small and full-scale specimens was explored. A reliable 
laboratory test for determining the flame spread of fire- 
retardant materials under simulated fire conditions has yet 
to be developed. 13 figs, 1 table, 14 refs. (Author) 

1974. Tewarson A 

HEAT RELEASE RATES FROM BURNING PLASTICS 

J Fire Flammability, 8(1 ):1 15-1 30, 1977 

A laboratory-scale flammability apparatus has been used 
to measure convective heat-release rate and generation 
rates of smoke and combustion products for CH4, C2H6. 
CH3, OH, polyoxymethylene, polymethylmethacrylate. 
and polystyrene burning in air. This paper is a progress 
report of a continuing study on flammability of plastics 
supported by the Products Research Committee (c/o Dr. 
J.W. Lyons, National Bureau of Standards, Washington. 
DC). 6 figs, 4 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

1975. Kourtides DA, Parker J A and Hilado CJ 
THERMOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME 
THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS 

J Fire Flammability, 8(l):59-94, 1977 

The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of 
some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and 
others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are 
described. The properties studied included: 1 ) ther- 
momechanical properties such as glass transition and melt 
temperature; 2) changes in polymer enthalpy: 3) ther- 
mogravimetric analysis in anaerobic and oxidative environ- 
ments; 4) oxygen index; 5) smoke evolution; 6) relative 
toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis: and 7) 
selected physical properties. The generic polymers that 
were evaluated included: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 
bisphenol A polycarbonate. 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) 
fluorine polycarbonate-poly (dimethylsiloxane) block 
polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, 
phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone. 
polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sul- 
fone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer. polyvi- 
nyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing 
parameters, including molding characteristics of some of 
the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and 
relative rankings of some of the flammability. smoke, and 
toxicity properties are presented. Under these test condi- 
tions, some of the advanced polymers evaluated were sig- 
nificantly less flammable and toxic or equivalent to 
polymers in current use. 12 figs. 14 tables, 47 refs. 
(Author) 

1976. Carl W 

THE FIRE BEHAVIOR OF TEXTILES 

Lenzinger Ber; (40):88-95, 1976 (German: English Summa- 
ry) 

The problems involved in the fire behavior of textiles 
are presented on the basis of the present status of the 
regulations and laws that are presently in preparation in 
industrial countries. The classification of fibers currently 
on the market for major uses. eg. domestic textiles and 
clothing, is described in terms of standardized scientific 



366 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



test procedures. Also discussed are the most important 
physical, chemical and technological variables that affect 
the burning behavior of textiles, such as the structure 
of the fabric, finishing, and the fiber material. (This paper 
was presented at the 14th International Chemical Fiber 
Conference held at Dornbirn, Austria, on 24-26 Sep 1975.) 
13 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. (Author) 

1977. Eulenburg PR 

THE FIRE BEHAVIOR OF TEXTILES FROM THE FIRE 
SERVICE VIEWPOINT 

Lenzinger Ber, (40):240-247, 1976 (German; English Sum- 
mary) 

Textiles as an essential component of the human en- 
vironment also constitute a hazard for this environment. 
As organic materials they are flammable. Due to their 
close contact with the skin in the form of clothing, 
flammable textiles can lead to severe injuries. As domestic 
textiles they promote fire spread and the generation of 
large-scale fires. The most important causes for the 
development of a hazard to human beings are careless 
handling of open fire; effects of solid combustible materi- 
als in the form of wooden or metal particles (sparks) 
during combustion, welding, thermocutting etc; the effects 
of readily flammable gaseous or liquid materials, such 
as oxygen; and the effect of radiant heat. Reducing the 
flammability of textiles, ie, making them flame-resistant, 
seems to be the way of reducing the hazard they 
represent. In addition, however, preventive measures such 
as those contained in building codes or trade-union codes 
of practice should prevent man's immediate environment 
from becoming a hazard to him. (This paper was presented 
at the 14th International Chemical Fiber Conference held 
at Dornbirn, Austria, on 24-26 Sep 1975.) 19 refs. (Author) 

1978. Green RJS, Richard CJ and Smith DA 

THE BEHAVIOUR OF POLYMER PRODUCTS IN REAL 
FIRES 

Plast Rubber; l(l):42-43, 1976 

The thinking that led to the construction of a new 
fire-test facility for investigating the fire performance of 
polymeric products is described. The studies indicate that 
the most meaningful way of examining the real-fire 
behavior of polymers is to analyze measurements made 
on components exposed to a range of practical fire condi- 
tions. The parameters to be considered include the rates 
and extents of combustion, spread of flame, formation 
of smoke and toxic gases (CO, CO2, HC1, HCN, SO2, 
etc). It is hoped that improved correlation with laboratory 
studies will eventually lead back to the development of 
simple small-scale assessment procedures that can be used 
with confidence. 2 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

1979. Prager DI 

FIRE BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS — A NEW HAZARD 
IN THE BUILDING SECTOR? PART 1 

Plastica; 29(1 1):382-390, 1976 (German; English Summary) 

A survey is given of the burning characteristics of some 
plastics used in building construction in this two-part arti- 
cle. The requirements for plastics, the testing and classifi- 
cation of building materials and components according to 
the building-inspection requirements in the FRG, and the 
testing and classification of building materials in the 



Netherlands and France are reviewed in this first part 
of the article. 28 figs. 



A NEW RISK IN 



1980. Prager DI 

FIRE BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS 
THE BUILDING SECTOR? PART 2 

Plastica; 29( 12):428-431 , 1976 (German; English Summary) 

Building-component testing principles and special build- 
ing-component tests, and the fire manifestations such as 
smoke density, relative toxicity of smoldering and com- 
bustion products, and the relative toxicity of pyrolysis 
products are discussed in this second part of the review 
article. It is concluded that plastics are no new risk in 
the building sector if tests and applications that take this 
risk into account precede their use. 8 figs. 

1981. Anon 

STRATEGY FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PLASTICS 
AND FIRE. British Plastics Federation, London; BPF 
157/1, 1976 

The objectives, scope and outline for an investigation 
of plastics in fire are described in this report by the 
British Plastics Federations's Fire Committee. The in- 
vestigation is to consist of a survey to be carried out 
on existing research work in other industries, such as 
the hazards of exposure to smoke and toxic combustion 
products in aircraft. 

1982. Hagglund B and Persson L-E 

THE HEAT RADIATION FROM PETROLEUM FIRES. 

Forsvarets Forskningsanstalt, Stockholm, Sweden; FOA C 
20126-D6(A3), 33 pages, 11 figs, 2 tables, 14 refs, Jul 
1976 

The heat radiation from JP-4 fuel fires was studied. 
The pool sizes were between 0.5 and 10 m 2 . Both the 
spectral and the total flame radiant intensities were mea- 
sured as functions of the pool size. The total intensity 
increased with increasing flame depth and approached the 
value of 13 W-cm" 2 at the flame depth of 150 cm. With 
further increase of the fire size the values of the intensity 
were considerably smaller due to smoke-blocking effects 
of the flame zone. A method of measuring the distribution 
of the radiant energy over the fire plume by means of 
an IR-camera is described. Finally a simplified method 
is presented, based on the measured data, to calculate 
the radiation field near liquid fuel fires. (Author) 

1983. Lee CK, Chaiken RF and Singer JM 
CHARRING PYROLYSIS OF WOOD IN FIRES BY 
LASER SIMULATION 

Combustion Sxmp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1459-1470, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

Utilizing a 250 watt C02-laser radiation source, wood 
pyrolysis at fire-level surface heat flux was investigated 
through the measurement of decomposition rates, solid 
temperatures and thermal properties, pyrolysis gas com- 
positions and pressures, and crack formation. Heats of 
reaction calculated from these measurements show that 
at an incident heat flux of 0.76 cal/cm 2 -sec applied parallel 
to the wood grain direction, the pyrolysis layer (01 cm 
thick) can be divided into three zones: 1) an endothermic 
primary decomposition zone at temperatures T <250°C; 



367 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



2) an exothermic partial char zone at 250°C<T<340°C; 
and 3) an endothermic surface char zone at 340°C < 
T < 520°C. The overall mass weighted effective heat of 
reaction is endothermic to the extent of -146 cal/g. At 
2.0 cal/cm 2 -sec applied parallel or perpendicular to grain 
direction, pyrolysis reaction proceeds as a charring wave 
of ~0.5 cm thickness advancing into the wood. The char- 
ring wave (250°C<T<450°C) is characterized by active 
overall exothermic reactions accompanied by rapid solid 
density change. In front of the wave is an endothermic 
primary decomposition zone, and behind the wave is an 
exothermic char layer (T<800°C) of relatively constant 
density. The overall heat of reaction at the higher heat 
flux is exothermic, being greater for perpendicular heating 
(260-410 cal/g) than for parallel heating (25-94 cal/g). For 
parallel heating at both heat fluxes, macroscopic cracks 
(~1 mm wide) occur in the pyrolysis region, whereas for 
perpendicular heating no cracks are observed. Present 
results show that the wood pyrolysis process is dependent 
upon the external heating rate, the total time of heating, 
and the anisotropic properties of wood and char relative 
to the internal flow of heat and gas. 8 figs, 3 tables, 
24 refs. (Author) 

1984. Moussa NA, Toong TY and Garris CA 
MECHANISM OF SMOLDERING OF CELLULOSIC 
MATERIALS 

Combustion Svmp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1447-1457, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

A coordinated theoretical and experimental investigation 
of the mechanism of smoldering in cellulosic materials 
has been conducted. Both steady and transient smoldering 
have been observed for single cylindrical cellulosic ele- 
ments, mounted horizontally in quiescent oxygen/nitrogen 
environments of varying pressures and compositions. An 
extinguishment limit, separating the steady from transient 
regions, is observed at well-defined combinations of ox- 
ygen mole fraction and partial pressure. In the region 
of steady smoldering, the measured propagation speed and 
maximum temperature in the smoldering zone depend on 
the oxygen partial pressure and mole fraction in the en- 
vironment. However, independent of the environmental 
conditions, the speed is uniquely related to the maximum 
temperature. It is postulated that cellulose, upon heating, 
decomposes to yield char and volatiles. The char then 
reacts with oxygen, diffusing from the surroundings, to 
provide the heat flux needed to sustain pyrolysis. On 
the basis of this mechanism, the predicted characteristics 
of steady smoldering and of the extinguishment limit are 
found to be in good agreement with the experimental 
results, thus demonstrating the validity of the proposed 
mechanism. (Author) 

1985. Pagni PJ and Shih TM 
EXCESS PYROLYZATE 

Combustion Svmp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1329-1343, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

The use of synthetic polymers in home furnishings can 
result in rapid fire spread throughout a structure. This 
appears to be caused by the generation at the fire origin 
of excess pyrolyzate, ie, combustible gases that are not 
consumed in the flame that produced them. The amount 



of excess pyrolyzate is predicted quantitatively as a func- 
tion of the material mass transfer number, B, and mass 
consumption number, r, and the ambient fluid mechanics 
for both free-standing and flush-mounted fuel slabs. 
Detailed temperature, velocity and mass fraction fields 
are obtained numerically from Shvab-Zeldovich analyses. 
Excess pyrolyzate is then found as a fraction of the total 
pyrolyzate by the simple species balance between the fuel 
surface and the flame. Flame heights for both forced and 
free flow are also predicted using integral analyses to 
describe combustion downstream of the fuel slab. Results 
obtained for ten common polymers are in agreement with 
observations that some synthetic polymers produce signifi- 
cantly more excess pyrolyzate than natural polymers. Ap- 
plications to compartment fire tests and tunnel tests are 
discussed. 5 figs, 1 table, 22 refs. (Author) 

b. COMBUSTION, EXPLOSION, AND 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS AND METHODS 

1986. HertzogG 

ACTIVATION ENERGY OF MATERIALS 

Face au risque, (125):25-48, 1976 (French) 

As yet incomplete comparisons of activation energies 
among the following synthetic materials are considered 
in this article: various kinds of rigid polyurethane; friable 
foams containing phenol; various compositions of ex- 
panded polystyrenes; composite expanded polystyrenes: 
fiberboards; glass bricks; cork compounds; coco fiber: 
compact jute; fire-resistant fiberboards; glass-fiber-rein- 
forced cellulose panels containing phenol: reed panels; 
elastomeric foam; fiberboards impregnated with gypsum. 
and, finally, "sandwich" foams, which are embedded 
between two or more fiberboards and cement-impregnated 
panels. 36 tables. (Fachdok 13/0404) 

1987. Barry TJ and Newman B 

SOME PROBLEMS OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AT 
ELEVATED TEMPERATURES 

Fire Technol; 12(3): 186-192, 1976 

Development and standardization of reliable test 
methods are essential in the determination of synthetic 
polymer flammability. The test methods should be 
developed on an individual product and use basis, with 
the results presented so that they can be integrated for 
a safety analysis of mixed use potential. In spite of much 
research on the physiology of thermal stress, methods 
are not standardized and results are often difficult to 
reproduce. Little work has been done on the response 
to oxygen-deficient atmospheres at elevated temperatures. 
The prospect for complete toxicity analysis by computer 
appears to be excellent. 7 tables, 16 refs. (NFPA) 



BEHAVIOR OF 



1988. Block I and Davidson EJ 
EVALUATING THE BURNING 
FLAMMABLE APPAREL FABRICS 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 4(l):29-39, 1977 

Current fabric flammability test method development 
has tended toward relatively simple devices that measure 
the temperature rise of a supervised surface adjacent to 
or surrounded by a burning fabric. Assuming that the 
data from such tests represent the actual heat transfer 
from a burning garment to its wearer, it is necessary 



368 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



to develop some index capable of rating the burning 
behavior of the fabric under test. This paper discusses 
the results of an investigation into the ranking of a series 
of fabrics rated by selected indices described herein. It 
is shown that, in agreement with other investigators, clas- 
sification of flammable fabrics by grouping has little sig- 
nificant effect upon their rankings, and that a measure- 
ment of the rate of heat transfer is a satisfactory method 
of rating the hazard potential of flammable apparel 
fabrics. 3 figs, 6 tables, 15 refs. (Author) 

1989. Li CC and Moore JB 

ESTIMATING FLASH POINTS OF ORGANIC COM- 
POUNDS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(l):38-40, 1977 

The flammability of organic compounds is determined 
by measuring their flash points; that is, the temperature 
at which the vapor above the liquid ignites. This property 
is of considerable importance from the standpoint of 
safety. Despite its importance, no general method has 
been developed to estimate it. However, flash-point cor- 
relations for a particular group of compounds were 
developed. Presented in this note is an empirical estima- 
tion method that correlates the relative flash point as a 
linear function of the relative normal boiling point. 1 fig, 
1 table, 3 refs. (Author) 

1990. Jach W 

FIRE-ENGINEERING CLASSIFICATION OF COM- 
BUSTIBLE MATERIALS, ESPECIALLY WITH REGARD 
TO TEXTILES 

Lenzinger Ber; (40):227-239, 1976 (German; English Sum- 
mary) 

Various methods for the investigation of combustion 
time, flame-propagation speed and burning behavior, some 
of them contained in German Industrial Standards (DIN), 
are discussed. (This paper was presented at the 14th Inter- 
national Chemical Fiber Conference held at Dornbirn, 
Austria, on 24-26 Sep 1975.) 30 figs, 12 refs. (Author) 

1991. Sega S 

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON SMOULDERING OF 
SOLID MATERIALS 

Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu; 25(l/2):17-23, 1975 
(Japanese; English summary) 

The thermophysical Laboratory of Sapporo University 
(Japan) is conducting a long-term experimental and 
theoretical study of the smoldering processes of solid 
materials that are widely used in industry and represent 
a great fire hazard. Partial results of the experimental 
research conducted in 1975 on cardboard are presented. 
Smoldering of cardboard was studied under various condi- 
tions; in particular, factors and parameters such as the 
temperature of the ambient medium, the pressure, ventila- 
tion conditions and air convection, the amount and loca- 
tion of the smoldering centers, the configuration of the 
cardboard specimens (thin layers, thick piles, cardboard 
sheet rolled into a tube, etc), the orientation of the test 
specimens of cardboard in space, the humidity, the 
moisture in the cardboard, and the type of cardboard 
were varied during the experiments. Graphic displays illus- 
trating the dependence of the rate of spread of the smol- 
dering front and other quantitative and qualitative charac- 



teristics of the smoldering process on the parameters men- 
tioned above are given. It is stated that specific practical 
recommendations for increasing the fire safety of the 
technological processes under the conditions associated 
with the production, storage and use of cardboard will 
result from the research. 16 figs, 7 refs. (RZh) 

1992. Sega S 

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION OF SMOULDERING 
OF SOLID MATERIALS 

Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu; 25(l/2):25-37, 1975 
(Japanese; English Summary) 

Mathematical formulations and the results of an analyti- 
cal calculation made by specialists of the Thermophysical 
Laboratory of Sapporo University (Japan) for the purpose 
of establishing a relationship between parameters of the 
smoldering process of solid materials are presented. The 
data of the investigation are given within the framework 
of complex long-term (experimental and theoretical) fire 
research. The calculation applies to the smoldering of 
cardboard. It was found that the air-convection parameters 
influence the rate of propagation of the smoldering front 
over the surface of the cardboard to a greater degree 
than does the level of thermal radiation, in particular the 
air temperature near the smoldering front. The role of 
the latter factor is estimated, from the results of the calcu- 
lation, to amount to only a few percent. It is noted that 
the analytical results are confirmed by the results of ex- 
perimental studies of the smoldering process of cardboard. 
12 figs, 1 ref. (RZh) 

1993. Efremova T and Vaskin S 

ROTARY DUST FEEDER (TO TEST THE EXPLOSIVITY 
OF DUSTS) 

Pozhar delo; (ll):25-26, 1976 (Russian) 

A rotary dust feeder (atomizer) was constructed at the 
VEMIIT Fire Research Institute (USSR) to test the ex- 
plosivity of various dusts. Very finely dispersed dusts 
were generated using a very fine sieve. With these dusts 
it was possible to reduce the lower explosion limit of 
some dusts in the explosion chamber (constructed at the 
All-Union Fire Protection Research Institute) from 100- 
120 g/m 3 to 45-55 g/m 3 . The atomizer is particularly useful 
for generating and testing various textile dusts. 1 fig, 1 
table. (Fachdok 13/0650) 

1994. Saito N and Yanai E 

WEIGHT LOSS RATES OF POLYMERS PYROLYZED 
ISOTHERMALLY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES IN AN 
AIR FLOW. PART I — CELLULOSE, RAYON AND 
POLYESTER FIBER 

Rep Fire Res Inst Japan; (42): 19-26, 1976 (Japanese; En- 
glish Summary and Captions) 

The weight loss rate studies were carried out at tempera- 
tures ranging from 35° to 500°C and then above 700°C. 
At temperatures above 700°C, however, the pattern is 
reversed. A reduction of the oxygen concentration from 
21 to 15% had no effect whatever on the weight loss 
rates of cellulose and polyester fibers. 10 figs, 1 table, 
9 refs. (Fachdok 13/0446) 

1995. Wakabayashi K 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION ENGINEERING 

Soda to enso; 27(3):85-97, 1976 (Japanese) 



369 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods — Continued 



The results of laboratory studies of combustion and ex- 
plosion mechanisms under various conditions are given 
for the following gaseous, fire-hazardous materials: 
acetylene, methane, propane, ammonia, and others. The 
design and operating principles of the laboratory test 
setups used during the investigations, in particular, of a 
test stand that permits visual observation of the distribu- 
tion of burning zones in the flame, are described. The 
diffusion flame of a number of gases is analyzed with 
this arrangement. It is shown that the flame consists of 
three main zones. The first, inner zone consists of the 
fuel gas, but because of the lack of oxygen, combustion 
does not occur in this zone. In the second (central) zone 
the gas burns partially; in the third (outer) zone, the fuel 
mixture burns completely, the flame temperature of the 
acetylene reaching 2170°C, of carbon disulfide, 2280°C, 
and of benzine, 1410°C. Also determined during the in- 
vestigations was the quantity of air needed for complete 
combustion of the gas. As a result, some reference data 
were determined more precisely; in particular, for 
complete combustion of 1 kg of acetylene, 13.39 m 3 of 
air were needed, and 14.76 m 3 of air for complete com- 
bustion of methane. The pressure dependence of the con- 
ditions of ignition of the gases and their mixtures with 
air was studied. It is shown that as the pressure of a 
mixture of methane with air increases from 0.1 to 12.5 
MN/m 2 (from 1 to 125 kgf/cm 2 ), the lower ignition limit 
remains essentially unchanged (from 5.6 to 5.7 vol%), 
while the upper limit increases from 14.3 to 45.7 vol%. 
At 100 kN/m 2 (760 mm Hg) carbon monoxide has an 
ignition range of 15.5 - 68 vol%; at 26 kN/m 2 (200 mm 
Hg) ignition does not occur at all. It is also noted that 
with increasing temperature of the fuel mixture of gas 
with air the ignition range expands; the lower limit 
decreases and the upper limit increases. Exact values for 
the explosion time (0.7-0.98 sec) were determined for all 
the gases examined. One of the test arrangements made 
it possible to measure, with great accuracy, the pressure 
during burning of the gases in a tube, as well as the 
rate of flame propagation. The maximum pressure for 
methane was about 12 MN/m 2 (120 kgf/cm 2 ); the flame 
propagation rate was about 2,300 m/sec. Also determined 
was the amount of energy released during detonative com- 
bustion of the test gases. Corresponding analytic calcula- 
tions were made for all the experiments. 15 figs, 6 tables, 
6 refs. (RZh) 

1996. Wakabayashi K 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION ENGINEERING 

Soda to enso; 27(4): 121 -138, 1976 (Japanese) 

The results of long-term, ongoing fire research being 
carried out by the Fire Engineering and Fire Methods 
Research Institute in Tokyo are presented. At the present 
stage of the research project, the parameters of an explo- 
sion and of the propagation of an explosion wave from 
the ignition of methane and other natural gases in the 
mains and distributor pipelines, as well as in various 
production-line areas, have been determined under labora- 
tory conditions. The following parameters were measured: 
the strength and directional pattern of the blast wave; 
the level of the acoustic detonation; the temperature fields 
in the area of the explosion center; the propagation 
velocity of the flame and the acoustic wave front; and 
other parameters. The measurements were made under 
various ambient conditions by repeated triggering of an 



explosion on the model test stand, the design and operat- 
ing principle of which are described in detail. 23 figs, 
9 tables, 34 refs. (RZh) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF 
MATERIALS 

1997. Smith P 

POLYURETHANE FOAM FIRE HAZARDS 

Fire Eng J; 36(104):40-41 , 1976 

A concise review is given of the fire hazards of polyu- 
rethane foam as they relate to industrial use, where large 
quantities are found in an uncovered state, and applied 
(particularly domestic) use, as upholstery fillings, 
laminated clothing, footwear, carpet backing, etc. The test 
program of the British Rubber Manufacturers Assoc to 
try to assess the fire hazards of this product and the 
findings in terms of ignition, spontaneous combustion, fire 
spread, burn rate of bedding, smoke and escape times, 
and toxic combustion products are presented. 

1998. Leonard JT and Clark RC 

IGNITION OF FLAMMABLE VAPORS BY COt FIRE 
EXTINGUISHERS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(1 ): 1 31-1 34, 1977 

An apparatus is described for demonstrating the incendi- 
ary nature of discharges from the horn of a portable CO2 
fire extinguisher. The center section of the horn was en- 
closed in a plexiglass box containing a flammable fuel/air 
mixture and a grounded probe placed at a distance of 
1 cm from the horn. When the fire extinguisher was 
discharged, sparks jumping between the horn and the 
grounded probe ignited the fuel vapors in the box. The 
purpose of the demonstration was to prove that CO2 fire 
extinguishers should never be used to inert tanks contain- 
ing fuel vapors. 2 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

1999. Becker W 

PRACTICABILITY OF GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED UN- 
SATURATED POLYESTER RESIN BUILDING COM- 
PONENTS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF FIRE SAFETY 
Kunstst; 66(12)81 0-814, 1976 (German) 

When building materials made of glass-fiber-reinforced 
unsaturated polyester resins are used, the viewpoints of 
preventive fire protection, which all building materials are 
required to meet, must be taken into account. These build- 
ing materials and their potential range of application are 
permitted on the basis of the individual provisions of state 
legislation and the classification given in German industrial 
standard DIN 4102. In exceptional cases, it may be suita- 
ble to expand the possibilities of use of these building 
materials if a special proof of their safety can be demon- 
strated by full-scale fire tests. 2 tables, 8 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0334) 

2000. Meckel L and Rook A 
EVALUATING THE FIRE RISK OF TEXTILES 

Lenzinger Ber; (40):248-257, 1976 (German: English Sum- 
mary) 

The problems posed by the term 'clothing fire" are 
discussed. On the basis of fire-fatality statistics, the im- 
portance of the site of the accident, ignition source, age. 
and other factors relative to the evaluation of hazards 



370 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

is considered, the probability of the occurrence of a fire 
accident being compared with that of other accidents. The 
general evaluation of hazards by human beings, especially 
in connection with technological advances, is discussed. 
In the case of measures to avoid hazards, it is necessary 
to consider the extent to which the required financial 
and intellectual resources can be applied more effectively 
for the public welfare. In conclusion, after a few remarks 
about possible changes in the fire hazard of textiles in 
this century, the advantages and disadvantages of legal 
regulations and textile flam inability labelings are discussed 
in brief, and the necessity of adequate consumer informa- 
tion, as well as the importance of advertising, are men- 
tioned. (This paper was presented at the 14th International 
Chemical Fiber Conference held at Dornbirn, Austria, on 
24-26 Sep 1975.) 8 tables, 14 refs. (Author) 

2001. Tovey H 

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE FIRE HAZARD OF 
TEXTILES 

Lenzinger Ber; (40):80-86, 1976 (German; English Summa- 
ry) 

Described in this paper are institutional and technical 
systems in the USA that identify and characterize the 
flammability of textiles and thus help in setting priorities 
for textile flammability standards. Some results of statisti- 
cal analyses of household fires are discussed. The paper 
ends with a report on the present status of international 
developments on textile fire statistics worked on by the 
Textile Committee of the International Standards Or- 
ganization. (This paper was presented at the 14th Interna- 
tional Chemical Fiber Conference held in Dornbirn, Aus- 
tria, on 24-26 Sep 1975.) 4 figs, 8 tables, 12 refs. (Author) 

2002. Gayduk A, Egorchenkov Yu and Lugovskoy V 
PRODUCTION OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 

Pozhar delo; (9):23-24, 1976 (Russian) 

The conditions that promote the autoignition of 
precipitated resinous materials are studied, their fire- 
hazard properties are determined, and fire-protection steps 
to be taken in the production of phthalic anhydride are 
developed. The presence of sulphur, iron, ash, and unsatu- 
rated hydrocarbons in the original raw material 
(naphthalene) is responsible for the precipitation of the 
layered substances. A temperature control system was in- 
troduced to promote safe production conditions (a block 
diagram of the circuit is illustrated). Production-line fires 
are extinguished with nitrogen discharged from an auto- 
matic system. 1 fig. (RZh) 

2003. Malitskiy V 

FIRE HAZARD OF WOOL FIBER 

Pozhar delo; (9):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

The hazardous properties of sheep wool are examined. 
Wool fiber can be easily ignited by flames from a match. 
Its ignition temperature is 315°C; its spontaneous ignition 
temperature is 465°C. Fires in wool storage areas can 
reach major proportions and develop very rapidly because 
the wool is stored in combustible bales, in combustible 
warehouses, and because the wool is baled in open areas 
without fire breaks. The main causes of fires are listed 
and the flame-spread conditions are examined. Wool fires 
are extinguished by water spray, aqueous solutions of 
wetting agents, and medium-expansion foam. (RZh) 



2004. Mazur W 

FIRES OF TANKS CONTAINING LIQUID SULFUR 

Prz poz\ 64(5):8-9, 1976 (Polish) 

An analysis is made of the fire hazard of transporting 
liquid sulfur in 418 R or 402 R railroad tank cars with 
a polyurethane foam or mineral wool thermal insulation. 
Sulfur is transported in such tanks in liquid form at a 
temperature of 145-125°C. The possibilities of preventing 
and extinguishing fires in such tanks are examined. (RZh) 

2005. Anon 

ACTIVITIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE (1) 
FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS TESTING 
(BAM) IN BERLIN AND THE (2) DUST RESEARCH IN- 
STITUTE (STF) IN BONN TO INVESTIGATE THE FIRE 
AND EXPLOSION HAZARD OF DUSTS 
Schadenprisma; 5(4):79-80, 1976 (German) 

The German Federal Institute for Materials Testing 
(BAM) investigates the fire and explosion hazards of dusts 
to obtain information on the danger of a specific dust. 
Eight characteristics are determined. The reaction vessels 
used for this purpose are presented. The Dust Research 
Institute (STF) investigates the fire behavior of dusts by 
the Geigy-Kuehner method and classifies them in grades 
BZ 1 to BZ 6. The dusts are divided into hazard classes 
StO to St3 according to the results of the dust explosion 
test (modified Hartmann Apparatus). Incidences of dust 
explosions are evaluated systematically in the documenta- 
tion center. The STF also functions as a consulting agen- 
cy. (Fachdok 13/0311) 

2006. Wakabayashi K 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION ENGINEERING 

Soda to enso-: 27(5): 147-1 59, 1976 (Japanese) 

The results of complex continuing long-range fire 
research on new materials, equipment, and technological 
processes with definite fire hazards are presented. The 
research is being carried out primarily at the Fire En- 
gineering and Methods Research Institute in Tokyo. Data 
on the fire hazards of the kinds of woods most widely 
used in Japanese industry are given. It has been found 
that the autoignition temperature of wood with about 8% 
moisture content fluctuates from 350 to 420°C. Also stu- 
died were the spontaneous ignition condition of wood ex- 
posed over a long period of time to a temperature of 
90-140°C and the possibility of heat accumulation. An ap- 
paratus used to artificially produce spontaneous ignition 
of specimens cut from commercial panels made by 
pressing sawdust is described. The fire hazard of these 
panels was found to be due to the use of a paraffin - 
olein emulsion as the binding agent. The emulsion consists 
of paraffin, oleic acid, sodium hydroxide and aluminum. 
The mechanism of oleic acid oxidation was studied, which 
is the cause of spontaneous ignition of the panel 
specimens when they contained more than 3% of the bind- 
ing agent. 9 figs, 7 tables, 14 refs. (RZh) 

2007. Durbetaki P, Tincher WC, Lloyd LR, Lowery RP, 
Tingle WJ and Wolfe VL, Jr 

PREDICTION OF FIRE HAZARD FROM FABRICS AND 
BUILDING MATERIALS. Georgia Inst Technol, School 



37 1 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

Mech Eng, Atlanta, GA; GIT SME-77, 240 pages, 78 figs, 47 
tables, 45 refs, Feb 1977 

The program objectives of the research reported here 
have been to provide modeling rules and experimental 
data for the prediction of material ignition time under 
varied exposure modes and conditions, to measure igni- 
tion/destruction time and frequency, and to develop igni- 
tion criteria for thermally thick and thin materials. The 
specific objectives of the program are to expand previous 
experiments on ignition time measurements to thermally 
thin and thick materials, under broad exposure conditions, 
varied geometry, and various materials, to determine the 
ignition probability of thermally thin and thick materials, 
and to modify and extend the modeling analysis for the 
prediction of ignition time. The program consists of a 
combined experimental and analytical effort. The experi- 
mental phase consists of six tasks and is intended to 
describe the material response to radiative and convective 
(gas-flame) heating, to provide data for experimental 
verification of the ignition modeling analysis, to develop 
new ignition criteria, and to establish constitutive laws 
describing material interaction with relevant ignition 
sources. The analytical phase consists of three tasks 
which, coupled with the experimental tasks, are intended 
to provide methods of predicting pre-ignition behavior of 
materials exposed to ignition sources. (Author) 

d. NATURE OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

2008. Welker RW and Wagner JP 

PARTICLE SIZE AND MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF 
SELECTED SMOKES. EFFECT ON IONIZATION DE- 
TECTOR RESPONSE 

J Fire Flammability; 8(l):26-37, 1977 

Particle size parameters are presented for various 
smokes - those from common plastics and a standard 
calibration source, punk. Sensitivity of ionization detec- 
tors to plastic smokes is shown to be a particle-size-depen- 
dent phenomenon, ie, detector sensitivity to plastic 
smokes decreases with increasing particle size. Factors 
affecting particle size and/or particle statistics, besides 
the nature of the combustible and combustion conditions, 
include relative humidity and rate of smoke generation. 
4 figs, 4 tables, 5 refs. (Author) 

2009. Junod TL 

GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND TOXIC HAZARDS AS- 
SOCIATED WITH PLASTICS IN FIRE SITUATIONS: A 
LITERATURE REVIEW. Nat Aeron and Space Admin, 
Lewis Res Center, Cleveland, OH; NASA TN-D-8338, 67 
pages, Oct 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

The hazards of plastics in fire situations, the gases 
emitted, the factors influencing the nature of these emis- 
sions, the characteristics of toxic gases, and the results 
of laboratory studies are discussed. The literature pertain- 
ing to the pyrolysis and oxidation of plastics was 
reviewed. An effort was made to define the state of the 
art for determining the toxic gases emitted by plastics 
under fire conditions. Recommendations are made and 
research needs defined as a result of this review. (Author) 



2010. Seader JD and Einhorn IN 

SOME PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, TOXICOLOGICAL, 
AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FIRE SMOKES 

Combustion Svmp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20. 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1423-1445, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute. Pittsburgh. PA 

In many fires, effects of smoke are the chief cause 
of bodily injury or death. The effects include opacity, 
toxicity, lachrymatory irritation, and heat transfer. In 
order to understand and quantify these effects, extensive 
research is being conducted to study the physical, chemi- 
cal, toxicological, and physiological aspects of fire 
smokes. The principal emphasis within the scope of this 
paper is directed toward the physics of smokes, with only 
brief mention of chemical aspects. An introductory survey 
of the toxicological and physiological aspects of smokes 
is also presented. Important physical aspects of smoke 
particulates include light scattering and absorption: parti- 
cle-size distribution; and settling, sticking, and agglomera- 
tion rates. With respect to light obscuration, it is shown 
that the single most important variable is particulate mass 
concentration. The particulate optical density (POD) is 
shown to be bounded within two relatively narrow ranges 
— one for aerosols and one for carbonaceous soots. Ex- 
perimental apparatus and a test protocol for determining 
the qualitative and quantitative nature of the intoxication 
syndrome resulting from smoke exposure are discussed. 
This methodology employs both a behavioral endpoint and 
animal bioassay, which includes gross physiological 
evaluation, in-depth physiological monitoring of vital func- 
tions, blood-gas analysis, and pathological evaluation of 
early dysfunction and late-developing sequelae. 12 figs. 
4 tables, 81 refs. (Author) 

e. PROTECTION AND MODIFICATION OF 
MATERIALS 

201 1 . Hadvig S 

PROTECTION WITH FIRE-RETARD ANT PAINT 

Brandvaern: 2(5): 14-15, 17-18, 1976 (Danish; English Sum- 
mary) 

Experiments conducted in an old five-story building for 
the purpose of determining the effectiveness of protecting 
wooden stairwells with fire-retardant paint are described. 
Landings, steps, banisters, window sashes, walls and 
doors leading off one stairway were cleaned of the old 
paint and repainted with the fire-retardant paint Unitherm. 
Another stairway was not repainted, except for the doors 
leading off it. In both cases the fire sources were 40 
kg spruce timber cribs in the lower landings. In the 
repainted stairwell total ignition took 24 min, in the un- 
painted one. 12 min. In both cases the fire spread to 
the roof. In the first case, however, the fire in the stair- 
well burned out on its own and the stairway remained 
intact, so that it could be used when the roof fire was 
extinguished. In the second case the stairway was 
completely destroyed by the fire. The experiments demon- 
strated the possibility of such protection in old buildings 
with stairways containing wooden components. 6 figs. 
(RZh) 

2012. Grushecky A 

FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUID CAN MEAN 
LONG PUMP LIFE 

Coal Min Process: 13(8):66-67, 72, 1976 



372 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

Based on extended testing in its Banning No. 4 mine. 
Republic Steel has developed a preventive maintenance 
program providing optimum hydraulic pump life using 
fire-resistant hydraulic fluids of the invert emulsion type. 
Up to 165,000 tons of clean coal are now being produced 
by continuous miners without hydraulic pump failure. The 
four key factors in the program, namely, 1) proper storage 
and handling; 2) maintaining reservoir level; 3) contamina- 
tion control; and 4) periodic testing, are discussed. 8 figs. 
(Author) 

2013. Mclain L 

SEEKING ALTERNATIVES TO HAZARDOUS 

ASBESTOS 

Engineer (London); 242(6270):30-31 , 34, 1976 

In connection with restrictions on the use of asbestos 
in Sweden, owing to the risks of asbestosis, lung cancer 
and mesothelioma, various British companies have been 
approached with a request for asbestos alternatives. This 
interest has called for the preparation of one of the first 
comprehensive reports available in Britain on asbestos al- 
ternatives, soon to be released. The report examines the 
more important of the 1,000 applications of asbestos, eg, 
as fire protection materials, and assesses the alternatives. 
Glass-reinforced plastic is the most common alternative, 
but does not have the fire-resistance properties of 
asbestos. Work has been done on metallized synthetic 
and ceramic fiber products for fire suits. The ceramic 
fiber replacements may be in spray, blanket or mat form 
and are generally superior to asbestos in fire resistance 
or are considered to come closest to having any chance 
of success. The various types of ceramic fibers are 
discussed. 6 photos. 



2014. Abbott NJ and Schulman S 
PROTECTION FROM FIRE: 
CLOTHING — A REVIEW 

Fire Technol; 12(3):204-218, 1976 



NONFLAMMABLE 



Fiber, such as Durette (modified Nomex), Rhovel (a 
polyvinyl chloride), polymide fibers, HT-4 (an aramid), 
and PBI (modified polybenzimidazole) with limiting ox- 
ygen index values of 35 to 40 are considered to be truly 
nonflammable, even under fairly extreme conditions, but 
are of interest for specialized applications where the need 
justifies the cost. The insulating value of protective 
clothing must be sufficient to prevent skin burns by heat 
transfer. The requirements of nonflammability, insulation, 
and heat reflection tend to make the protective garment 
heavy, bulky, and stiff, which may be acceptable to 
firefighters. 10 figs, 1 table, 14 refs. (NFPA) 

2015. Breu R 

PALUSOL FIRE-RESISTANT SHEETS IN LABORATORY 

CONSTRUCTION 

GIT; 21(l):30-33, 1977 (German) 

The flexible Palusol sheets (about 2 mm thick) consist 
of aqueous sodium silicate containing fiberglass and have 
a layer of epoxy resin on each side. Above 100°C (that 
is, in case of fire) a thermally insulating, pressure-resistant 
foam sheet is formed, increasing in thickness, even when 
shielded, resulting in an insulating and barrier layer to 
retard the transmission of heat and to prevent the penetra- 
tion of flame and air to the protected parts. These sheets 



have already been used successfully in laboratories. Some 
of the ways in which these sheets can be used are as 
follows: pipe sheathing; laboratory cabinets; containers; 
wooden doors; sound-, smoke-, and fire-proofing doors; 
glazed fireproofed doors; vent sheathings; ventilator 
sheets; furniture for documents; sheathings for steel cylin- 
ders; and ceiling and wall penetrations for utilities. 5 figs. 
(Fachdok 13/0464) 

2016. Bonsignore PV and Levendusky TL 

ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE AS A FLAME RETARDANT 
AND SMOKE SUPPRESSIVE FILLER IN RIGID HIGH 
DENSITY POLYURETHANE FOAMS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(1):95-114, 1977 

Alumina trihydrate introduced into rigid high-density 
polyurethane foam can significantly improve its burn re- 
sistance as measured by oxygen index, UL94 rating, and 
vertical burn rate. Incorporation of the hydrate in the 
foam system by predispersion in the polyol component 
can present difficulties because of the viscosity-building 
effect of the dispersed hydrate. Dimethyl 
methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been found to be a valu- 
able adjunct to hydrate for lowering hydrate/polyol disper- 
sion viscosities while improving burn resistance of the 
resulting composite foam. At equivalent oxygen index, 
hydrate-extended foams show lower smoke development 
than does a commercial UL94 V-l rated foam. DMMP 
causes significant increases in smoke development in these 
compositions. 8 figs, 9 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

2017. Pogorzelski J A 

FIRE PROTECTION OF METAL STRUCTURES. SUR- 
VEY OF WAYS AND MEANS 

Prz Bud; 48(5):220-223, 1976 (Polish) 

The general problems involved in increasing the fire 
endurance of metal building structures and the fire retar- 
dants produced in Poland are examined, such as Og- 
niokolor intumescent paints, laminated materials, and 
sprayed fire-resistive heat-insulating coatings of slag 
concrete and cement solutions. 5 figs, 10 refs. (RZh) 

2018. Jones IP and McCartan DA 

FLAME RESISTANT BUILDING MATERIAL 

US Patent No. 3,955,031; CI 428/288, (B32B 17/10), Appl 
4 Feb 1974, Disci. 4 May 1976, Assignee: Owens-Corning 
Fiberglas Corp, Toledo, OH 

Building materials of the type containing an impermeable 
membrane, as, for example, an insulation material, or a 
wallboard, or ceiling tile, are provided. The impermeable 
membrane is first formed upon a sheet of paper that 
gives structured rigidity to the membrane, and is then 
used as an adhesive to hold the paper onto a porous 
body by heating the membrane to a softened condition 
and pressing it against the porous body. The membrane 
is preferably made in two steps, wherein a first application 
of a thermoplastic latex is put on the paper and then 
a second application of latex is applied to seal pores in 
the film produced by the first application of latex. A 
fire retardant, ie, either a flame-retardant salt in the paper 
or a halogen-liberating resin coating on the outside sur- 
face, is provided to liberate flame-extinguishing gases to 
be held in place by the vapor barrier. In the most 
preferred embodiments, a halogen-containing ther- 



373 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

moplastic resin is used as at least part of the material 
forming the vapor barrier and either another coating of 
a halogen-containing resin is applied to the outside surface 
of the paper, or a flame-retarding salt is included in the 
paper to produce a building material whose surface has 
an exceedingly low flame propagation rate. 2 claims, 4 
drawing figs. (Author) 

f. STABILITY OF MATERIALS AT ELEVATED 

TEMPERATURES 

2019. Abeles PW, Bardhan-Roy BK and Turner FH 
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGNERS' HANDBOOK 

Cement and Concrete Assoc, London, UK; 2nd edit, 548 
pages, 1976 

This second edition of the handbook includes a number 
of new examples of precast members (double T-beams). 
Special problems on the use of lightweight concrete and 
fire resistance of precast concrete are also investigated. 
International metric notation has been used almost 
completely for this edition. Most of the material from 
the first edition has been expanded, including chapters 
on materials and structures, based on research results 
established since the first edition of 1962. A new chapter 
has been added on criteria for analysis and design based 
on the new conditions of limit-state design which have 
been introduced. Chapters on losses of prestressing force, 
analysis of stresses, general design of prestressed mem- 
bers, examples of flexural design, end blocks, composite 
members, deflection, other design considerations, statisti- 
cally indeterminant structures, applications of prestressing, 
and design of fire resistance have been expanded and 
carried over from the first edition. Design charts with 
notes on additional data are included. Examples are given 
in English, as well as SI metric and kilogrametric units. 



2020. Lie TT and Stanzak WW 
STRUCTURAL STEEL AND FIRE 
ANALYSIS 

Eng J; 13(2):35-42, 1976 



MORE REALISTIC 



Following a brief review of the present technology for 
calculating the fire resistance of steel building elements, 
means for using the results under other conditions of fire 
severity in order to reduce the number of standard, 
destructive fire tests required for structural elements and 
to eliminate the need for in situ fire tests that would 
be costly as well as impractical, are presented. 12 figs, 
3 tables, 22 refs. 

2021 . Zhukova NE and Konyuchenko VS 

STUDY OF THE THERMAL STABILITY OF SEALANTS 

FOR MINE DEGASSING PIPE SYSTEMS 

Gornospasat delo\ (13):24-27, 1976 (Russian) 

Results are given for tests of the combustibility and 
thermal stability of asbestos sealants at temperatures of 
400-800°C, which are the temperatures reached during 
fires. It is found that the LA-1 asbestos-steel sheet 
(standard GOST 12856-67) has the best heat-resistant pro- 
perties at high temperatures. (RZh) 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. FIELD EVALUATION 

2022. Takita M and Hushiya S 

FIRE FIGHTING IN A MOVING TRAIN 

Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo; 33(5): 167-173, 1976 
(Japanese) 

A detailed description is given of a method and results 
of research aimed at determining the conditions of fire 
outbreak and development in trains. A special set of cars 
was used for this purpose, consisting of an electric 
locomotive and five coaches. A fire was set in one of 
them; the rest were used to house various monitoring 
and measuring equipment and observers. Fires were set 
on several occasions (the studies continued for 2 months). 
The following conditions and parameters were varied: time 
of day, atmospheric and meteorological factors, location 
of the fire, speed of the train, degree and nature of the 
fire load in the fire car, and other parameters. Two movie 
cameras and two TV cameras were fixed to the cars ad- 
jacent to the fire car by means of external retractable 
brackets, making it possible to display the process of 
fire development on the monitor screens in the cars 
equipped as a laboratory and also to record the data in 
real time. A diagram is given of the location of the 
chromel-kopel thermocouples inside and outside the fire 
car, which were used to determine and record the tem- 
perature conditions in all stages of fire development. The 
research results are presented in graphic form and will 
be used to work up recommendations on increasing the 
effectiveness of firefighting in a moving train. 10 figs. 
2 tables, 6 refs. (RZh) 

2023. Richards RC and Vorthman RG 

FULL SCALE SHIP'S HULL EXPOSURE FIRE TESTS. 

Coast Guard Res and Dev Center, Groton, CT; CGR 
DC- 14-76, USCG D-97-76, 46 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A032 867/4GA 

Fourteen hundred square feet of the hull of the MV 
RHODE ISLAND were exposed to two JP-5 fires located 
close to the aft starboard side in order to determine the 
rate of heat transfer to a steel-hulled vessel. During the 
first fire test a water spray system producing an applica- 
tion rate of 0.12 gal/min/ft 2 was employed. The tests were 
analyzed to predict the results of similar fires on an alu- 
minum-hulled vessel. The heat transfer rate to the steel 
hull ranged from 35000 to 45000 BTU/hr. The water spray 
limited the initial rate of temperature buildup, but its 
overall effect could not be quantified because of nonu- 
niform water application. The predicted effects of a 
similar fire on an aluminum hull would be disastrous. 
(Author) 

b. FIRE TESTING, STRUCTURES 



2024. Quigg PS and Orals DL 
COMMUNICATION CABLE 
FIRE TEST 

Build Stand: 46(2):44-51, 1977 



POKE THRU" FLOOR 



Numerous methods have been used for sealing penetra- 
tions in walls and floors through which pipes, conduits, 
electrical wiring, and communication cables pass. Many 



374 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 
b. Fire Testing, Structures — Continued 

of these methods have limitations because they are either 
too costly, difficult to install, or marginally effective in 
stopping a passage of smoke or flame from room to room 
or floor to floor. Sealing with a portland cement concrete 
provides an excellent fire barrier. However, it is extremely 
difficult to install and almost impossible to remove without 
damaging cable or conduit. Gypsum concrete used in place 
of portland cement concrete provides excellent fire protec- 
tion and can be removed relatively easily, but it is also 
difficult to install. The least expensive, from a materials 
and installation cost standpoint, and yet very effective 
in containing fire and smoke, is Thermafiber mineral fiber 
insulation. This, in combination with granular gypsum in 
a sheet metal retainer, also provides excellent fire contain- 
ment and added advantage of a seal to prevent flooding 
or cascading of water from floor to floor in the event 
of accidental spillage or leakage. A two-component, sil- 
icone elastomer foam is available from the Dow Chemical 
Company which, when mixed and inserted in an opening, 
will expand to effectively seal against the passage of fire, 
smoke and water. However, the silicone foam is much 
more expensive than any of the other materials and 
procedures already described. All of the above materials 
and methods were incorporated in a fire test assembly 
simulating a floor condition with cables passing through 
penetrations of various shapes. The procedure, observa- 
tions, data and conclusions relative to this test are covered 
in the report. 15 figs, 5 photos. 

2025. Anon 

AN UNUSUAL FIRE 

Cement (Amsterdam); 27(4): 135-140, 1976 (Dutch) 

A building specially made from prefabricated concrete 
elements was subjected to a fire test in Zwijnaarde, Belgi- 
um, in order to check the practical requirements against 
real-fire conditions, which are not yet completely un- 
derstood. The experimental setup and conditions are 
described. 

2026. San Miguel A 

BASELINE DATA FROM AN A-4 COCKPIT IN SIMU- 
LATED CARRIER DECK FIRE. Nav Wpns Center, China 
Lake, CA; NWC TP-5812, 145 pages, Aug 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A034 217/0GA 

This report describes a study that was designed to gather 
fundamental data on the survivability of an aircraft 
cockpit in a carrier deck fire, on the characteristics of 
cockpit structural degradation in the fire, and on various 
interacting mechanisms that reduce a pilot's functionabili- 
ty. An unarmed Navy A-4 cockpit was subjected to a 
simulated carrier deck pool fire. The cockpit was instru- 
mented with transducers to measure temperature, heat, 
smoke, toxic gases, light, shock, sound, pressure, and 
physiological behavior of rats and mice. A number of 
appendixes to the report give detailed descriptions of the 
various measuring systems and the data they produced. 
In addition to providing much immediately useful data, 
the test yielded a good base of data on which to design 
future tests of this kind. (Author) 



c. MODELING AND SCALING 

2027. Lesse PF 

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF A FULL SCALE 
FIRE TEST 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (16):23-27, 1977 

Theoretical knowledge of the physical processes occur- 
ring in a room on fire was pioneered by Kawagoe, Sekine, 
and Odeen. These workers developed mathematical 
models predicting the changes of temperature during fire 
in an enclosure, and their models have been subsequently 
refined and extended to cover the complete process of 
fire development. In the papers cited, experimental results 
were used to verify the theory and the underlying assump- 
tions. In the present paper this theory is used as a basis 
of explaining the temperature-time curves of some experi- 
ments carried out independently by the Experimental 
Building Station, Sydney, Australia, a few years ago. The 
practical value of the theory in its present form is demon- 
strated for predicting the outcome of experiments or for 
their design and planning. 4 figs, 1 table, 7 refs. (Author) 

2028. Hirst R, Farenden PJ and Simmons RF 

THE EXTINCTION OF FIRES IN AIRCRAFT JET EN- 
GINES. PART I, SMALL-SCALE SIMULATION OF 
FIRES 

Fire Technol; 12(4):266-275, 289, 1976 

In simulated aircraft engine fires in a small wind tunnel, 
the concentration of methyl bromide required for extinc- 
tion was examined as a function of the experimental varia- 
bles. A burning pool of fuel and a thin film of fuel flowing 
over a heated surface required the same concentrations 
of methyl bromide to extinguish the flame at a given 
air velocity. In contrast, spray fires needed a much lower 
concentration of methyl bromide than the other two modes 
of combustion. A pool of fuel burning behind an obstruc- 
tion is the most difficult fire to extinguish, and thus the 
concentration of methyl bromide required for this condi- 
tion will extinguish any other fire. 5 figs. (NFPA) 

2029. Beyreis JR and Skjordahl JW 

A FLAME SPREAD AND SMOKE TEST FOR COMMU- 
NICATION CABLE 

Lab Data; 8(1):15-19, 1977 

A test method to characterize flame spread and smoke 
production of cables has been developed, and a classifica- 
tion scheme for grouping and reporting the test results 
is proposed. The method uses a 25 ft tunnel as the test 
facility and is similar to American Society for Testing 
and Materials (ASTM) E-84, with the exceptions that a 
cable rack is used for mounting the samples in the upper 
part of the tunnel and the test time has been extended 
to 20 minutes. (This information was presented at the 
25th International Wire and Cable Symposium held on 
Nov 18, 1976, at Cherry Hill, NJ.) 6 figs, 3 refs. (Author) 

2030. Reeves JB and MacArthur CD 

DAYTON AIRCRAFT CABIN FIRE MODEL. VOL 1. 
BASIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL. Dayton Univ Ohio 
Res Inst; FAA RD-76- 120-1, 141 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 682/6GA 

A basic mathematical model and computer simulation 
program have been developed to assess the smoke and 



375 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

c. Modeling and Scaling — Continued 

toxic gas emissions resulting from the burning of cabin 
interior materials of a wide-body transport aircraft in a 
full-scale fire based on laboratory test data on these 
materials. The mathematical model employs a technique 
of approximating the distribution of burning or smoldering 
regions on combustible materials by dividing the surface 
of the material into square area elements. The combustion 
behavior of a material is modeled by allowing the area 
elements to exist in one of seven discrete states. The 
four primary states are the following: virgin (the original, 
unignited condition); smoldering (nonflaming thermal 
degradation); flaming (burning with open flaming); or 
charred (burned-out or inert). The other three states are 
intermediate states in the transition to or from one of 
the four primary states. Fire ignition; flame spread: 
release of heat, smoke and toxic combustion products; 
and the eventual extinction of a fire are all predicted 
by specifying times of transition between the four primary 
states and by specifying flame spread rates. Transition 
times, flame spread rates and the smoke, heat, and toxic 
gas release rates are assumed to be known as functions 
of imposed heat flux from laboratory measurements on 
the specific materials and assemblies of an aircraft cabin 
interior. Smoke and toxic gas concentration within the 
cabin section of the fire origin are computed by a one- 
dimensional, dynamic, stratified model of the cabin at- 
mosphere, which includes buoyancy-driven flow out of 
the cabin section through one or more doorways. The 
results of two sample runs of the simulation program are 
presented and analyzed. (See also Vol 2, AD-A033 683 
and Vol 3, AD-A033 989.) (Author) 

2031. Reeves JB 

DAYTON AIRCRAFT CABIN FIRE MODEL. VOL 2. 
LABORATORY TEST PROGRAM. Dayton Univ Ohio Res 
Inst; FAA RD-76-120-2, 269 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 683/4GA 

A basic mathematical model and computer simulation 
program have been developed to assess the smoke and 
toxic gas emissions resulting from the burning of cabin 
interior materials of a wide-body transport aircraft in a 
full-scale cabin fire. The simulation is based on laboratory 
test data on the cabin materials. This report presents the 
results of a laboratory test program that was conducted 
in support of the model development. Various flammabili- 
ty and combustion toxicity properties were measured for 
several wide-body cabin materials by the Boeing Commer- 
cial Airplane Company under a subcontract to the Univer- 
sity of Dayton Research Institute. The measurements were 
made using the OSU Combustion Analyzer, the NBS 
Smoke Chamber, and the Boeing Burn-Through Ap- 
paratus. This report describes the test procedures, the 
test results, the analysis of the test data, and the develop- 
ment of a set of material properties input data for the 
cabin fire simulation program. This report consists of 
three volumes. Volume I is entitled "Basic Mathematical 
Model" and Volume III is entitled "Computer Program 
User's Guide." (See also Vol 1. AD-A033 682 and Vol 
3, AD-A033 989.) (Author) 

2032. Kahut PM 

DAYTON AIRCRAFT CABIN FIRE MODEL. VOL 3. 
COMPUTER PROGRAM USER'S GUIDE. Dayton Univ 
Ohio Res Inst; FAA RD-76- 120-3, 52 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 989/5GA 



A basic mathematical model and computer simulation 
program have been developed to assess the smoke and 
toxic gas emissions resulting from the burning of cabin 
interior materials of a wide-body transport aircraft in a 
full-scale fire. The simulation is based on laboratory test 
data on the cabin materials. This report is a guide for 
use of the computer simulation program, which includes 
instructions for input data preparation, sample input and 
output, basic definitions concerning the simulation pro- 
gram and mathematical model, and a brief description 
of the program structure. (See also AD-A033 682 for Vol 
1 and AD-A033 683 for Vol 2.) (Author) 

2033. Muller FA 

A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL THE DYNAMIC 
THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A NUCLEAR WARHEAD 
SECTION ADAPTION KIT IN AN ACCIDENTAL FIRE 

ENVIRONMENT. Picatinnv Arsenal. Dover, NJ. PA TR- 
5015, 59 pages, Dec 1976 ' 
Availability: NTIS AD-A034 894/6GA 

A method for modeling the thermal behavior of a war- 
head section adaption kit in an accidental fire environment 
has been described in detail. A Control Data Corporation 
Model 6600 computer operating under SCOPE version 
3.4.2 and utilizing the dynamic simulator called CSSL 3 
is used. The model permits study of the temperature ver- 
sus time of a few points within a three-dimensional 
system. The effects of radiation, conduction, and convec- 
tion are included, as well as changes in heat paths due 
to melting of some parts. (Author) 

2034. Brown LE, Martinsen WE. Muhlenkamp SP and 
Puckett GL 

SMALL SCALE TESTS ON CONTROL METHODS FOR 
SOME LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS HAZARDS. Univ 
Engrs Inc. Norman. OK; UE-308-FR, USCG D-95-76. 80 
pages. May 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 522/4GA 

A report of results of small scale (100 square ft) tests 
of some liquefied natural gas (LNG) hazard control 
methods and concepts is made. Tests were run to estimate 
dry chemical flow rate requirements for the extinguish- 
ment of fires from LNG pools with obstructions in the 
pool area and fires from LNG pools on water in a contain- 
ment. Objectives were to obtain data for design of large- 
scale tests. Other small-scale tests examined the feasibility 
of other concepts for controlling hazards from spills of 
liquefied natural gas. Agent application rates required for 
extinguishment of obstructed LNG fires and LNG fires 
on water are not different from those effective on unob- 
structed fires on dry surfaces ( if the functionality between 
burning rate and application rate is accounted for). Care 
must be exercised to assure uniform powder distribution 
on obstructed fires. Tests of water spray screens to reduce 
downwind vapor concentrations showed that the concept 
is practical and effective for small LNG spills, and that 
the mechanism of reduction is the addition of turbulence 
in the vapor zone. Tests of water spray screens to reduce 
radiant heating of exposures demonstrated no practical 
value for the concept except as an uneconomical alterna- 
tive where spray directly on the exposure is not possible. 
(Author) 



376 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4 FIRE MOOI-ll INCi AM) II SI M'KNS 

C. Modeling and Scaling — Continued 

2035. Ku AC, Doria ML and Lloxd JR 

NUMERICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY BUOYANT 
FLOWS 

Combustion Sxmp, Internal, I6th, I'roc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1373-1384, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

A numerical model for the prediction of unsteady, two- 
dimensional buoyant flows is presented. The model makes 
use of the full elliptic balance equations for heat, mass, 
and momentum and allows for full coupling between den- 
sity and temperature. The model is highly flexible in that 
it can accommodate variable transport properties and com- 
plex boundary conditions. Of particular importance, it is 
capable of treating surfaces such as a doorway or window 
across which there can be a free inflow or outflow of 
fluid to the computational region. The model has been 
used to predict the time-dependent velocity and tempera- 
ture fields generated by fire in an enclosure or corridor. 
It has proven successful in predicting the gas velocities 
and temperatures generated by the fire in the enclosure 
corridor geometries, the ventilation of the fire through 
windows or doorways, and the heat transfer rates to the 
various surfaces involved. In these cases combustion is 
modeled by volumetric heat sources. The results for two 
particular cases are presented and comparisons are made 
with experiment. 7 figs, 12 refs. (Author) 

2036. Williamson RB 

FIRE PERFORMANCE UNDER FULL SCALE CONDI- 
TIONS — A STATE TRANSITION MODEL 

Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, Proc; 1976, Aug 15-20, 
MIT, Cambridge, MA, pages 1357-1371, 1977 
Sponsor: The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 

This paper concerns the measurement of fire per- 
formance under experimental fire conditions resembling 
actual fire conditions. A new method of analyzing and 
reporting the results of these experiments, a State Transi- 
tion Model, is introduced. Distinct states are chosen for 
the analysis of fire growth experiments, and their duration 
provides a new experimental data. Three pre-flashover 
states are defined as follows: 1) J = the period of time 
from the beginning of the experiment to ignition of the 
specimen, 2) K = the period of time from ignition of 
the specimen until flames touch the ceiling, and 3) L 
= the period of time from when the flames first touch 
the ceiling until full involvement (flashover) occurs. These 
states are components of the State Transition Model, and 
histograms and cumulative distribution functions (CDF) 
of the state durations then provide a graphical representa- 
tion of fire performance. Examples are chosen to illustrate 
the method. Traditional cellulosic and cementitious walls 
and ceilings are compared to plastic materials in the same 
configuration. 8 figs, 2 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

d. SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR 

2037. Abrams MS 

FIRE TEST OF FLOOR OR ROOF ASSEMBLY WITH 
I/D COMPONENTS. Portland Cement Assoc, Skokie, IL; 
R/D Bull No. RD 040.0 IB, 8 pages, 1976 

A report is made on a fire test of a floor or roof 
assembly consisting of a reinforced concrete pan-joist slab 
made with components of the registered trademark system 



"I/D" and a 5/8 inch gypsum-board ceiling. The purpose 
was to establish the fire-resistance classification for the 
assembly by a fire test conducted in accordance with 
ASTM E 119, "Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials." From data obtained, all 
ASTM E 119 endpoint criteria were met for the 2-hour 
fire-endurance classification. (Author) 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
PRINCIPLES 

2038. Raes H 

THE INFLUENCE OF A BUILDING'S CONSTRUCTION 
AND FIRELOAD ON THE INTENSITY AND DURATION 
OF A FIRE 

Fire Prev Sci Technoi, (16):4-16, 1977 

A rational and appropriate choice of the periods of 
fire-resistance for the various elements in a building struc- 
ture is of great economic importance in view of the cost 
of fire protection and the cost of reinstating the building 
in the event of a fire. In a technical study entitled 
"Evaluation of Fire Risk," the various factors involved 
were discussed, including the building's fire load, physical 
features and the area of the ventilation openings. This 
information has been summarized also in our study on 
fire loads (January 1975), which was part of the national 
fire research program financed by IRSIA (Institute for 
the Encouragement of Scientific Research for Industry 
and Agriculture). In the present study the factors deter- 
mining the intensity and duration of a fire are considered, 
since these factors are of major importance when deciding 
on the fire protection requirements for a building. In a 
fire, the combustion rate may be controlled by the surface 
area of the fuel in contact with air or by a ventilation 
factor related to the surface area and the height of the 
windows. The relationship is discussed between a real 
fire and the standard temperature-time curve and, for fires 
controlled by ventilation, equations are given for the 
equivalent duration of real fires. Many studies are 
described of fire load densities in actual offices, educa- 
tional buildings and hospitals. (This article was originally 
published in Rev Beige du Feu, No. 31, 1976.) 16 figs, 
10 tables, 23 refs. (Author) 



2039. Harmathy TZ 

DESIGN OF BUILDINGS FOR LIFE SAFETY 

II 

Fire Technoi; 12(3):219-236, 1976 



PART 



The destructive potential in a fire cell (space on fire) 
may be minimized by proper dimensioning of the compart- 
ment (large windows and low ceiling). Fire isolation may 
be accomplished by self-closing doors, continuous balco- 
nies, open corridors, and flame deflectors on windows. 
For the drainage method, applicable to poorly compart- 
mented highrise buildings, the energy of the fire is ex- 
ploited by drawing air into the fire cell in quantities that 
produce a fuel-surface-controlled condition, ie, short dura- 
tion at relatively low temperatures, also by maintaining 
pressure in the fire cell below the pressure in neighboring 
spaces, and by removing flames and smoke from the fire 



377 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. Building Design and Construction Principles — Continued 



cell. (For part I see VTA 
20 refs. (NFPA) 



1(4), Abstract 1244.) 16 figs. 



2040. Buerger A 

PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION FROM THE VIEW- 
POINT OF A FIREFIGHTER AND ARCHITECT 

Oesterr Feuenvehr; 30(12):225-226, 228-229, 1976 (German) 

This paper was presented at a seminar of the Isavolta 
Company. It deals with the status of preventive fire pro- 
tection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The 
legal background consists of a set of 1,187 laws, or- 
dinances and codes (compiled in eight volumes published 
by the Association for the Advancement of Fire Protection 
in Germany (VFDB)). But the increasing fire loss figures 
show that there are still many shortcomings, such as lack 
of uniformity within the FRG owing to the federative 
system, deficient fire-protection research and public edu- 
cation in many western industrial countries. The author 
takes advantage of this seminar to disclose his views on 
the "Thermax fire-protection panel" being manufactured 
by the company that sponsored the seminar. Suggestions 
are made as to how preventive fire protection on the 
national and international levels can be made more effec- 
tive. 2 figs. (Fachdok 13/0322) 

2041 . Spiegelhalter F 

GUIDE TO DESIGN OF CAVITY BARRIERS AND FIRE 
STOPS. Fire Res Sta (UK), John Laing Res and Dev Ltd. 
Borehamwood, Hertfordshire; BRE CP-7-77, 24 pages, 14 
tigs, 16 plates, Feb 197 7 

Consequent to a number of fire incidents in which the 
spread of fire was apparently assisted by the presence 
of cavities within structural elements and roof spaces, 
the Building Regulations 1976 introduced a requirement 
for the provision of cavity barriers. Architects and 
designers do not at present have a great deal of informa- 
tion on the availability of suitable materials and the 
methods of design. In order to be able to provide a techni- 
cal base, John Laing Research and Development Ltd was 
asked to undertake an extramural investigation of the 
practical problems involved in choosing appropriate 
materials and to consider the methods of fabricating and 
erecting cavity barriers in a number of typical building 
situations. The present publication is the outcome of this 
activity and includes additional information on fire stops, 
as well. It is not to be regarded as a set of solutions 
that have a "deemed to satisfy" status, but mainly as 
a starting point for the initial design. The work was carried 
out under contract to the Fire Research Station, to whom 
all queries arising from this paper should be addressed. 
(Author) 

b. DETECTION AND ALARM EQUIPMENT 

2042. Drax H (Ed) 

HOW RELIABLE ARE AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM 
SYSTEMS — CONCLUSIONS FROM AN ANALYSIS OF 
FALSE ALARMS IN THE BREMEN CONTAINER TER- 
MINAL 

Bremen Professional Fire Dept, FRG; 64 pages, 1976 
(German) 

The report begins with a general review of the different 
kinds of fire detectors. The use and operating principle 



of fire detectors, as well as some observations on false 
alarms, are briefly outlined, followed by a discussion of 
the tasks of fire-alarm centers. The premises to be ex- 
amined are described to the extent necessary for an un- 
derstanding of the report. The records of the Bremen 
Professional Fire Department (FRG) are used to analyze 
the false alarms. The pros and cons of a number of causes 
of false alarms and corrective measures are given. An 
attempt is made to find solutions to eliminate false alarms 
in the premises being considered. 35 figs. 3 tables. 11 
refs. (Fachdok 13/0340) 

2043. Schaffernak AF 

MODULAR CONTROL STATION TECHNOLOGY FOR 
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

Elektro Anz: 29(6);5 pages (special issue). 1976 (German) 

Modern fire alarm systems that are designed to provide 
extensive protection of human life and property have very 
complex control functions to solve and require the initia- 
tion of alarm signals in special types of plants. Four prin- 
cipal tasks are imposed on a modern control station; 1 ) 
reliable evaluation of detector signals; 2) measures to en- 
sure life and property safety; 3) actuation of the extin- 
guishing system and associated steps; and 4) monitoring 
of the operation of the extinguishing system and sub- 
sequent actions. A novel design meets these requirements 
by applying the most modern switching techniques. Four 
basic modules (linear, indication, standby current supervi- 
sion, and short-circuit monitoring) with specific fire alarm 
functions are combined with an electronic control system 
containing over 40 different components that assumes the 
signal processing functions. 8 figs. 6 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0393) 

2044. Eicker H 

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CH 4 AND CO MEASURE- 
MENT INSTRUMENTS 

Glueckauf: 1 12(20):1 162-1 163. 1976 (German) 

Remote-sensing, intrinsically safe, fixed CH4 measuring 
instruments based on infrared methane absorption and 
multiple measuring devices with intrinsically safe pickups 
based on the he at-of -reaction measurement principle are 
presently being developed by the Mining Research Com- 
pany of the FRG (Bergbau Forschung GmbH). Portable 
CH4 indicators based on the heat-of-reaction principle 
(indicator range of 0-2.5% CH4) are undergoing qualifica- 
tion tests (Auergesellschaft and Draegerwerk). A new 
hand-held CH4 indicator of the Auergesellschaft (indicator 
range of 0-100% CH4) based on the heat-of-reaction princi- 
ple has already been licensed. A device with an electro- 
chemical analyzer is being developed by the AEG to moni- 
tor the CO content. The so-called metal-oxide detectors, 
whose electrical conductivity changes as a function of 
the CO content of the mine damp, can also be considered 
as additional primary elements for the construction of 
CO measurement devices. 5 refs. (Fachdok 13/0171) 

2045. KovaLchuk VI, Bushuev VV and Dubin GM 
REMOTE AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF MINE DAMP 
SAMPLES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE OF FIRE AREAS 
USING COMPOUND PIPE SYSTEMS 

Gorn elektromekh i auiomaiika. Resp mezhved temat 
nauch-tekhn sb: (28):41-43, 1976 (Russian) 



378 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

The conditions of automatic extraction of mine-damp 
samples in emergency situations using the UE-1 ejector 
system are examined. A method of engineering calculation 
of compound piping systems is described, and an analysis 
is made of the results. 1 fig, 2 tables, 5 refs. (RZh) 

2046. Al'perovich VYa, Koshovskiy BI and Zaborskaya 
AN 

CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ETHYLENE AND 
ACETYLYNE MICRO-ADMIXTURES IN FIRE GASES 

Gornospasat delo; (13):21-24, 1976 (Russian) 

The gas circuit of a chromatograph with multiple con- 
centration of the sample is proposed, along with a method 
of analyzing ethylene and acetylene, which are indicator 
gases in incipient endogenous fires. (RZh) 

2047. Anon 

AIR SAMPLING DETECTOR SNIFFS OUT FIRES IN UN- 
MANNED AREAS 

Iron Steel Eng; 53(6):69, 1976 

The measures taken by a rolling mill management to 
protect unattended machines operating over wide areas 
are described. The prime measure taken was to introduce 
the Kidde Atmo and ionization detection systems, the 
operating principles and performance of which are 
discussed. 2 figs. 

2048. Heskestad G 

ESCAPE POTENTIALS FROM APARTMENTS PRO- 
TECTED BY FIRE DETECTORS IN HIGHRISE 
BUILDINGS 

Kasai; 26(l):66-68, 1976 (Japanese) 

The electric circuit, structure, characteristics and operat- 
ing principle of an all-purpose fixed fire protection system, 
which was developed in 1975 and has been proposed for 
mass production, are described. The system is multi-func- 
tional and serves the following purposes: automatic main- 
tenance of temperature in a premise by means of a heat 
regulator: air conditioning; intake-exhaust ventilation; fire 
detection; automatic reporting of the outbreak of fire to 
the municipal fire control center over a low-current 
telephone network; removal of the smoke generated during 
a fire; and fire suppression by several automatically actu- 
ated foam extinguishers. The system is designed for 
private apartments and is characterized by relatively low 
cost and low power requirements. A stand for testing 
the system is described and graphic data illustrating its 
operating characteristics under various conditions are 
given. The system includes three types of detectors: heat, 
smoke and photoelectric. 4 figs. (RZh) 

2049. Tato H 
FIRE DETECTORS 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 16(8): 107-129, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design, circuitry, and prin- 
cipal tactical and technical parameters of some new types 
of mass-produced Japanese fire detectors and various 
monitoring and measurement instruments used either inde- 
pendently or in combination with the fire system equip- 
ment. It is pointed out that the latest series of S25C 
fire detectors differs from the preceding versions in the 
broader range of climatic conditions under which they 
can be used: from —30 to +72°C, with a relative humidity 



limit of 98% . Also described is a universal contact ther- 
moregulator with a magnetic head and a working range 
of to 690°C. The indicator contains two main assemblies: 
the fire detector and temperature indicator assemblies, 
and also a compact electromagnetic lead for connection 
to any kind of actuator device or to the control element 
of a system used in conjunction with the given ther- 
moregulator. Overall and installation dimensions are stated 
for all the devices. 26 figs, 11 tables. (RZh) 

2050. Anon 
PHOTOELECTRIC FIRE DETECTOR 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 1 6(7): 1 50- 151, 1976 (Japanese) 

The design, technical specifications, tactical charac- 
teristics, and instructions for the use of a photoelectric 
detector of the NLD-18 model, which reacts to an ionized 
smoke atmosphere and is designed for operation either 
in conjunction with complex automatic fire detection and 
extinguishing systems or independently, are described. 
The main component of the detector is a sensitive silicon 
photodiode with a near-linear characteristic. The distinc- 
tive feature of the detector is its comparatively small size 
(109 mm diameter, 60 mm height; 240 g weight). The 
allowable ambient temperature range is —10 to 50°C. 
Power is from an 18-V d-c net. In the duty mode the 
detector does not require more than 100 mA current. It 
is designed for operation in a network made up of several 
such series-connected detectors. For this purpose the de- 
tector circuit provides for 4-lead connection to the net; 
2 leads for connection to the input of the receiver which 
initiates the visual and acoustic alarm when the current 
amplitude on the detector circuit rises, and 2 leads for 
connection to the next detector. The installation and ad- 
justment methods are described in detail. 4 figs, 1 table. 
(RZh) 

2051. Anon 

THE NID-480 SMOKE DETECTOR 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 16(7): 143-1 49, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design and operating princi- 
ple of the Japanese NID-480 smoke detector and of its 
tactical characteristics and technical specifications, as well 
as of the results of laboratory tests. The detector is 120 
mm in diameter, 55 mm in height, and weighs 150 g. 
It reacts to ionization of the atmosphere of an enclosure 
in which it is installed, changing the output control voltage 
in the range of 14.5 to 35 V. The detector is supplied 
from a primary or secondary (rectifier) d-c source (+24V) 
with maximum current in the supply circuit of 100 mA. 
The operating temperature range is -10 to +50°C. The 
detector is designed for operation in conjunction with a 
broad range of fire-protection equipment and applications, 
from private apartments to complex automatic fire detec- 
tion and extinguishing systems used in office and public 
buildings and in large industrial plants of various branches 
of industry. The laboratory test stand on which the operat- 
ing parameters were tested is described. 8 figs, 3 tables. 
(RZh) 

2052. Anon 

NEW SHIP FIRE ALARM SYSTEM FROM UME 
MARINE 

New ShipsjNeubauten; 21(7/8): 167-168, 1976 (German) 



379 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

The KBAR 600 fire alarm central from UME MARINE 
(FRG) is a modern, fully electronic system. The individual 
loop modules are provided with signals for interruptions 
and alarms. The central is suitable for any language by 
using symbols. In order to monitor the loop modules as 
well as the associated signal and alarm units, a separate 
test sector has been included that can simulate every 
operating and error state for each individual loop. To 
be used with this central is the new KEA 2023 ionization 
detector, which, in contrast to earlier detectors, operates 
with 20-24 d-c voltage and indicates operating status by 
means of a luminous diode. 2 figs. 

2053. Anon 

THE "SIGMAGUARD" FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OF BBC- 
TOTAL 

New ShipslNeubauten; 21(7/8):168-169, 1976 (German) 

The technological potential of the Brown-Boveri Com- 
pany (BBC) in the electronics field has been combined 
with the fire-protection expertise of TOTAL Foerstner 
and Co (FRG) to produce the new Sigmaguard ship fire 
alarm system. The Sigmaguard is a modern modular 
system for the construction of automatic fire-alarm 
systems. It consists of the central, the detectors and the 
signal devices. The numerous supervisory and signal tasks 
are concentrated in only four components: linear, optical 
signal control, closed-circuit supervision, and ground- 
leakage supervision. The components are connected with 
a bus-bar system to which information is transmitted or 
from which information is received. 1 fig. 

2054. Ishikawa M 

ALARM DEVICE FOR THE PREVENTION OF FIRES 
RESULTING FROM THE LEAKAGE OF ELECTRICITY 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 63(7): 109-1 14, 1976 (Japanese) 

Described are the design, electrical circuit and operating 
principle of several versions of automatic alarms installed 
in various high- voltage industrial equipment, as well as 
in electrical power lines of industrial and residential com- 
munication systems designed for the detection of a fire 
hazard as a result of the leakage of electricity exceeding 
a certain predetermined threshold value. The circuit and 
tuning of these devices provide for two current-leakage 
threshold values: when the first value is exceeded, the 
circuit automatically generates a signal indicating an emer- 
gency situation, which is indicated on the control panel 
serviced by an operator; when the second value is ex- 
ceeded, the circuit automatically disconnects the high volt- 
age in the faulty portion of the communications system. 
The action of all the versions considered here is based 
on constant measurement of the resistance of the insula- 
tion. The measurement circuit contains a current generator 
and a magnetoelectric ratiometer with two coils, one con- 
nected as an ammeter, the other as a voltimeter between 
the section of insulation being monitored and the probe. 
The magnitude of the leakage current is measured against 
the resistance of the insulation, the permissible value of 
which is 0.5-1 megohm in all versions. 6 figs, 2 tables. 
(RZh) 

2055. Miyaki H and Ito T 

SAFETY MEASURES IN PLANTS. UNINTERRUPTED 
MONITORING TO ENSURE SAFETY 

Puranto Enjinia: 8(7):33-38, 1976 (Japanese) 



A detailed description is given of remote monitoring 
of the surface temperature of fire-hazardous objects using 
infrared devices. The OS-1 infrared monitor consists of 
a specular objective camera mounted on a tripod, a con- 
trol panel, and a vacuum pump. The infrared image of 
the object under observation is projected by the specular 
objective onto a membrane located in a vacuum cell. The 
image can be observed through an ocular system and can 
be photographed at the same time. The instrument is capa- 
ble of detecting a 0.5°C temperature differential on the 
object against a background of ambient room temperature. 
At a temperature difference of 10-20°C on the surface 
of the object the resolution is 10-15 graduations per mm. 
The time required to obtain an image is 10-20 sec. The 
instrument contains two small models of an absolute black 
body with regulatable temperature. The image of the 
openings of the black body cavities is projected by the 
infrared objective onto the surface of the membrane, mak- 
ing it possible to compare the infrared radiation of the 
object with the black-body radiation and thus to determine 
the radiation intensity of the object being monitored. The 
temperature distribution over the surface of the object 
can be determined with a high degree of accuracy from 
photographs obtained with the OS-1 instrument. It is 
emphasized that the fire safety of many processes can 
be increased appreciably with heat-sensing infrared instru- 
ments. 11 figs, 4 tables. (RZh) 

2056. Simon FN and Axmark RE 

SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS IN IONIZATION TYPE PAR- 
TICULATE DETECTORS 

Rev Sci Instrum; 48(2):122-126, 1977 

The response to particulates of an ionization chamber 
with adjacent unipolar and bipolar zones is analyzed. 
Values of reduced ion mobility from particulate charging 
in the unipolar zone and the resulting increase in surface 
recombination in the bipolar zone are determined from 
experimental data. A solution of the general field equation 
as a function of distance in parallel plate geometry is 
plotted. The current-voltage characteristics from the 
general equation is compared with that from the simpler 
vacuum field approximation for bipolar volumes. The 
close agreement warrants general use of the vacuum field 
in ionization chambers for the small operating current den- 
sities employed in these detectors. 8 figs, 3 refs. (Author) 

2057. Humphrey R 
DETECTING FIRE ON BOARD 

Safety Sea Internal; (89):29-30. 32, 1976 

The trend of increasing ship size and diminishing crew 
population makes it highly desirable not only to fulfill 
but to exceed the minimum statutory detection require- 
ments. The special difficulties in ship installations, such 
as forced ventilation, the presence of obstructions, and 
ship vibration and movement, are discussed, along with 
the environmental test requirements for detectors 
(vibration, corrosion, impact, shock, and low ambient tem- 
perature). The main detection systems, including heat, op- 
tical, ionization, and radiation sensing detectors, are 
described, as are their control equipment and new 
developments in fire protection, in particular the Beam 
Master (laser) detection system and an improved sampling 
system. 



380 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 



YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMOR- 



2058. MeiL E 
FIRE DETECTION 
ROW 

Schadenprisrna; 6(l):l-3, 1977 (German) 

This paper, which was given at the 7th International 
Seminar on Problems of Automatic Fire Detection in 
Aachen, is devoted to the development of automatic fire 
detection from its beginnings, ie, from thermomaximum 
to rate-of-rise to smoke detectors. The problem of spuri- 
ous alarms (environmental influences), which arose with 
the introduction of highly sensitive detectors, as well as 
false alarms triggered by system malfunctions, are the 
subject of present developmental efforts. Spurious alarms 
can be eliminated at the present time by human interven- 
tion in the alarm loop. In future designs, more 
"intelligent" detectors with the capability of analyzing 
fire characteristics, wireless systems for transmissions 
technology, and the introduction of microprocessors or 
minicomputers for control stations are conceivable. 
(Fachdok 13/0433) 

2059. Schmalor G 

TESTING FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

Schadenprisrna; 5(4):71-75, 1976 (German) 

Almost all the known fire alarm systems were tested 
in about seven years of experience and the principal short- 
comings detected during this period are listed. Since the 
manufacturers of fire alarms and fire-alarm systems are, 
by preference, familiar only with their own devices and 
systems, this survey of shortcomings makes it possible 
for them, to a certain extent, to make use of the ex- 
perience gained by a third party. Recommended are 
system tests at a testing laboratory that is recognized 
by the Federal Minister for Labor and Social Order, 
because systems and devices that bear the Technical Con- 
trol Service test label show that they are safe in every 
respect, that is, that they do not endanger the consumer, 
that they transmit signals reliably, and that their technical 
maintenance is simple. 1 fig, 1 table. (Fachdok 13/0310) 

2060. Hoshiya S and Kita H 
FIRE DETECTORS 

Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo; 33(5):185-186, 1976 
(Japanese) 

Considered in this article are the results of experiments 
to detect fire in rolling stock by means of heat and smoke 
detectors. The smoke detector is actuated by igniting 20 
sheets of newspaper in a sleeper car. In the middle of 
the sleeper car (where the fire was set) the fire was de- 
tected in 1 min 44 sec, in 3 min 23 sec at the exit doors, 
and in 4 min 39 sec near the restroom. The heat detectors 
were not triggered in this version of the experiments. 
In an experiment with a fire source consisting of 20 sheets 
of newspaper and 20 ml of alcohol the smoke detector 
was triggered. The presence of a fire in the middle of 
the car was detected in 57 sec, in 1 min 9 sec at the 
exits, and in 1 min 26 sec near the restroom. A heat 
detector, operating on the rate-of-rise principle, detected 
the fire in 29 sec, 1 min 8 sec, and 44 sec, resp. A 
heat detector operating on the temperature measurement 
principle detected the fire in 1 min 10 sec, 5 min 37 
sec, and 5 min 45 sec, resp. These experiments confirmed 
that fire detectors used in other areas are suitable for 
the detection of fires in rolling stock also. 2 tables. (RZh) 



2061 . Fsser R 

MOBILE FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

Werkfeuerverband eV. Rundschreiben; (95):12-16, 1977 
(German) 

It is not economically feasible to equip every single 
enclosed area in a large industrial complex with fire detec- 
tors or even fixed installations. But there are times when 
these areas are temporarily exposed to increased fire 
hazards, eg, during welding work. Legal regulations 
require greater care to be taken with regard to fire hazards 
in such cases, especially after the completion of welding 
work. Here there are many gaps in safety practices that 
could be filled with mobile fire detection systems. Four 
practical examples reveal other instances of temporary 
fire hazards. (Fachdok 13/0507) 

2062. Ibach fnu 

AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

Werkfeuerverband eV. Rundschreiben; (95):4-ll. 1977 
(German) 

The conversion of materials and energy that takes place 
in every fire yields various fire characteristics. The task 
of the detectors of an effective fire alarm system is to 
detect a certain fire characteristic at the earliest possible 
moment and with the greatest selectivity. The tasks and 
operating methods of detectors are explained. The type 
of detector to be installed and the performance expected 
of it are determined by a fire hazard analysis of the 
factors (1) flammability, fire load, fire spread hazard, and 
smoke generation (ie, nature of the fire); (2) destructible- 
ness and value level (ie, property damage); and (3) hazards 
to human life (ie, personal damage). The question of 
which type of fire protection system is most expedient 
is discussed, whether automatic extinguishing system or 
fire alarm system, as a function of the time required 
for intervention. (Fachdok 13/0459) 

2063. Bems C and Podany VO 
SMOKE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,980,997; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 17 Jul 1974, Disci. 14 Sep 1976. Assignee: General 
Signal Corp, Stamford, CT 

A smoke detection apparatus including a pair of 
photoelectric cells that receive illumination selectively 
from a very low level light source is disclosed. One of 
the cells is termed the "direct" cell because it is in the 
direct path or on the axis of a narrow conical beam of 
light emanating from the source, the other cell being 
termed the "reflected" cell because it receives a signifi- 
cant part of its light input upon reflection of light from 
smoke particles or the like as such particles are drawn 
into the path of the light beam. Under predetermined 
smoke conditions, ie, when there is smoke obscuration 
of the light of 2% per ft (.01 optical density), an alarm 
signal is triggered. The very low level light source is a 
light-emitting diode that sensitively monitors the smoke 
obscuration; only a slight change in the illumination to 
the pair of photocells, connected in a sensing circuit, is 
required to produce the triggering signal. Accordingly, the 
smoke detection apparatus is highly sensitive to the 
presence of either so-called "white" smoke or "black," 
ie, non-reflective smoke, and either or both will trigger 
the alarm signal. 14 claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 



381 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

2064. Cinzori RJ 

DUAL SPECTRUM INFRARED FIRE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,931,521; CI 250/339, (G01J 1/00), Appl 
29 Jun 1973, Disci. 6 Jan 1976, Assignee: Hughes Aircraft 
Co, Culver City, CA 

Disclosed is a fire and explosion detection system 
wherein long-wavelength radiant-energy responsive signals 
are processed in one channel and compared to short- 
wavelength radiant-energy responsive signals that are 
processed in a second channel. When these signals are 
coincident in response to a fire or explosion of a predeter- 
mined threshold magnitude, an output fire suppression 
signal is generated. 19 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 




2065. Conforti FJ and Mensing CE 
WARNING DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,932,850; CI 340/237, (G08B 17/10), Appl 
22 Jan 1975, Disci. 13 Jan 1976, Assignee: Pittway Corp, 
Northbrook, IL 

An improved warning device having means for sensing 
or detecting a predetermined danger or phenomenon has 
a compensation circuit for the sensing means, including 
compensating means connected to the sensing means, am- 
plifier means connected to the junction of the sensing 
and compensating means, and a feedback circuit con- 
nected to the output of the amplifier means and the input 
of the compensating means for maintaining the output 
voltage of the amplifier means substantially constant 
despite slowly occurring changes in the voltage drop 
across the sensing means. Means, such as a resistance- 
capacitance network, is provided in the feedback circuit 
for rendering the amplifier means nonresponsive to slowly 
occurring changes in the voltage drop across the sensing 
means and for maintaining the amplifier means responsive 
to rapidly occurring changes in the voltage drop across 
the sensing means, as occurs in the presence of the danger 
or phenomenon to be detected. 14 claims, 1 drawing fig. 
(Author) 

2066. Davies JS 

ELECTRICALLY ENERGIZED FIRE AND/OR INTRU- 
SION DETECTION SYSTEM INCLUDING SPRING- 
BIASED SWITCHING MEANS 

US Patent No. 3,950,746; CI 340/420, (G08B 13/12), Appl 
17 Sep 1970, Disci. 13 Apr 1976 

An electrically energized fire and/or intrusion detection 
system is provided that includes an elongated electrically 
energized heat-sensing element, and which also includes 
a plurality of spring-biased switching devices mechanically 



coupled to the heat-sensing element to respond to tension 
variations therein to provide predetermined control ef- 
fects, such as initiating alarms and/or activating ap- 
propriate fire suppression devices. 6 claims, 9 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




2067. Dobrzanski J and Hart EV 

IONIZATION SMOKE DETECTOR AND ALARM 

SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 3,934,145; CI 250/381, (G01T 1/18), Appl 
25 Oct 1973, Disci. 20 Jan 1976, Assignee: Emhart Corp, 
Farmington, CT 

An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to re- 
sidential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated 
and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm cir- 
cuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a 
perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which 
an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to 
generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other 
similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating 
alarm signal when smoke levels above a predetermined 
value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low- 
voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the 
end of useful battery life is approaching. 13 claims, 7 
drawing figs. (Author) 

66 .20 




2068. Greenspan M and Friedman A 
SELF-SUSTAINING ALARM TRANSMITTER DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,980,996; CI 340/224, (G08B 21/00), Appl 
12 Sep 1973, Disci. 14 Sep 1976 

An alarm transmitter device includes a storage element 
that stores electrical charge and that energizes an output 
transmitting circuit upon the occurrence of an alarm condi- 



382 



!3" 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

tion. To maintain the storage element at full charge or 
in ready standby mode, a trickle charging circuit is pro- 
vided that includes an energy conversion device for con- 
verting solar energy, broadcast electromagnetic energy, 
heat energy or the like into an electrical current suitable 
for trickle charging the storage element. After the storage 
element is substantially discharged, subsequent to an oc- 
currence of an alarm condition, a battery or other source 
of electrical energy is connectable to terminals connected 
to the storage element for initially rapidly recharging the 
storage element to the fully charged state. 9 claims, 2 
drawing figs. (Author) 




2069. Griggs EA 

TEMPERATURE CHANGE SENSING DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,952,692; CI 116/102, (G08B 7/02), Appl 
30 Jul 1975, Disci. 27 Apr 1976 

This invention relates to sensing devices to be used 
in the manufacture of fire alarms and the like. The tem- 
perature-change-sensing device is adapted to be used in 
conjunction with an audible or visual warning device, 
comprising a temperature-sensitive means for rotating a 
first disc, having disposed about its surface at least one 
of a first cooperative coupling means. These first coopera- 
tive coupling means coincide with a second cooperative 
coupling means located on a second disc. When the am- 
bient temperature reaches the preset temperature of the 
sensing device, the temperature-sensitive means rotates 
the first disc such that the first cooperative coupling 
means aligns with the second cooperative coupling means 
on the second disc. The second disc is then thrust toward 
the first disc by a biasing means, which has attached 
to it a means for tripping a visual or audible warning 
device. 10 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 

2070. Malinowski WJ 

LIGHT DETECTOR WITH PULSED LIGHT SOURCE 
AND SYNCHRONOUS DATA GATING 

US Patent No. 3,946,241; CI 250/574, (G01N 21/26), Appl 
14 Apr 1975, Disci. 23 Mar 1976, Assignee: Pyrotector, 
Inc, Hingham, MA 

There is disclosed a detector of the type utilizing photo- 
electric detection of reflected light, which is almost 
completely immune to false alarms from changing ambient 
light and random electrical noise, with a sensitivity that 
is independent of ambient light, with a power consumption 
low enough to permit battery operation for a period of 
over 12 months. The light source is a light-emitting diode 



that is pulsed at a low repetition rate, such as one pulse 
every two seconds, by an extremely short pulse, such 
as 20 microseconds. Voltage pulses generated when the 
reflected pulsed light is received by the photo-generative 
cell are amplified and applied to a level detector, the 
output of which is applied to the "set" terminal of a 
flip-flop circuit. The amplifier is on continuously; how- 
ever, the level detector is pulsed to the "on" condition 
simultaneously with the on pulse to the light-emitting 
diode, and for the same period of time. Simultaneously 
with the application of the pulse to the light-emitting diode 
and the level detector, a shorter pulse is applied to a 
bi-stable switching device such as to the "re-set" terminal 
of the flip-flop circuit. The output of the flip-flop circuit 
may be applied through an integrator to an alarm-energiz- 
ing switch. The integrator has a time constant that is 
longer than the pulse time, so that more than a single 
pulse from the flip-flop must be applied thereto to activate 
the alarm-energizing switch. The photo-voltaic cell is 
capacitor-coupled to the amplifier, so that constant or 
changing light, having a rate of change below that to 
which the amplifier responds, cannot affect the amplifier 
to cause a false alarm. Since the level detector is on 
only about 1/100,000 of the total time, a false alarm can 
be caused only by an extremely fast change in ambient 
light or a random noise pulse that occurs at the exact 
instant the level detector is on, in two consecutive pulse 
times. 8 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 

2071. McMillian LS and Frohwein GE 

RATE-OF-CHANGE COMBUSTION AND CONTAMINA- 
TION DETECTION DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,946,374; CI 340/237, (G08B 17/10), Appl 
13 Dec 1973, Disci. 23 Mar 1976, Assignee: SCI Systs, 
Inc, Huntsville, AL 

Described is an ionization-type gas contamination detec- 
tor, intended primarily for use as a fire detector, in which 
a substance emitting predominantly low-energy beta parti- 
cles is used as an ionizing radiation source in an ionizing 
chamber. Rapid changes in ionization current, which in- 
dicate the presence of a fire or smoke preceding a fire, 
are detected and an alarm is energized by a rate-of-change 
circuit in response to such changes. The output of the 
ionization chamber is amplified, and a level detector ener- 
gizes the alarm when the amplified chamber output 
reaches a predetermined level. The output of the amplifier 
is adjusted relatively slowly to a reference level. In one 
embodiment, the amplifier output is adjusted to the 
reference level by the activation of a sample-and-hold 
feedback loop for a short period of time. In another em- 
bodiment, continuous feedback through a circuit with a 
relatively long time constant provides the desired adjust- 
ment. This feature makes the device relatively insensitive 
to normal atmospheric and environmental changes, while 
being very sensitive to changes in the level of combustion 
products in the atmosphere. 11 claims, 10 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

2072. Newington TJ and Swanepoel LP 
FIRE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,980,928; CI 317/10, (H02H 3/16), Appl 

22 Jul 1974, Disci. 14 Sep 1976, Priority: South Africa, 

23 Jul 1973, 73/4995 



383 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

The fire detector is of the type including a smoke 
chamber and a grid supported in the chamber on an insu- 
lating element. In order to prevent the flow of leakage 
currents from the grid to the body of the chamber, an 
electrically conductive element is arranged around the in- 
sulating element in circumferential contact therewith. The 
electrically conductive element is arranged to be at the 
same potential as the grid, so that no leakage currents 
are able to flow from the grid to the body of the chamber. 
1 claim, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

2073. Nishino S 

EMERGENCY ALARM AND EVACUATION SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 3,969,720; CI 340/371, (G08B 7/00), Appl 
18 Jul 1975, Disci. 13 Jul 1976, Priority: Japan, Patent 
No 49-86322, 26 Jul 1974 

An emergency alarm and evacuation system for directing 
persons to an emergency exit is disclosed. The system 
includes an alarm, a plurality of indicator units arranged 
in a line toward the emergency exit, and an operating 
unit coupled to the alarm and being operable in response 
to an output signal from the alarm to successively energize 
the indicator units in the direction of the exit. The indica- 
tor units each have a light and a buzzer so as to generate 
both an audible and visual indication at a common point, 
whereby persons may be guided by the sounds, the visual 
indications, or both, depending upon the smoke or noise 
conditions. 9 claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 



2074. Vasquez T 
ALARM SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 3,980,995; CI 340/213 R, 
Appl 17 Dec 1974, Disci. 14 Sep 1976 



(G08B 19/00), 



Herein disclosed is a closed circuit alarm system com- 
prising a number of alarm detectors, which system com- 
prises an amplifier coupled through condensers to a first 
alarm relay and which is further coupled to a second 
relay, the arrangement being such that when an electrical 
signal is generated in the first relay, in response to the 
bridging of any of the alarm detectors, such electrical 
signal is amplified and applied to such second relay, 
thereby producing by said second relay an electrical signal 
that is applied to the first relay, which then operates 
for putting the alarm device in the circuit. The circuit 
alarm detectors, series-connected with the first alarm 
relay, are supplemented with electrical resistance elements 
in such a manner that when the electrical inlet of any 
of the alarm detectors is bridge-connected, an electrical 
resistance element associated therewith is also bridge-con- 
nected, thereby originating an electrical signal that will 
be amplified to operate the alarm device of the alarm 
circuit. 3 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

2075. Dubetskiy VI 

DEVICE FOR DETECTION AND EMERGENCY DISCON- 
NECTION OF A SYSTEM WHEN A CERTAIN TEM- 
PERATURE IS EXCEEDED 

USSR Patent No. 494,755; CI G08B 19/00, Appl 10 Apr 
1974, Disci. 16 Mar 1976 

The potential device contains a heat-sensitive com- 
ponent, a transistor with a resistor in the collector circuit. 
When the transistor temperature increases, its collector 
current increases and the voltage in the collector 



decreases, bringing about a change in the original status 
of the circuit containing a pulse-amplitude converter. Cur- 
rent pulses from the output of the converter enter the 
collector circuit of the system. The device also contains 
a time-delay assembly to reduce the probability of actua- 
tion of the system cutoff circuit upon short-term fluctua- 
tions in temperature. The device is designed for the pro- 
tection of various premises from hazardous overheating 
and fire. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

2076. Jamison WB and Hadi H 

IGNITION SUPPRESSION DEVICE. Consolidation Coal 
Co, Lee Eng Div, McMurray. PA; Bu Mines OFR-129- 
76, 251 pages, Aug 1976 
Availability: NRIS PB-261 292/7GA 

An ignition detection and suppression system was 
developed under the scope of this contract. The objective 
of this machine-mounted system was to detect flames 
caused by frictional sparking from the cutting bits of a 
continuous-mining machine and to suppress it with suffi- 
cient speed to prevent the development of an explosion, 
and to keep the flame from harming the machine operator. 

2077. Cowie G 

TEST PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM 
EQUIPMENT. Fire Res Sta, Borehamwood, UK; Fire Res 

Note 1063, 8 pages, 1 table, 4 refs, Jan 1977 

The results of type approval tests carried out on fire 
detection equipment are outlined, and the defects found 
in the equipment are discussed. Many pieces of equipment 
failed to meet the requirements of the tests. Similar 
failures or deficiencies were found to occur in several 
different types of equipment. 

2078. Anon 

MINE SHAFT FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION 
SYSTEM. VOL 1. DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION 
(FINAL REPORT). FMC Corp, Advanced Products Div; 
Bu Mines OFR-24-77, 407 pages, Jul 1975 
Availability: NTIS PB-263 577/9GA 

After defining the metal mine shaft fire and smoke 
hazard problem, prototype hardware was designed and 
demonstrated through actual fire tests in a shaft/shaft sta- 
tion mockup, then at the 3.000 level of an operating mine 
shaft. The mine shaft fire and smoke protection system 
automatically warns of fire using both thermal and smoke 
fire detectors, then closes smoke doors and turns on sprin- 
klers through remote controls at the surface and at the 
shaft station. (Author) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISKS 

2079. Rines J 

RURAL OUTBUILDINGS CAN BE DEATH TRAPS 

Fire Command; 44(4):26-28. 1977 

Barns and similar buildings can contain numerous 
hazards that are unlikely to be found in any other occu- 
pancy. These buildings rarely comply with even the most 
rudimentary safety codes. Some of the dangers are illus- 
trated in this photo essay. 10 photos. 

2080. Munck J 

PREVENTION OF FIRES IN COMPRESSORS 

Maschinenschade n; 49(4): 159-1 61, 1976 (German) 



384 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRF PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 
c. Fire and Explosion Risks — Continued 

Light is shed in this article on the background of the 
regulations and German industrial standards UVV-VBG 
16, DIN 51352 and DIN 51506 governing the design and 
operation of compressors, the composition and classifica- 
tion of lubricating oils. Users are given tips on how the 
ha/.ards of fires, explosions and detonations in compres- 
sors can be largely eliminated. The author points out that 
the purchase of lubricating oils for a compressor is not 
simply a question of price for the purchasing division, 
but a question which is not subject to modification until 
an exact technical investigation is made. 6 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0365) 

2081 . Singleton DW 

BLAST CLEANING IN INFLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERES 

Oil Colour Chan Assoc J; 59(10):363-368, 1976 (French 
and German Summaries) 

Sparks are generated during the grit blasting of rusted 
steel. First investigated is whether these sparks are capa- 
ble of igniting flammable liquids or gases of the type 
that might be present on the deck of a laden tanker. 
The results indicate that while the sparks produced are 
numerous, they are dull, and on no occasion have they 
ignited flammable gas mixture. A brief literature review 
indicates that other workers have reported similar 
findings. Following this work, a full-scale grit blasting 
trial was carried out at sea on a lubricating-oil tanker. 
Details of this work and the safety procedures followed 
are given. It is concluded that grit blasting can be used 
successfully on board vessels while they are at sea, pro- 
vided all normal safety precautions, and some additional 
ones given in this paper, are taken. 9 figs, 2 tables, 2 
refs. (Author) 

2082. Shebeko V 

FIRE HAZARD OF FOUNDRIES 

Pozhar delo; (12):14, 1976 (Russian) 

A fire occurred in the Zentrolit Foundry (USSR) in 
1974 because of a defect in the ventilation system. The 
subsequent investigation of the automatic production 
system and of the production process uncovered several 
fire hazards and appropriate protective measures were in- 
itiated. The most important protective measures are: 
cleaning the ventilation ducts; adding fire-retarding agents 
to the binder and kerosine; and providing for vents in 
the roof of the production hall. (Fachdok 13/0706) 

2083. Anon 

PROBLEMS OF FIRE PROTECTION OF AIR-SUP- 
PORTED STRUCTURES 

Prom Strait; (8):25-28, 1976 (Russian) 

On the basis of fire tests of air-supported structures 
conducted in a number of countries, including the USSR, 
an examination is made of the features of their fire 
behavior and of fire protection methods. There is some 
question as to overestimating the fire-resistance criteria 
of such structures in view of their specific features of 
overpressure beneath a shell and low mass. 4 figs, 1 table, 
6 refs. (RZh) 



d. FIRE LOADS 

2084. Voirol A 

THE VIEWPOINT OF SWISS FIRE PREVENTION SPE- 
CIALISTS 

Ann Inst Tech Baton Trav Publics; 29(341 ):66-67, 1976 
(French) 

A mathematical method of evaluating the fire hazard 
of various premises based on a fire hazard factor, which 
is determined as a function of several fire hazard indexes 
(combustibility, building dimensions, smoke-generating 
capability, etc), is proposed. A study of the fire hazard 
of urban buildings in terms of total fire load has shown 
that there are no more than 20 different types of re- 
sidential, commercial and administrative buildings and 18 
types of industrial buildings. Depending on the type of 
building, it is possible to determine the fire category to 
which it belongs. Catalogs of the various indexes were 
established, making it possible to calculate the fire hazard 
factor for each category. Special catalogs were developed 
for storage and warehouse areas, where values are given 
for a cubic meter of space. 

2085. Smith EE 

TRANSIT VEHICLE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION 
USING RELEASE RATE TESTS FOR FLA MM ABILITY 
AND SMOKE. PHASE 1 REPORT. Ohio State Univ, Dcpt 
Chem Res, Columbus, OH; IH-5-76-1, 36 pages, Oct 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-262 895/6GA 

The report relates to two of the most important features 
in fire safety design of a transit vehicle's interior finishes 
and furnishings: to allow time for evacuation, and prevent 
a self -propagating fire. Comparative evaluation of fire per- 
formance of a fire system (as contrasted with the evalua- 
tion of the individual materials in the system) are 
discussed in terms of a model in which the interdepen- 
dence of materials and the system are mathematically 
simulated to give an absolute (as compared to compara- 
tive) evaluation of a fire system and to predict what limits 
on loading will prevent fully developed fires in a specific 
situation. (Author) 

e. HEAT AND PRESSURE LOAD EFFECTS ON 

STRUCTURES 

2086. Anon 
POST-TENSIONING MANUAL 

Post-Tensioning Inst, Glenview, IL; 2nd«edit, 300 pages, 
1976 

The manual is intended to increase understanding and 
effective use of the structural, economic, and esthetic 
advantages afforded by post-tensioning. Coverage of appli- 
cations of post-tensioning hardware or systems, post-ten- 
sioning materials and grouting specifications, and design, 
detailing, and construction procedures have been updated 
from the first edition to reflect current practices. Fire 
resistance of post-tensioned structures, with summaries 
of data from 18 standard fire tests, is also included in 
the manual. A new chapter on prestressed rock and soil 
anchors has been added in response to the significant 
growth in this application over the past five years. An 
appendix and section on design aids provide moment coef- 
ficients for continuous structures, aids for calculation of 



385 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

e. Heat and Pressure Load Effects on Structures- 



Continued 



friction losses and anchor setting losses, and materials 
parameters. 

2087. Ellingwood B and Shaver JR 
RELIABILITY OF RC BEAMS SUBJECTED TO FIRE 

ASCE Proc. J Struct Div; 108(ST5):1047-1059. 1977 

Methods for analytically predicting the behavior of rein- 
forced concrete beams subjected to fire are presented. 
These incorporate the temperature-dependent strength 
degradation in the steel, as well as thermal and creep 
strains. The parameters that are important for predicting 
beam behavior are identified through a sensitivity study. 
The application of reliability analysis techniques in 
developing fire-resistant design procedure is also ex- 
amined. Using probabilistic methods, safety factors for 
design can be developed which are commensurate with 
the required reliability and levels of uncertainty arising 
from basic randomness and modeling error. 10 figs, 1 
table, 18 refs. (Author) 

2088. Harmathy TZ 

FIRE RESISTANCE VERSUS FLAME SPREAD RE- 
SISTANCE 

Fire Technol; 12(4):290-302, 330, 1976 

The term "fire resistance" as applied to compartment 
boundaries is actually a measure of their ability to prevent 
the spread of fire by mechanisms implied by the standard 
test procedure. However, fires spread by different 
mechanisms. Compartment boundaries may be exposed 
to fire on both sides, in which case the results of the 
standard fire test do not apply. From an analysis of the 
performance of a common structural element under 
realistic fire conditions, it was concluded that the conven- 
tional concrete-steel structures are likely to function 
satisfactorily in a spreading fire, providing the control 
parameter of the fire is higher than the critical value. 
6 figs, 2 tables, 7 refs. (NFPA) 

2089. Paleev DYu and Feklov AI 

HEAT DISTRIBUTION IN A FOAMED PLASTIC BULK- 
HEAD EXPOSED TO UNDERGROUND FIRE CONDI- 
TIONS 

Izv Vyssch Uchebn Zaved. Gorn Zh; (9):62-67, 1976 
(Russian) 

A mathematical model of heat distribution in a foamed 
plastic bulkhead is given with allowance for endothermic 
decomposition reactions (pyrolysis) of the organic part 
of the foam material. The differential thermal-conductivity 
equation, together with initial and secondary conditions, 
makes it possible to get the temperature distribution at 
any instant in the part of the bulkhead with the greatest 
heat load under various conditions of heat addition to 
the surface of the bulkhead. At the same time it is possi- 
ble to follow the process of thermal decomposition of 
the foam material and to use the data to estimate the 
time over which the bulkhead will retain its insulating 
properties. 3 figs, 7 refs. (RZh) 

2090. Tamura S and Motoyama T 

STUDY OF THE CONDITION OF BRIDGE TRUSSES 
AFTER A FIRE 

Tetsudo Doboku; 18(5):334-338, 1976 (Japanese) 



The causes, circumstances and nature of the develop- 
ment of the highway bridge fire that occurred in July 
1975 on the high-speed Fukuda (Japan) freeway are re- 
ported. The cause of the fire was a collision between 
a bulk-oil trailer truck and an oncoming tracked load- 
construction vehicle. The results of an inspection of the 
bridge structure carried out several days after the fire 
to determine whether and what repairs would be necessary 
to restore the bridge, which was made of unitized rein- 
forced concrete components, are presented. The results 
of the inspection, which are given in graphic and table 
form, contain data on the spatial deformations and excess 
static loads resulting from linear and spatial expansions 
of the structural components of the bridge from the high 
temperatures. 6 figs, 4 tables. (RZh) 

f. PREVENTION AND HAZARD REDUCTION 

2091 . Colombies fnu 

THE POSITION OF FIREMEN IN PREVENTION 

Ann Inst Tech Batun Trav Publics: 29(341 ):53-55. 1976 
(French) 

A member of the Paris Fire Department discusses the 
principles of fire protection of buildings as they apply 
to firemen. On the basis of a fire scenario, it is determined 
that the safety of building occupants depends on a certain 
number of "delays," namely, alarm, evacuation, response, 
and attack. For the fireman, the effective period during 
which firefighting is possible without danger of building 
collapse depends on the response time and the effective- 
ness of preventive measures, especially the fire rating 
of the structure, the latter being the more important. 1 
fig 

2092. DeCicco PR 

WHAT TO DO WITH EXISTING ROW-FRAME RE- 
SIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

Fire J: 70(6):23-29. 69. 1976 

Ignorance of fire hazards among the tenants in crowded 
low-income neighborhoods is equalled by the indifference 
or inability of the landlords to eliminate the hazards. Test 
fires in row frame dwellings in Brooklyn. NY. demon- 
strated the importance of separating individual buildings 
and avoiding vertical penetrations, such as shafts and 
horizontal communications, as found in the common 
cockloft and other concealed spaces. Significant protection 
was offered by aluminum siding against both external and 
internal fires. Early warning detection and alarm devices 
are recommended, as well as "mini" sprinkler devices 
connected to the building water supplv. 11 figs. 6 refs. 
(NFPA) 

2093. Kawaller SI 

EXPOSED PLASTIC FOAM INSULATION REQUIRES 
THERMAL BARRIER PROTECTION 

Fire J; 70(6):66-69. 1976 

Current code philosophy requires the installation of an 
effective thermal barrier over all exposed plastic foam 
installations that would prevent a heat rise on the surface 
of the foam to 250°F and could provide this protection 
for at least 15 minutes. The use of plastic foams is limited 
to those having a flame spread rating between zero and 
75, according to the standard tunnel test. Among accepta- 



386 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction — Continued 

ble barriers are 1/2 in. of portland cement plaster, rein- 
forced with wire mesh, and magnesium oxychloride for- 
mulations. Magnesium oxychloride offers protection 
equivalent to portland cement plasters with the addition 
of only 0.8 pound of weight per square foot. (This article 
is a revised version of an address presented by the author 
at the symposium on "Plastics in Building Construction" 
at a meeting of the American Chemical Society held 
recently in New York City.) (NFPA) 

2094. Vervalin CH 

LOSS PREVENTION IN THE HPI (HYDROCARBON 
PROCESSING INDUSTRY) 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(7):205-206, 208, 211, 214, 216, 
1976 

In a five-part series of articles, the author, a member 
of the Hydrocarbon Processing staff, abstracts a number 
of papers presented at the Loss Prevention Symposium 
held in Kansas City, MO, on April 10-14, 1976, under 
the sponsorship of the American Institute of Chemical 
Engineers. The first part of the series is devoted to the 
paper of TA Kletz of Imperial Chemical Industries, enti- 
tled "Some Accidents that Will Take Place in the Coming 
Year," in which an attempt is made to predict some 
loss-causing situations which will occur in hydrocarbon 
processing plants this year on the basis of a study of 
loss-incident case histories. The typical accident causes 
are identified as tank collapse, breaking into or welding 
a branch on the wrong pipeline, tank slopover, water- 
hammer damage to pipes, trip failure and disconnection 
of a pressurized flex. A detailed case history of a fire 
in a light hydrocarbon plant of the Dow Chemical Com- 
pany's Louisiana Division helps to illustrate how incidents 
might have been prevented. (For the remaining parts of 
the series, see the Source Index, Hydrocarbon Process, 
Vol 55, Nos 8, 9, 10, and 1 1 .) 3 refs. 

2095. Vervalin CH 

LOSS PREVENTION IN THE HPI (HYDROCARBON 
PROCESSING INDUSTRY) 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(8):182-184, 1976 

In this second part of a five-part article devoted to 
abstracts of selected papers presented at the 1976 Loss 
Prevention Symposium, the author abstracts the paper of 
WW Russell of the Monsanto Chemical Company entitled 
"Hazard Control of Plant Process Changes." The hazards 
resulting from plant process changes are illustrated in 
detail with the example of the disposal of a flammable 
gas effluent from a vacuum jet system that must be 
modified to comply with changes in pollution control regu- 
lations. Hazards resulting from changes effected to reduce 
production costs are also cited. The relationships leading 
to such problems are defined, as are some remedial and 
preventive actions. (For the other papers in the series 
consult the Source Index, Hydrocarbon Process, Vol 55, 
Nos 7, 9, 10 and 11.) 1 ref. 

2096. Vervalin CH 

LOSS PREVENTION IN THE HPI (HYDROCARBON 
PROCESSING INDUSTRY) 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(9):321-322, 324, 327-328, 331- 
332, 335, 337, 1976 



Three papers are abstracted in this third part of a 
five-part article devoted to papers presented at the 1976 
Loss Prevention Symposium to illustrate accidents caused 
by process changes and plant modifications in the 
hydrocarbon processing industry, plus some remedial 
methods. The three papers cited in this part are: G Booth, 
"Accidents Caused by Process Changes," dealing with 
three accident case histories relating to heating of nitro 
compounds, nitrations, and sulfonation of nitro com- 
pounds; TA Kletz, "Must Plant Modifications Lead to 
Accidents?," devoted to case histories of accidents result- 
ing from modifications to both process and equipment; 
and PM Herron, "Accidents Caused by Plant Modifica- 
tions," in which remedial steps in control of plant-modifi- 
cation incidents are reported. (For the other papers in 
this series consult the Source Index, Hydrocarbon 
Process, Vol 55, Nos 7, 8, 10 and 11). 1 table. 

2097. Vervalin CH 

LOSS PREVENTION IN THE HPI (HYDROCARBON 
PROCESSING INDUSTRY) 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(10):215-216, 218, 220, 222, 1976 

Remedial technology and procedures are considered in 
the fourth part of this five-part series devoted to papers 
from the 1976 Loss Prevention Symposium. The three 
papers abstracted in this part are as follows: JW Watts, 
"Effects of Water Spray on Unconfined Flammable Gas," 
in which the effects of water curtain tests on the detona- 
tion properties of unconfined ethylene-air and hydrogen- 
air mixtures were measured and the yields of deflagrations 
and detonations were determined; GC Vincent et al, 
"Hydrocarbon Mist Explosion Prevention by Water Fog," 
in which the mist formed by hot vapors of high-boiling- 
point hydrocarbon leaking into cool air and, if sufficiently 
concentrated, capable of deflagrating, is examined; and 
GC Vincent et al, "Hydrocarbon Mist Explosion Preven- 
tion by Explosion Suppression," in which the possibility 
of explosion of heat transfer fluids (in this case Dowtherm 
A) and suppression of the explosion using Halon 1301 
are examined. (For the other papers in the series consult 
the Source Index, Hydrocarbon Process, Vol 55, Nos 7, 
8, 9, and 11)3 refs. 

2098. Vervalin CH 

LOSS PREVENTION IN THE HPI (HYDROCARBON 
PROCESSING INDUSTRY) 

Hydrocarbon Process; 55(1 1):305-306, 1976 

The final part of the five-part series of articles devoted 
to selected papers of the 1976 Loss Prevention Symposium 
deals with safe furnace design and operation. Abstracts 
of the paper of KE Coulter and FC Tuttle on "Modern 
Concepts of Safe Furnace Design and Operation" are 
presented. Guidelines established by Dow Chemical from 
experience gained in the proper design and operation of 
furnaces in the hydrocarbon processing industry are 
discussed. (For the other articles in the series consult 
the Source Index, Hydrocarbon Process, Vol 55, Nos 7, 
8, 9, and 10.) 1 ref. 

2099. Murakami M, Sekijawa A and Hormuti S 
EXPLOSIONS AND FIRES CONNECTED WITH THE 
USE OF LOW-PRESSURE MAINS GAS IN RE- 
SIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

Kasai; 26(1):24-31 , 1976 (Japanese) 



387 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction — Continued 

It is stated that the use of low-pressure mains gas in 
residential buildings complies with the natural potentials 
and economic interests of Japan, in view of the constant 
increase in demand for such gas. At the same time, how- 
ever, a mean annual increase in the number of explosions 
and fires connected with the use of low-pressure gas is 
observed. Statistical data classifying such accidents by 
the various causes are cited. An analysis is made of the 
main problems to be solved if an appreciable increase 
in the safety of domestic use of this gas is to be reached. 
It is noted in particular that 20% of domestic gas ranges 
are not yet equipped with reliable modern automatic safety 
and control devices. Also reported is the development 
of a new type of gas range with built-in burners provided 
with complex automatic safety and control devices. 5 figs, 
21 tables, 2 refs. (RZh) 

2100. Niwa K 

METHODS TO PREVENT THE LEAKAGE OF GAS AND 
OIL 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(7):45-48, 1976 (Japanese) 

The technical devices and organizational and engineering 
measures to prevent the leakage of gas and fire-hazardous 
vapors of the oil-refinery products presently used and 
being introduced in the Japanese petrochemical industry 
are described. Some of the varieties of safety equipment 
for pressurized containers, in particular two types of 
safety valves, spring-actuated and lever, are described, 
as is the use of such valves in plants of the Sekiyu- 
Tsutome complex, where two valves, a working (main) 
valve and a control valve, are used together in many 
production machines. The control safety valve advances 
the product into the closed system. The valves are ad- 
justed in such a way that the control valve is actuated 
first; if it does not reduce pressure to the working level, 
the working valve is actuated. It is pointed out that this 
system of safety valves reduces product losses con- 
siderably and curtails emissions into the atmosphere. 
(RZh) 

g. PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

2101. Dubovik VI (Ed) 

SMOKE PROTECTION OF MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS 

[Protivodymovaya Zashchita Mnogoetazhnykh Zdaniy] 
VNII Protivopozhar Oborony, Moscow, USSR; 72 pages, 
1976 (Russian) 

This digest of papers contains 9 articles on the process 
of heat exchange in the corridor of a fire floor, the optical 
properties of smoke, and the smoke-generating capability 
of construction materials. The experimental setup, a por- 
tion of a highrise building for the study of smoke charging, 
is described. Diagrams of the smoke protection of highrise 
office buildings are given. The digest is intended for fire 
equipment and fire safety engineers, designers and 
architects working in the field of public and residential 
building construction. The nine papers are: Testing Smoke 
Protection, Including Stairwell Pressurization and Smoke 
Removal from a Corridor; Fire Protection of Highrise Of- 
fice Buildings; Model of Floor-to-Floor Heat and Gas 
Transfer During Fires; Experimental Study of Heat and 
Gas Transfer on the Fire Floor of a Residential Building; 
Experimental Study of the Smoke Protection of a Highrise 
Administrative Building; Formula for Calculating the 



Hydraulic Drag of Stairwells; Study of the Parameters 
of Smoke Protection Ventilation Systems on a Model; 
Standardization of the Smoke-Generating Capability of 
Building Materials; and Apparatus for Experimental Mea- 
surement of the Optical Density of Smoke in an Enclo- 
sure. (Author) 



2102. Morgan HP and Bullen ML 

A METHOD OF EXTRACTING SMOKE 

BUILDINGS USING A WATER-AIR JET PUMP 

Fire Technol; 12(4):31 1-320, 1976 



FROM 



Smoke extraction from fires in large structures, such 
as covered shopping complexes, is important for safe 
evacuation. The water-air jet pump can be an effective 
method of removing smoke and hot gases from fire situa- 
tions, especially where the gas temperature prevents a 
fan from being used without special protection. A quan- 
titative theory was developed and tested experimentally 
which predicts reasonably well the performance of a 
water-air jet pump having a high air-water volume ratio. 
High throughput ratio jet pumps have been proposed for 
firedamp extraction from coal mines. A similar system 
is available for removing hot, smoky gases from basement 
fires. 7 figs, 7 refs. (NFPA) 



2103. Wakamatsu T and Tanaka T 

SMOKE CONTROL DESIGNING IN BUILDINGS. 

4 

Kasai, 26(l):37-39, 1976 (Japanese) 



PART 



Given are the basic analytical computations and formu- 
las for the construction of optimal computer algorithms 
used in calculating the fundamental technical parameters 
of smoke-removal ventilation systems in buildings. A table 
of substitution parameters is given to form the required 
algorithm; these parameters take into account the geomet- 
rical features of the occupancies for which the smoke - 
removal systems are being calculated. Also examined are 
three examples of constructing computational algorithms 
for specific premises with fixed geometrical dimensions 
and configurations. The proposed method of constructing 
computational algorithms also takes into account the natu- 
ral aerodynamic features of the premises for which the 
calculation is being made, in particular the intensity and 
distribution of convective air flows. 4 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

2104. Quenzel K-H 

FIRE LOAD AND COMBUSTION VELOCITY AS THE 
BASIS FOR THE DESIGN OF SMOKE AND HEAT 
REMOVAL SYSTEMS 

Klima Kaelteing; 4(10):361-366, 1976 (German; English 
and French Summaries) 

Smoke and heat removal systems are becoming increas- 
ingly an essential component of a building or of ventilating 
systems. A distinction is made between exhaust openings 
provided by the builder in the construction stage and those 
provided by special mechanical equipment. In the case 
of mechanical heat and smoke removal vents it is particu- 
larly necessary to determine the energy released by any 
eventual fire and the increase in temperature of the air 
being removed. Only then is it possible to specify materi- 
als and equipment. An effort is made in this article to 
set up computational data for typical rooms, in order to 
obtain a basis for the design of smoke and heat removal 
systems. 6 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. (Author) 



388 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 

2105. Anon 

AUTOMATIC DOOR OPENER FOR EMERGENCY FIRE 
EXITS 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 16(7):152-154, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design, operating principle, 
and technical parameters of an electromechanical device 
designed for operation in conjunction with a fire detector 
as one component of a complex fire-safety system. The 
fire detector operates in an ambient temperature range 
of -10 to +50°C from a d-c network (24V, 2A). In case 
of fire, the detector initiates a high-amplitude (0.3A) d- 
c control signal, which actuates a relay. Closure of the 
relay contacts supplies power (+24V) to the winding of 
an electromagnetic solenoid, resulting in longitudinal dis- 
placement of the solenoid core, which is electromechani- 
cally connected to the follower lever of the door. The 
electrical circuitry of the system is devised for series con- 
nection of an unlimited number of analogous devices, so 
that in case of fire the doors of emergency exits equipped 
with these devices automatically swing open. The follower 
lever develops a force of 20-25 kg (for 0.2 sec). The 
overall dimensions of the device (together with the fire 
detector unit) are 200 x 144 x 62 mm; the weight is 500 
g. The sequence of operations for installation and regula- 
tion of the device is described. 3 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

2106. Westhoff W 

FIRE PROTECTION CLOSURES 

Mitt Inst Bautech; 7(6):161-176, 1976 (German) 

The use of fire-protection closures has increased ap- 
preciably in the last few years since the regulation agen- 
cies have become aware of their importance in fire com- 
partmentation. Several requirements must be imposed on 
doors and gates of varying design in order to guarantee 
their performance as fire closures. These requirements 
have been formulated in the standards and building- 
authority licenses, which are the subject of this article. 
The guidelines for licensing fire-protection closures are 
reproduced in the regulative portion of the article (second 
version, the September 1976 draft). Also given is a com- 
pilation of the building-authority licenses for fire-protec- 
tion closures that are of quality-certified (controlled) fabri- 
cation. 7 refs (Fachdok 13/0319) 

2107. Anon 

CHOOSING PROPER FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

Mod Plant Oper Maint\ 16(4):27-31, 1976 

The production program and custom services of Walter 
Kidde and Company, the major manufacturer and installer 
of fire detection and fire protection systems, are 
presented. 5 photos. 

2108. Hayashi T, Shibata M, Yamaguchi H, Sakurai H 
and Kanehara K 

RESEARCH ON AN AIR SHUTTER FOR FIRE PROTEC- 
TION. PART 1 

Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu; 25(1/2): 1-1 5, 1975 
(Japanese; English Summary) 

The results of analytical studies to determine the 
theoretical potential and optimal structure of all possible 
systems of forced air-flow control, particularly ventilation 
and convective flows, in buildings of complex configura- 
tion are presented. The design, operating principle, and 



technical potentials of several versions of such systems 
being used in Japan and other countries, based, as a rule. 
on automatic damping of air flows in case of fire, are 
examined. Computational formulas establishing optimal 
relations between such control system parameters as con- 
figuration and volume of the premises being serviced, 
capacity and throughput of the air-handling system, the 
speed and intensity of natural convective air flows, etc, 
are given. A detailed aerodynamic analysis is made of 
forced and convective flows for several variants of typical 
premises and buildings. On the basis of the analysis 
recommendations are made in optimizing the design and 
basic technical parameters of air-flow control systems 
operating as a composite part of the fire -detection system 
of these premises and buildings. The computational results 
are presented in graph form. 20 figs, 23 refs. (RZh) 

2109. Ammosov F, Dubovik VI, Karpov L and 
Stetsovskiy M 

FIRE TESTS OF STAIRWELLS 

Pozhar delo; (12);23-24, 1976 (Russian) 

The Fire Protection Division of the Yakutsk ASSR and 
the All-Union Fire Protection Research Institute of the 
USSR conducted a program of full-scale fire tests in a 
four-story residential building to study smoke propagation 
paths, the temperature conditions in a burning enclosure 
and stairwell, and also the possibilities of evacuating peo- 
ple under conditions of uninhibited fire development and 
of stairwell press urization. The temperatures in the first- 
floor fire room and the stairwell were measured with win- 
dows, doors and roof vents open and closed, in various 
combinations, and with stairwell pressurization by smoke- 
removal fans. Test conditions and results are reported 
in detail. The stairwell pressurization method of smoke 
removal was judged to be ineffective. It is recommended 
that natural ventilation ducts for smoke removal from the 
upper portion of the stairwell with 1 .2 m 2 automatically 
opening louvers and ventilation louvers automatically actu- 
ated by smoke detectors in the basement be installed to 
protect this type of building. 2 figs. 

2110. Edwards A 

FIRE PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS 

Prot Civ Secur lnd\ (253):16-17, 1976 (French) 

Some of the types of fire-protection equipment produced 
by British industry are described, such as small fire alarm 
systems for hotels, stores and factory buildings, a minia- 
ture fire siren working on 6, 12, 24 or 200/250V, and 
a 113,500 liter water container made of a composite 
material using glass fiber. 2 figs. 

2111. Fukuda T, Kousaka H and Mitsuda T 
EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT FOR 
FIREFIGHTING 

Toshiba Rebyu, 31(6):535-539, 1976 (Japanese; English 
Summary) 

The technical parameters of mass-produced Japanese 
electrical batteries, gas-fueled generators, storage cells and 
other types of emergency power sources to supply fire 
systems and individual types of fire-fighting equipment 
with power are given. The principal technical specifica- 
tions for the electrical equipment of fire- and explosion- 
hazard premises are also formulated. It is pointed out 



389 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 

that according to the Japanese standards for local and 
temporary illumination in such premises only battery- 
powered lamps without explosion hazards can be used. 
The parameters and a description of lamps produced by 
the Toshiba Electric Company are presented. Also 
described are several types of fire safety control panel 
systems equipped with explosion-proof lever switches, au- 
tomatic blocking units and other automatically controlled 
components. 9 figs. 4 tables. (RZh) 

2112. Carpenter RE 
FIRE-RETARDANT PANEL CONSTRUCTION 

US Patent No. 3.967,033; CI 428/307, (B32B 3/26), Appl 
22 Dec 1975, Disci. 29 Jun 1976, Assignee. Ashland Oil 
Inc. Ashland. KY 

A fire-resistant structural panel is provided in form of 
a sandwich assembly having outer metallic skin surfaces 
and a core section composed of a thermal barrier layer 
adjoining at least one side of a layer of a foamed polymer- 
ic insulating material, said thermal barrier being a ther- 
moset resinous composition containing homogeneously 
dispersed colloidal-size droplets of water. 6 claims, no 
drawings. (Author) 

2113. Dean JO 
DOOR SECURITY PIN 

US Patent No. 3,937,506; CI 292/300, (E05C 19/18), Appl 
19 Sep 1974, Disci. 10 Feb 1976 

A security pin for installation between a door jamb 
and a door to prevent unauthorized entry through the 
door, when locked, by removal of the door hinge pins. 
The invention serves to permit expeditious egress from 
a building in the event of a fire. 6 claims, 7 drawing 
figs. (Author) 

2114. Dry H 
DAMPERS 

US Patent No. 3,951,051; CI 98/42R, (F24F 7/06), Appl 
2 Jul 1974, Disci. 20 Apr 1976, Assignee: Wallace-Murray 
Corp, New York, NY 

Dampers operable by energization of an electrical circuit 
or by deenergization thereof to open or close, for control 
of smoke ventilation in case of a fire. The dampers are 
held closed, or open, either by a magnet or by a spring. 
The dampers may be used in ventilation systems of any 
other type. 18 claims, 7 drawing figs. (Author) 

2115. Harwood FS and Dorst HO 
WARP RESISTANT FIRE DOOR 

US Patent No. 3,981,102; CI 49/501, (E06B 3/16), Appl 
22 Jul 1974, Disci. 21 Sep 1976, Assignee: Dover Corp, 
New York, NY 

A warp-resistant fire door structure is disclosed, which 
includes a frame and a pair of front and back panels 
mounted thereon. The panels are secured permanently to 
the frame only at points adjacent their lateral edges. At 
other points, the panels are heat-releasably bonded to the 
frame to be able to expand and contract relative to the 
frame in the presence of ambient temperature extremes. 
6 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 



21 16. Jecmen JM and Jecmen J 
ASTRAGAL 

US Patent No. 3.943,663; CI 49/370, (E06B 7/16). Appl 
6 Dec 1974, Disci. 16 Mar 1976, Assignee: Harris Preble 
Co, Cicero, IL 

The present invention relates to safety astragals 
designed for use on horizontally divided, vertically moving 
freight elevator doors to prevent fire. The improved as- 
tragal is formed by joining two layers of flexible fire- 
resistant material to form an envelope, which is then 
shaped, extensions of said envelope overlapping to form 
a joint contiguous to a mounting bar used to affix the 
astragal to the elevator door. 12 claims, 4 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

2117. Nakai T, Shimonomura I, Nakayama I and Yoshii 
Y 

FIRE SMOKE DAMPER 

US Patent No. 3.980.272; CI 251/306, (F16K 1/228). Appl 
15 Jan 1975, Disci. 14 Sep 1976, Priority: Japan. 7 June 
1974, Appl. No. 49/65386, Assignee: Nittan Co. Ltd. Japan 

A fire and smoke damper is disclosed for installation 
in a duct that includes a plate rotatably mounted within 
the duct and having means enclosing the periphery of 
the plate and biased outwardly to engage the duct wall 
when the damper is in the closed position. 3 claims. 12 
drawing figs. (Author) 



W [-> 




2118. Rohrer JF 

FLAME RETARDING FILTER DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,955,949; CI 55/444. (B01D 45/08). Appl 
15 Oct 1974, Disci. 11 May 1976, Assignee: Smith Filter 
Corp, Moline, IL 

A flame-retarding filter device is disclosed for use in 
an air exhaust system wherein the exhaust air carries 
grease particles and the like susceptible to combustion. 
The device has first and second rows of spaced parallel 
baffle elements, each of which has a generally planar 
central portion and inclined longitudinal edges. The rows 
of baffle elements are supported in spaced relation with 
the baffle elements of the rearward row overlying the 
spaces between the baffle elements of the front row in 
a manner to retard the passage of flames through the 
device while allowing sufficient free flow of air through 
the unit to exhaust heat and odors from the room in 
which the device is employed. 8 claims. 5 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



390 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 

2119. Stephenson FJ and Rush DJ 

FIRE RESISTANT CEILING CONSTRUCTION 

US Patent No. 3,969,864; CI 52/475, (E04B 5/57). Appl 
4 Oct 1974, Disci. 20 Jul 1976, Assignee: Butler Manufact 
Co, Kansas City, MO 

Disclosed is a fire-resistant ceiling for a building having 
a space grid construction comprised of a plurality of 
horizontally extending space trusses with bottom chords 
or bases thereof having oppositely directed flanges sup- 
porting fire-resistant ceiling panels thereon, and grid-pro- 
tecting fire-resistant panels secured to the space truss bot- 
tom chords between adjacent edges of the ceiling panels 
to protect the space trusses from fire. 8 claims, 10 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




2120. Tansley HW 

ELECTROMAGNETIC DOOR HOLDING DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,964,125; CI 16/48.5, (E05F 15/20), Appl 
12 Jun 1975, Disci. 22 Jun 1976 

An electromagnetic door holding device is disclosed for 
a door closer of the type having a spring-operated rotating 
spindle operatively connected by an arm to a slider 
mounted for reciprocal movement in a track usually 
secured to the door frame wherein the slider has a cam 
which, when the door is swung to a fully opened position, 
engages and is held by an electromagnet against movement 
relative to the slider when the door attempts to return 
to a closed position and which engages and moves a detent 
carried by the slider into engagement with detent engaging 
means in the track so as to prevent movement of the 
slider relative to the track and thus releaseably hold the 
door in the open position. The energizing of the elec- 
tromagnet allows the spring to move the cam out of en- 
gagement with the detent and thus permit the slider to 
move and enable the door to move to a closed position. 
6 claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 




FIRE 

DETECTION 

SYSTEM 



2121. Toyoshima S. Honda M, Nakamura K and Seki 
K 

SYSTEM FOR OPERATING FIRE PREVENTION 
DEVICES 

US Patent No. 3,979.648; CI 317/139, (H01H 47/14), Appl 
10 Mar 1975. Disci. 7 Sep 1976, Assignee: Nohmi Bosai 
Kogyo Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan 

The system for operating fire-prevention devices such 
as fire shutters or smoke exhaust vents comprises a plu- 
rality of fire prevention device operators successively 
operated directly or through another already operated 
operator in response to the operation of one of the fire 
detectors. Each of the operators includes switch means 
for switching the circuit from one operator to another 
when the fire prevention device associated therewith 
completes its operation. The switch means also function 
to switch the circuit upon the failure of the fire prevention 
device within a predetermined time. 2 claims, 4 drawing 
figs. (Author) 

h. SUPPRESSION DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

2122. Wegemann H 

A CRITIQUE OF HALON EXTINGUISHERS 

Brandschutz; 30(12):324-325, 1976 (German) 

Highly optimistic and, in part, incorrect data in reports 
and advertising brochures on a Halon extinguisher, as 
well as a general downgrading of an extinguishant that 
has proven its worth for decades, namely, dry powder, 
induced the author to make a critical assessment of the 
Halon 1211 extinguishant. Only in certain specific cases 
and only for certain objects is the extinguishing effective- 
ness of Halon indisputable. At the same time, however, 
the harmful effects of this agent on humans when exposed 
to Halon over a period of time and the highly corrosive 
effect of the pyrolysis products of Halon cannot be over- 
looked. Halon extinguishers should be used only by 
trained people. For these reasons, the concept of 
"universal extinguishant" does not hold for Halon. 
(Fachdok 13/0373) 



2123. Nash P 

THE ESSENTIALS OF DRY 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Fire Prev; (118):21-24, 1977 



POWDER AND GASEOUS 



This third in a series of three articles describing the 
mechanics and uses of the various types of fire-extinguish- 
ing systems deals with some special protection extinguish- 
ing systems, which may be grouped according to the extin- 
guishing agent they employ as dry-powder, inerting gas 
(carbon dioxide), and inhibiting gas (halons) systems. The 
tactical and technical features of these systems are 
described, along with their toxicity and applications. The 
two preceding articles, the first on water, the second on 
foam extinguishing systems, were reviewed in FTA, 1(5), 
abstracts 1702 and 1703. 3 figs, 3 tables. 



2124. Anon 

THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMATIC 

SYSTEMS 

Fire Prot Rev; 40(436): 17, 19-20, 1977 



SPRINKLER 



Discussed in this article are primarily the advantages 
of automatic sprinkler systems compared to other fire 



391 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

extinguishing methods. The topics under discussion are: 
the trade-off of fire resistance of a building against sprin- 
klers; sprinkler failures and statistics; water damage; test 
procedures devised to ensure reliability; sprinkler sensitivi- 
ty to heat radiation; and response times. 

2125. Ivchenko AI, Korol AA, Shibanov VS and 
Chernikov AB 

METHOD OF CALCULATING THE PARAMETERS OF 
POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

Gornospasat delo; (13): 14-16, 1976 (Russian) 

At the Ail-Union Mine-Rescue Research Institute 
(USSR) a method has been developed to calculate the 
parameters of fire extinguishers operating on the principle 
of expelling powder by compressed gas. A theoretical cal- 
culation of the main parameters of an OP-8u powder fire 
extinguisher, such as weight of the powder charge, volume 
of the container and driving pressure in the container, 
the weight of the gas expellant, and the cross section 
of the spray nozzle, was made by this method. It can 
be recommended to calculate the parameters of hand and 
portable powder fire extinguishers in which powder with 
a mean particle size of no more than 100 microns is 
used. (RZh) 

2126. Kozlyuk AI, Charkov VP, Shetser GM, Vasilenko 
VV, Vishnevskiy LD and Zasevskiy VV 

THE HIGH-PERFORMANCE V'YUGA FOAM GENERA- 
TOR 

Gornospasat delo; (13):9-13, 1976 (Russian) 

In order to extinguish fires in vertical and enclosed 
shafts, as well as in workings of an area near a shaft 
from the surface, the mobile, high-performance V'yuga 
foam generator has been developed at the All-Union 
Mine-Rescue Research Institute (USSR). A diagram and 
technical characteristics of the device are given. A calcula- 
tion is made of the main geometrical dimensions of the 
annular air distributor, making it possible to reduce the 
length of the diffuser appreciably. The results of a test 
of the foam generator are presented. 1 fig. (RZh) 

2127. Polovinko ID, Sergienko VI, Lapin KI and Bezukh 
VF 

FIRE PROTECTION OF INCLINED MINE WORKINGS 
EQUIPPED WITH CONVEYOR BELTS 

Gornospasat delo; (13):6-8, 1976 (Russian) 

The results of laboratory and industry tests show that 
the "Tuman" (fog) system is highly effective in mines. 
One of the important advantages of the system is its 
high sensitivity to temperature increases, which actuates 
the system in the initial stage of fire development. (RZh) 

2128. Nakakuki A, Nagayama K and Motoe T 
SPRINKLER FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Kasai; 26(l):40-45, 1976 (Japanese) 

It has been found that automatic fire extinguishing 
systems equipped with sprinkler heads are the most effec- 
tive of all the fixed systems. The technical parameters 
of these systems, illustrating the developmental history 
for the period 1925-1969, in particular the purpose, power, 
output (the flow of fire extinguishing solution per unit 
time), the diameter of the sprinkler heads, etc, are 
presented. The principal operating characteristics of these 



systems are given. The main trends in the future develop- 
ment of the design of sprinkler heads and systems using 
them are analyzed. It is noted that the most advanced 
sprinkler heads are those designed to automatically vary 
the angles of inclination of the spray as a function of 
the size and configuration of the seat of the fire. These 
sprinkler heads are rather costly to manufacture and ser- 
vice, but are highly effective in extinguishing fires. 3 figs, 
4 tables (RZh) 

2129. Nakakuki A, Motoe T and Nagayama K 
SPRINKLER FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Kasai; 26(2): 122-1 26, 1976 (Japanese) 

The design and operating principle of several of the 
basic versions of sprinkler fire extinguishing systems are 
considered. Fixed sprinkler systems are classified. The 
design of each type of sprinkler head presently in use 
is examined in terms of its hydrodynamic features. The 
design and operating principle of the test stand used to 
determine the efficiency of some specific types of sprin- 
kler heads in various fire-extinguishing systems are 
described. A more detailed analysis is made of the design 
and features of sprinkler heads that can vary the configu- 
ration of the jet of fire-extinguishing agent as a function 
of the nature and size of the incipient fire or as a function 
of the shape and size of the premises being protected. 
16 figs. (RZh) 

2130. Yamada A 

FIRE EQUIPMENT OF THE ENAYAMA AND AMIKAKE 

TUNNELS 

Kasai; 26(2):85-91 . 1976 (Japanese) 

The design, configuration and operating principle of 
fixed automatic fire extinguishing systems installed in the 
Enayama and Amikake vehicular tunnels (8,489 and 1.943 
m long, resp) in Japan are described. These tunnels are 
strategically important links of a 4-lane superhighway with 
a traffic load of 1,000 to 1,855 vehicles per hour. Fires 
in the tunnels are detected by means of fire detectors 
uniformly distributed over the inner surface of the tunnels. 
In the case of fire the supervisory distributor system 
switches on an electric motor that drives a pump or set 
of pumps, depending on the size of the fire. Water is 
supplied from a fixed 40m 3 reservoir through a network 
of sprinkler heads. In addition to the automated systems. 
the tunnels are also equipped with observation stations 
tended by operators. 21 figs, 2 tables, 3 refs. (RZh) 

2131 . Starokozhev II and Semenov VP 
EXTINGUISHING COTTON WOOL 

Khlopk Prom; (2):23-24, 1976 (Russian) 

The problem of extinguishing cotton in bales is con- 
sidered. The quantitative index for the extinguishing effi- 
ciency is the specific expenditure of the fire -extinguishing 
agent required to extinguish a fire in a certain period 
of time. The extinguishing efficiency was studied on 
models of cotton bales for the operation of a varying 
number of drenchers. Water and water with wetting agents 
were used as the extinguishants. It is demonstrated that 
water with wetting agents is highly effective for extin- 
guishing purposes. 2 figs, 1 table, 3 refs. (RZh) 



392 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 



SMOKE-REMOVAL 



2132. Tato H 

FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AND 

SYSTEMS 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 1 6(5): 1 08- 1 20, 1976 (Japanese) 



The tactical features and specifications and a description 
of the design and operating principle of several of the 
most recent modifications of complex fire equipment 
designed and produced by the Nittan Company (Tokyo) 
are presented. The NSS-50 system, which is designed for 
the automatic detection and selective extinguishment of 
fires in large buildings, is described in detail. The system 
includes a distributed network of various types of fire 
detectors, from which information is transmitted to the 
control station, which is equipped with an electronic com- 
mutator. When a fire breaks out, the commutator issues 
an instruction to the actuator unit, which causes the elec- 
tric pumps to start automatically and the extinguishing 
solution to run into those sections of the pipes with sprin- 
kler heads located in the pertinent areas of the building 
where the fire is to be extinguished. The control station 
is also equipped for automatic telephone communication 
with the municipal fire department. Also described is a 
fixed forced ventilation and smoke-removal system 
produced by the Nittan Company in 14 different versions. 
Such a wide production inventory of smoke-removal 
systems is required because of the wide range of use. 
The installed electric power of the systems varies from 
1.5 to 18.5 kW; the throughput is from 120 to 1,000 m 3 
of air (smoke) per minute, the rarefaction being 20-40 
mm Hg. 17 figs, 14 tables. (RZh) 

2133. Anon 

A FIRE-FIGHTING SYSTEM USING HALON 1301 GAS 

Motor Ship: 57(671 ):92-93, 1976 

The Saval-Kronenburg Halon 1301 total flooding system 
for ship machinery spaces is described. The system is 
of the central bulk storage type. Either one or two storage 
vessels are used. The pressure vessels are installed, 
together with actuating equipment, in a compartment 
separate from the spaces to be protected. The gas is 
discharged into a pipe system provided with discharge 
nozzles installed in the protected spaces as required such 
that a homogeneous distribution is achieved. Release of 
the gas is designed to be primarily from a pneumatic 
control station positioned near the entrance of the pro- 
tected spaces and secondarily from a mechanically 
operated station in the Halon storage room. System layout 
and operation and the monitoring and protection equip- 
ment are described. (See also the article in Safety Sea 
Internal (89):10-12, 1976, abstracted in this issue of FTA.) 
1 fig. 

2134. Eriksson L 

FUTURE TRENDS OF FIRE PROTECTION FOR TAN- 
KERS 

New Ships/Neubauten; 21(7/8):169-170, 1976 

Discussed in brief are the future trends of fire-extin- 
guishing systems for tankers, including AFFF foam con- 
centrates, foam monitors, foam playpipes, fire-resistant 
borosilicate glass for portholes, and dry chemical powders. 



2135. Bubir I, Brushlinskiv N and Voloshanenko A 
MATHEMATICAL DETERMINATION OF THE TIME 
REQUIRED TO EXTINGUISH FIRES WITH SPRINKLER 
SYSTEMS 

Pozhar delo; (ll):24-25. 1976 (Russian) 

At the Advanced Fire Engineering Academy (USSR) 
an analysis was made of 884 fire incidents from the years 
1974-1975 in which sprinkler systems were activated. The 
results of the analyses are compiled in three tables and 
five mathematical formulas. In 52% of all fire incidents 
the fire was extinguished by sprinkler systems in 1 1 .84 
±1.1 min. The formulas make it possible to determine 
the level of the fire-damage risk. The formulas can be 
used to design sprinkler systems and to assess the in- 
surance risk. 3 tables. (Fachdok 13/0649) 

2136. But P. Vasil'ev A, Petrov I and Mishin V 
DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING 
SYSTEMS 

Pozhar delo; (10):24-26, 1976 

Guidelines of temporary recommendations for the design 
of automatic fire extinguishing systems for oil and oil- 
product storage areas are cited. Air foam with an expan- 
sion factor of 70-100 obtained from a GVP foam generator 
is recommended as the principal extinguishing agent. 
Specifications for the foam flow rate, water requirements, 
and foam concentrate are regulated by the Construction 
Standards and Regulations. The response time of the 
extinguishing systems is 3 min; the extinguishing system 
can be actuated by an initiating pneumatic system with 
sprinkler heads or DPS-038 and TRV-32 detectors. The 
requirements for the system equipment are described. 1 
fig. (RZh) 

2137. Krasnoperov V 

INCREASING THE OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY OF 
AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Pozhar delo; (10):27, 1976 (Russian) 

The problem of the reliability of automatic fire extin- 
guishing systems is considered. A "utilization factor" is 
proposed for use in evaluating the working capacity of 
such systems. This factor represents the ratio of the time 
of trouble-free operation during the period being con- 
sidered to the total time of operation and lost time, for 
which an expression is given. It is shown that one of 
the reasons for gas fire-extinguishing system failures is 
that the automatic gas discharge heads malfunction at the 
instant they are actuated. (RZh) 

2138. Krishtal'skiy B 
MECHANICAL FOAM TOWER 

Pozhar delo; (ll):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

A brief comment is made by the author on an improve- 
ment in the field of fire technology. Four or eight foam 
generators, two monitors, and a hydraulically driven 
telescoping tower were mounted on a tracked prime mover 
(ATL-5). The foam can be applied onto tanks 17 m in 
height by means of the telescope towers. Burning con- 
tainers can be cooled off by the monitors. The prime 
mover is equipped with a blade and can be used as a 
bulldozer, so that the fire site can be approached even 
under difficult conditions. 2 figs. (Fachdok 13/0602) 



393 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

2139, Sviridov B 5 Nuger L and Yuslinikov G 
AUTOMATIC FOAM DELIVERY SYSTEM 

Pozhar delo; (12):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

A description is given of an automatic air-foam fire- 
extinguishing system for the painting section in a large 
plant in the USSR. The system (a block diagram is given) 
consists of three foam-solution containers, a distributor 
rack, fire detectors, foam drenchers installed in the paint- 
ing rooms, explosion-proof electromagnetic valves, piping 
and control gear. The control circuit is described in detail 
using a block diagram. The operation of the system is 
outlined. 2 figs. 

2140. Gudmundson G 

DRY CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHING ABOARD 
TANKERS 

Safety Sea Internal; (89): 33-34, 1976 

In an era that points to increasing sizes of tonnage- 
units for transport of highly flammable products combined 
with intensified freighting activities, the ship's own fire 
protection naturally becomes extremely important. The 
authorities concerned are vitally occupied with increasing 
the fire security on board and constant research and 
product development is carried out in order to render 
both means and methods more efficient. It is now necessa- 
ry to have access to equipment for fighting not only large, 
but also severe fires. The special dry chemical systems 
for tank deck protection on LPG, LNG, chemical and 
combined crude chemical tankers are described and illus- 
trated. (Author) 

2141. Pucill PM 

FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING INSTALLATIONS FOR 
GENERAL CARGO SHIPS 

Safety Sea Internal; (89):14, 17-18, 1976 

A feature of the fire risk in ships is the wide variety 
of types of fire that can occur. The disparity extends 
also to the likely delay in discovery, the growth rate, 
the threat that it offers (ie, to life, to the cargo, or to 
the vessel), and to the fixed installations for dealing with 
them. If there is any extinguishing installation in accom- 
modation areas, it is almost certainly sprinklers. These 
are well understood, documented and controlled. They 
are, therefore, not considered further in this article except 
to note that in the early stages of fire in accommodation 
spaces the most immediate threat is to the life of persons 
who may be sleeping there, for which purpose a sprinkler 
system is not ideal. Cargo-holds and machinery spaces 
are considered primarily in this article. Combined detec- 
tion and CO2 extinguishing systems, inert-gas generating 
systems, water spray, high-expansion extinguishing 
systems, inert-gas generating systems, water spray, high- 
expansion foams, halons, and the future are discussed. 
1 fig, 1 table. (Author) 

2142. Anon 

A TOTAL FLOODING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 

Safety Sea Internal; (89):10-12, 1976 

Statistics indicate that every year the largest number 
of fires on board ships occur in machinery compartments. 
These fires, particularly those arising from oil spillages, 
lubricating and fuel line failures, tend to turn quickly into 
major fires, and for that reason an effective fire-extin- 



guishing system must be installed. The Netherlands com- 
pany Saval-Kronenburg BV has developed and delivered 
a new Halon 1301 total flooding system for marine appli- 
cations which, as claimed, means a new approach in 
firefighting on board ships. The system is described in 
this article, in particular the operations of the system, 
which are reviewed step by step, along with an accom- 
panying diagram and chart of the system. (See also the 
article in Motor Ship. 57(671 ):92-93.' 1976, abstracted in 
this issue of FTA.) \ fig. (Author) 

2143. Anon 

CHOOSING THE RIGHT FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

SBZ; 31(8):556, 1976 (German) 

More than 50% of all fire extinguishers are manufac- 
tured, stored and checked in accordance with official 
specifications. Choosing the right extinguisher is difficult 
for the non-specialist because of the confusing number 
of different types, differing in design, size and per- 
formance. All these factors are reflected in the cost of 
extinguishers, and therefore it is often the cheapest, not 
the best one, that is chosen. The most widely used extin- 
guisher is the chemical powder type, which has com- 
pressed air or carbon dioxide as the expelling agent. Extin- 
guishers that are filled with the expelling agent and extin- 
guishing compound in one container are not reliable 
because the extinguishant can escape through leaks in 
the shut-off mechanism or because of imperfect welding 
seams in the housing. The preferred extinguisher is one 
in which the expelling agent and extinguishant are stored 
separately with the expelling agent in a special high-pres- 
sure cylinder, from which it is discharged into the main 
container immediately before the extinguishant is applied 
to a fire. For this reason the latter extinguisher is highly 
reliable. 

2144. Anon 

CHOOSING THE RIGHT FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

Tankstelle; 23(5):254, 1976 (German) 

Considering the large variety of types and designs of 
fire extinguishers, the people who are responsible for 
procuring them are usually not specialists, and therefore 
only the purchase price is often the guiding factor in 
choosing extinguishers. It is pointed out that local fire 
inspection offices (in Germany) have special information 
services to aid the uninitiated in choosing the correct fire 
extinguisher for specific purposes. 

2145. Kalinin NV, Bodrov AI, Matyukkin KA and 
Solov'ev VA 

FIREFIGHTING APPARATUS USING A JET ENGINE 

Torf Prom; (9):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

A fire apparatus to produce a water and gas jet to 
extinguish peat fires was built at the Sverdlovsk Peat 
Association (USSR). The apparatus consists of a VK- 
1A aircraft jet engine with an ejector- mixer mounted on 
the chassis of a URAL-375 truck. Water is supplied to 
the system at a rate of 230 m 3 /hr by a DDN-70 pump. 
(RZh) 

2146. Igishev VG, Sukkanov GV and Kravtsov AG 
EXPERIENCE GAINED USING WATER -AIR FOAM TO 
PREVENT AND EXTINGUISH ENDOGENOUS FIRES 

Ugol; (8):59-62, 1976 (Russian) 



394 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

A method of preventing and extinguishing endogenous 
fires in the worked-out portion of coal seams is described. 
(RZh) 

2147. Rocheler E 

AUTOMATIC ACTUATOR FOR A FIRE FXTIN- 

GUISHKR 

French Patent No. 2,273,562; CI A62C 37/30, Appl 10 
Jun 1974. Disci. 2 Jan 1976 

The invention relates to a device for automatic actuation 
of fixed fire extinguishing systems. The device consists 
of a valve that is kept in closed position by a glass ampule 
filled with liquid. When the temperature rises to a certain 
level, the ampule breaks, releasing the valve. The spring- 
driven valve is displaced, allowing discharge of the fire 
extinguishant. 1 drawing fig. 




2148. Bower JC and Roach SV 

HYDROSTATIC TESTER FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

US Patent No. 3,951,185; CI 141/1 R, (B65B 55/18), Appl 
28 May 1974, Disci. 20 Apr 1976, Assignee: Pyronauts, 
Inc, Fort Worth, TX 

The specification discloses a closed system for cleaning, 
pressure testing, and drying fire extinguisher containers. 
The system comprises two tanks for holding 
trichloroethane and flow lines and a valve control system 
for flowing the liquid from one tank into the container 
to be cleaned, pressure-tested, and dried, and then from 
the container to the other tank. After a number of con- 
tainers are cleaned and pressure-tested and the second 
tank becomes full, the valve control system can be con- 
trolled to reverse the flow of liquid from the second tank 
to the containers to be cleaned, pressure-tested, and dried 
and then back to the first tank. In a further embodiment, 
there is provided a universal head adapted to fit many 
different sizes of fire extinguisher container openings and, 
in addition, an adjustable holding device for holding the 



container to be tested between a support plate and the 
head and for inverting the container to allow the container 
to be emptied after the test is completed. 26 claims, 4 
drawing figs. (Author) 



o9 37 




2149. Sanderson IS and Hardy JC 
PROPORTIONING APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 3,934,604; CI 137/98, (G05D 11/02), Appl 
30 Aug 1974, Disci. 27 Jan 1976, Assignee: Rockwood 
Systems Corp, South Portland, ME 

Disclosed is a proportioning apparatus comprising a pair 
of coaxial tubular members with passages having first and 




395 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

second outwardly extending walls of the same cross-sec- 
tional configuration, first and second valve bodies for 
coaction with said walls for progressively opening and 
closing said passages, said first valve body slidably 
mounted on one of said tubular members, said second 
valve body connected to said first valve body for move- 
ment therewith and biasing means urging said valve bodies 
to their closed positions. 14 claims, 5 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



2150. Christensen BC and Emmes RC 
PNEUMATIC TIME DELAY VALVE 

US Parent No. 3,990,516; CI 169/19, (A62C 37/06), Appl 
8 Oct 1975, Disci. 9 Nov 1976, Assignee: The Ansul Co, 
Marinette, WI 

A valve body contains a coaxially slidable valve element 
with a seal member at the upstream end and a pair of 
differential area pistons at the other end. Fluid passage 
means direct fluid from the upstream end to a zone 
between the pistons to cause the pistons to seat the seal 
member. An orifice in the downstream, larger-area piston 
bleeds fluid to an accumulator of preselected volume. 
Once the pressure forces on the large piston balance, 
the pressure force on the small piston unseats the seal 
member. 10 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 




2152. Kirk N 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING BOMB FOR PUTTING OUT 

FIRES 

US Patent No. 3,980,139; CI 169/28. (A62C 19/00). Appl 
15 Sep 1975, Disci. 14 Sep 1976 

Disclosed is a bomb containing an explosive and a fire 
extinguishing chemical so that the bomb can be exploded 
within a fire and extinguish the flames, the bomb including 
a glass cylinder that can be readily fragmented so to 
disperse its chemical content into all directions and the 
glass cylinder having extending fins so to absorb a rising 
temperature such as from a vicinity fire, the fins transfer- 
ring the heat to an explosive charge for automatic opera- 
tion. 3 claims. 3 drawing figs. (Author) 



HOZZU 




2151. Ferguson WJ and Luich RJ 
PRESSURE GAUGE CONSTRUCTION 

US Patent No. 3,952,598; CI 73/415, (G01L 7/04), Appl 
28 Jul 1975, Disci. 27 Apr 1976, Assignee: Dresser Indus- 
tries, Inc, Dallas, TX 

A pressure gage of small size and type suitable for 
fire extinguisher use is disclosed. Comprising the gage 
is a dial plate secured in keyed registration onto the front 
face of the casing. A tubular stem extending laterally 
from the inside face of the viewing crystal is axially 
slotted to embrace a radial portion of a wound Bourdon 
tube supporting a pointer opposite the dial plate. Rotating 
the crystal before securing it to the casing enables the 
tube slot to zero position the pointer at the zero gradua- 
tion on the dial plate. When secured to the casing the 
distal end of the crystal stem compresses an O-ring washer 
for effecting an internal pressure seal between the casing 
and Bourdon tube thereat. 10 claims, 8 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



396 



2153. Tvler ME 

QUICK-OPENING VALVE OPERATED BY EXPLOSIVE 

CHARGE 

US Patent No. 4.003,395; CI 137/68 A. (F16K 13/06). 
Appl 28 Jul 1975, Disci. 18 Jan 1977, Assignee: Systron 
Donner Corp. Berkeley, CA 

A quick-opening valve is disclosed for use in opening 
flow through a passageway from a source of pressurized 
fluid, such as a fire extinguisher fluid. The valve com- 
prises a valve body in which a flow-blocking member 
is mounted to form a portion of the passageway. In one 
embodiment an imperforate plug is mounted within tubing 
to form the flow-blocking member, and a pair of 
weakened zones is formed by circular grooves in the tub- 
ing at opposite axial ends of the plug. In another embodi- 
ment the plug is formed integral with hollow cylindrical 
walls to form the flow-blocking member. A deflagrating 
charge is mounted in the valve body for generating explo- 
sive gas pressure so that the weakened zones are sheared. 
A slug that includes the plug is ejected in a direction 



t 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

at right angles to the passageway and into a slug receiving 
chamber. The ejected slug is deflected by a ramp to ab- 
sorb excess energy. A one-way spring detent prevents 
the slug from rebounding back into the passageway and 
obstructing fluid flow. 3 claims, 7 drawing figs. (Author) 




::'i;: : , , ! , i h::i ! I 



2154. Linden G, Dierk L and Tiedtke K 

PROCESS FOR THE AUTOMATIC REPORTING AND 
EXTINGUISHING OF FIRES 

US Patent No. 4,005,754: CT 169/46, (A62C 37/04), Appl 
6 Mar 1975. Disci. 1 Feb 1977 

A process for the automatic reporting and extinguishing 
of fires and an automatic fire reporting and extinguishing 
system capable of performing such process are provided. 
The process uses at least two different types of fire re- 
porting devices and requires a signal from each type of 
device in order to respond by releasing extinguishing 
agent. This requirement eliminates many false alarms and 
unnecessary releasing of extinguishing agent. According 
to the process, extinguishing agent is released in a 
predetermined quantity and then a check is made to deter- 
mine whether the fire has been extinguished. If the fire 
is not extinguished, another quantity of extinguishing 
agent, equal to the first, is released. Succeeding quantities 
of extinguishing agent are released until the fire is extin- 
guished or the extinguishing agent is spent. 9 claims. 5 
drawing figs. (Author) 

2155. Specht GE 
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE 

US Patent No. 3,946,756; CI 137/495. (F16K 31/14), Appl 
30 May 1974, Disci. 30 Mar 1976, Assignee: A-T-O Inc. 
Willoughby, OH 

Disclosed is a pressure control valve for use in conjunc- 
tion with a riser for supplying water, in case of a fire, 
at all levels of a multiple-story structure at a predeter- 
mined regulated static and flowing discharge pressure. The 
valve includes a hand wheel on a stem engaging the valve, 
a normally inaccessible static pressure control collar in 
said stem and a diaphragm sensitive to flowing discharge 
pressure at the discharge side of the valve tending to 
close the valve and a spring opposing the diaphragm, said 
hand wheel arranged to move said valve stem relative 



to said diaphragm and close the valve without altering 
the pressure adjustment thereof. 3 claims, 3 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

2156. Tenney KS and Roby MA 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER PACKAGE FOR WASTE 

RECEPTABLE 

US Patent No. 4,013,127; CI 169/57, (A62C 35/10), Appl 
22 Jan 1975, Disci. 22 Mar 1977, Assignee: Rubbermaid 
Commercial Products, Inc. Winchester, VA 

A fire extinguisher package or assembly adapted for 
attachment to the top rim of a waste receptable is dis- 
closed. A small translucent plastic container holds pres- 
surized extinguisher liquid, and a heat-activated valve for 
discharging and directing the liquid is connected to the 
top of the container and enclosed in a protecting shroud. 
The shroud or a cover therefor is mounted on the recepta- 
ble rim by releasable attaching means. 10 claims, 10 draw- 
ing figs. (Author) 




2157. Nash P 

PORTABLE AND INSTALLED FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIP- 
MENT IN BUILDINGS. Fire Res Sta (UK); BRE CP-3- 
77, 1 1 pages, 15 figs, 6 refs, Jan 1977 

This note describes the range of portable and installed 
first-aid fire-fighting equipment in buildings for the use 
of the occupants in case of emergency. It gives a guide 
to the fire-fighting capability and most likely usage of 
each type of equipment. (Author) 



397 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

2158. Nash P 

SPRINKLER AND SPRAY SYSTEMS FOR MARITIME 
USE. Fire Res Sta (UK). BRF CP-1-77, 7 pages, <S tigs. 
1 1 rets, Jan 1977 

This paper gives an account of the international regula- 
tions and requirements governing the use of automatic 
sprinklers and water spray systems in ships and describes 
some typical marine installations. It also gives an account 
of the testing procedures for sprinklers and spray systems, 
pumps, and water supplies. Further detailed information 
may be obtained from the comprehensive list of 
references. (Author) 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. AGRICULTURE AND WILDLANDS 

[For more complete coverage of the forest fire litera- 
ture see Forest Fire Control Abstracts (Canada) ] 

2159. Matsui T. Umeda K and Nakada Y 
METHOD OF FIRE PREVENTION IN FIELDS 

US Patent No. 3,980,140; CI 169/45, (A62C 3/02). Appl 
12 Mar 1974, Disci. 14 Sep 1976, Priority: Japan, Patent 
No 48-28067, 12 Mar 1973, Assignee: Kansai Nissan 
Chemicals Ltd, Osaka, Japan 

An aqueous fire-preventing suspension is prepared by 
diluting a mixture of magnesium ammonium phosphate 
and an emulsion of a resin and a surfactant that can 
be sprayed onto weeds in fields in a concentration of 
greater than 30% magnesium ammonium phosphate per 
weight of dried weeds. 7 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

b. COMMERCIAL OCCUPANCIES 

2160. Izumi Y and Ozawa J 

A FIRE-SECURITY SYSTEM FOR OFFICE BUIUDINGS 

Mitsubishi Denki Giho: 50(7): 394-400, 1976 (Japanese; En- 
glish Summary) 

A description is given of a block diagram and the operat- 
ing principle of a new complex automatic fire-safety 
system, MELNICS, developed by the Mitsubishi Electric 
Company for use in multistory office buildings. The 
system control station is located in a special area and 
consists of a large number of devices connected to 
peripheral subsystems and to a central panel containing 
a small computer. The main subsystems comprising the 
MELNICS system are as follows: a network of different 
types of fire detectors distributed over all areas of the 
building, a fixed, automatically replenished water tank 
located in the foundation area of the building and also 
an array of pressurized cylinders containing the foam con- 
centrate of the fire extinguishing solution: a mixer in 
which the fire-extinguishing solution is prepared 
(automatically): a network of pipes and sprinkler heads 
to extinguish the fire in the early stage of development: 
an emergency forced ventilation subsystem: a network 
of sensitive pickups that react to the presence of gas 
in an enclosure: an emergency elevator control subsystem: 
and a subsystem for remote automatic opening of doors 
of reserve and emergency exits by means of special elec- 
tro-mechanical drive systems. Some of the results of 
systems tests are reported. 10 figs, 3 tables, 6 refs. (RZh) 



c. ELECTRICAL 

2161 . Anon 

FIRE PROTECTION IN PREMISES FOR ELECTRONIC 
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 

Elektriker: 1 5(7/8): 1 83-184. 1976 (German) 

The major guidelines of a set of specifications for fire 
protection in electronic data processing areas worked out 
by the Property Insurers Association (Verband der 
Sachversicherer eV). in collaboration with the Federal 
German Industrial Association (Bundesverband der 
Deutschen Industrie eV) are reproduced in this article. 
The guidelines are intended primarily for conditions in 
large computer centers. Less extensive protective mea- 
sures tailored to less hazardous conditions can be used 
for medium-sized and small facilities. 

2162. Tada R 

SELECTING FIRE-SAFE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN 
INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(7):52-56. 1976 (Japanese) 

The method adopted in Japan to allow for ambient con- 
ditions when selecting explosion-proof and fire-safe elec- 
trical equipment of various kinds for large modern indus- 
tries is analyzed. Described in particular is a method for 
determining the category and group of vapors and gases 
that form explosion- and fire-hazardous mixtures in 
premises. A table regulating the relationship between the 
autoignition temperature of the mixture and the index of 
the group to which a given gas- and vapor-air mixture 
belongs is given. Group Gl includes autoignition tempera- 
tures above 450°C; group G2. 300 to 450 = C: G3. 200 to 
300°C: G4. 135 to 200°C: and G5. 100 to 130°C. The 
new Japanese standard contains 5 fire-hazard categories 
for electrical equipment as a function of the fire-protection 
level: explosion-proof equipment with a housing capable 
of withstanding the pressure of an internal explosion: 
equipment with oil protection in which the spark-produc- 
ing and current-conducting parts are immersed in diesel 
oil; highly reliable, explosion-proof equipment in which 
sparking and surface overheating are excluded: equipment 
with automatic ventilation systems that maintain a certain 
internal overpressure and thus prevent the intake of explo- 
sive mixtures into the housing: and explosion-proof equip- 
ment with a low spark-producing level. Also given are 
data used in selecting electrical equipment. 3 tables. 3 
refs. (RZh) 

2163. Westphal H 

FIRE HAZARDS OF ELECTRICAL DEVICES IN THE 
HOME 

Schadenprisma: 5(41:76-78. 1976 (German) 

Reference is made to the damages that are attributable 
to faulty electrical installation, improper use of electrical 
home appliances, or faults in the devices. An analysis 
of causes reveals that fires can be started by ignoring 
the simplest rules designed to prevent them, by failing 
to pay attention to the correct cross section of the con- 
ducting wire when starting heavy, newly installed electri- 
cal devices, and by failing to check the operating safety 
of the system at certain time intervals. Improper use. 
operating errors, carelessness, and negligence frequently 
make a great risk out of electrical power. The manufac- 



398 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

c. Electrical — Continued 

turers of electrical devices are called on to adhere to 
the pertinent regulations of the Society of German Electri- 
cal Engineers (VDE), as well as the fire-protection 
j. idelines of the Association of Property Insurers for the 
installation of electrical power systems in items of equip- 
ment. 9 figs. (Fachdok 13/0287) 

2164. Guenther K 

BBC IN THE SERVICE OF FIRE protection 

Sicherheitsing\l(l):\0-\2, 14-16, 1976 (German) 

The Brown Boveri Company (FRG) is guided in its fire 
safety research area by the recommendations of its Equip- 
ment Fire Protection Committee. The members of the 
committee issue recommendations on fire safety aspects 
of the company's electrical equipment and promote 
preventive measures. Particular emphasis is placed on spe- 
cialization of committee members in the various aspects 
of fire protection. 8 figs. 

d. INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

2165. Tiezzi I 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. MODERN TRENDS FOR 
PETROLEUM AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS [I 

Sistemi di Difesa Antincendio. Moderni Orientamenti per 

Impianti Petrolifcrc e Petrochimici] 

Ed Prot Civ, Rome, Italy; 143 pages, 1976 (Italian) 

The book is divided into four parts. The general aspects 
of the problem are outlined in part 1 . Part 2 is devoted 
to an analysis of the existing standards for the design 
of petrochemical plants, taking into account the fire 
hazards of such installations. A detailed outline of modern 
fire protection systems, both fixed and mobile, is given 
in part 3, along with recommendations regarding the or- 
ganization of fire extinguishment and accident suppression 
in manufacturing equipment. The outlook for the develop- 
ment of fire-fighting equipment for the protection of oil- 
and gas-processing machinery is discussed in part 4. The 
book contains tables and graphic illustrations. 

2166. Linetskiy VA and Pryanikov VI 

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, SAFETY ENGINEERING, 
AND FIRE PREVENTION IN PLANTS OF THE CHEMI- 
CAL INDUSTRY [Okhrana Truda. Tekhnika Bezopasnosti 
i Pozharnaya Profilaktika na Predpryatiyakh Khimicheskoy 
Promyshlennosti ] 

Khimiya, Moscow, USSR; 438 pages, 1976, (Russian) 

This book contains the theoretical principles and an 
analysis of the practical aspects of occupational safety, 
safety engineering, industrial health and hygiene in the 
chemical industry. The results of contemporary research 
on protection of the workforce and safety engineering, 
as well as on the practical advances made along these 
lines by leading plants in the chemical industry, are 
presented. 78 figs. 5 tables, 200 refs. (RZh) 

2167. Anon 

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FIRE IN THE PRINT- 
ING INDUSTRY 

British Printing Industries Fed and the Fire Prot Assoc, 
UK; 19 pages, 1976 

This planning program is intended to guide management 
in the industry towards the establishment of a fire precau- 



tions system and the setting up of checking procedures 
to ensure that the system is maintained. Following a 
description of some significant fires to illustrate the cost 
of fires in the printing industry, the following sections 
are considered in outline and descriptive form: how the 
fires start and spread; hazards and precautions in various 
operations; storage; flammable liquids; preparatory 
processes, such as hot metal composition, photosetting. 
etc; printing letterpresses and offset litho; printing - 
gravure and flexography; printing - silk screen; and bin- 
dery and finishing. The fire prevention measures to be 
taken, reporting procedures, routine checks, etc take up 
the final portion of the monograph. Diagrams and charts 
are provided. 

2168. Anon 

RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF SAFETY ENGINEERING 
IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

[Issledovanie v Oblasti Tekhniki Bezopasnosti v 
Khimicheskoy IVomyshlennosti] 

VNII Tekhn Bezop Khim Prom, Moscow, USSR; 111 
pages, 1976 (Russian) 

The results of research carried out in the field of fire 
and explosion hazards of materials, the protection of 
equipment from destruction, and elimination of the hazard 
of electrification of materials are presented in this antholo- 
gy of papers from the All-Union Research Institute for 
Safety Engineering in the Chemical Industry (USSR). 
Some papers are devoted to industrial health supervision 
and methods of analyzing the ambient air, determining 
the causes of industrial injuries and occupational diseases, 
developing new types of special protective clothing, etc. 
(RZh) 

2169. King R 

ALONE AT SEA YOU ARE YOUR OWN FIRE BRIGADE 

Engineer (London); 242(6283/4):40-41 . 1976 

The fire on a production platform in the North Sea 
brought home to oil companies the need to 1 ) check the 
rates at which their offshore structures are corroding and 
2) take a closer look at firefighting and detection methods. 
Fire protection equipment on offshore platforms is similar 
to but more highly automated than for similar land installa- 
tions and is a totally self-complete system. The fire 
hazards on platforms arise from the leakage and ignition 
of hydrocarbons. The differences between offshore and 
land facilities are outlined, as is the classification of plat- 
form areas. Protection measures may be passive, through 
the use of fire and blast walls and fireproof ing of struc- 
tural steel, or active through the use of water sprinklers, 
spray deluges, foam, halon gas, dry powder systems, 
water reels and hand extinguishers of various kinds. The 
fire detection system and extinguishers are described. A 
synopsis of the hazardous and safe positions on an oil 
rig is given in an insert. 1 photo. 

2170. Chinnock JHJ 

PRE-PLANNING FOR SAFETY IN INDUSTRY 

Fire Eng J; 36( 104):25-27, 1976 

The ways in which industry can make the best use 
of safety-trained and safety-conscious professional fire- 
brigade personnel and the steps it should take by planning 
to provide industrial safety are considered. Interchange 

399 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

of training between local fire authorities and industries; 
consultation with fire brigades: accident prevention by 
safety planning through elimination of hazards, application 
of engineering techniques, and education; location of in- 
dustries away from highly populated areas; segregation 
of high- and low-risk facilities: fire-safety design of instal- 
lations with built-in precautions and fire-fighting facilities; 
and emergency planning, that is, preplanning fires, are 
some of the suggestions for industrial fire safety discussed 
in this paper presented at the Institution of Fire Engineers 
conference at Harrogate (UK) on 11-12 Oct, 1976. 

2171. Anon 

FIREFIGHTING AND WORKSHOP VESSEL 

Hansa; 1 13( 1 3):1 170, 1976 (German) 

The remodeling of the tanker ship "British Kiwi" as 
a firefighting and workshop vessel for offshore operations 
in the BP Forties Field is described in brief. The 
firefighting equipment includes three remote-controlled 
monitors with a capacity of 1,450 m 3 /h each. 1 photo. 

2172. Husset M-J 

AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION INSTALLATIONS 

Ind Tech; (318):93, 95, 97-98, 101, 104, 107-108, 111-112, 
115-116, 119-120, 1976 (French) 

The various kinds and types of automatic fire detection 
and extinguishing systems used in France are described. 
The absolute necessity of using automatic systems for 
modern industrial plants is emphasized. 32 figs. 

2173. Kurimoto I 

PRESENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK FOR INCREASING 
THE FIRE SAFETY OF FACTORY EQUIPMENT 

Kagaku Kogyo; 20(8):85-88, 1976 (Japanese) 

It is pointed out that the trend toward increasing com- 
plexity of production equipment imposes more require- 
ments on the effectiveness of fire protection systems and 
their various secondary parameters. Under such condi- 
tions, a strict correlation must be maintained between the 
number of instruments, the number of optical and acoustic 
indicator systems and their design features, and the 
requirements of normal reception or concentration of at- 
tention by the operator. Failure to achieve this correlation 
leads to difficulties in making an operational decision in 
emergency situations and, hence, to fires, explosions, and 
other accidents with serious consequences. Examples are 
cited and analyzed of cases when the failure to match 
the technical design of an apparatus to the potentials of 
human psychology in some modern petrochemical plants 
in Japan resulted in some major fires. The outlook for 
the development of the man-machine (ergonomic) sciences 
is mentioned in this connection. 3 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

2174. Tato H 
FIRE EQUIPMENT 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 16(6):97-129, 1976 (Japanese) 

The tactical characteristics and parameters and a 
description of the design and operating principle of several 
fire safety systems used in industrial plants in Japan are 
presented. Diagrams and parameters of automatic control 
devices used in various manufacturing processes that add 
significantly to fire safety are considered. Given in par- 
ticular are the parameters of automatic control of the 

400 



thermal regimes of a gas-fired industrial furnace and the 
operating principle is explained. The purpose of the con- 
trol system is to maintain a prescribed ratio of gas and 
air supplied for combustion. The system includes a jet 
servo control unit and an actuator assembly in the form 
of a hydraulic piston servomotor. Gas is supplied to the 
burners of the furnace through one pipeline, air through 
another. Measurement diaphragms and data sampling 
tubes connecteed to the respective membranes of the regu- 
lator are mounted in the pipes. Consequently, a force 
equal to the pressure differential in the diaphragms of 
the pipes acts on each membrane. When conditions on 
the membranes are uniform, the jet tube of the servo 
control unit is in the middle position and the piston of 
the servomotor is stationary. This system situation cor- 
responds to the steady-state mode of furnace operation. 
When the gas flow rate increases, the pressure differential 
in the diaphragm of the pipeline increases. In this case 
the force acting on one of the membranes is greater than 
that acting on the other. This results in depression of 
the first membrane and displacement of the jet tube con- 
nected to the membrane. As a result, the pressure on 
one side of the servomotor piston increases. The piston 
travels to the opposite side and the throttle valve on the 
air conduit opens. The increase in the air flow rate results 
in an increase in the force acting on the membrane. The 
system resumes the equilibrium state only when the previ- 
ous ratio between the gas and air flow rates is established. 
Also described is the automatic temperature control 
system in industrial gas furnaces, in which chromel-kopel 
thermocouples connected to a universal automatic poten- 
tiometer with output connected to a multi-trace recorder 
are used as the temperature sensors. 2 figs. (RZh) 

2175. LeMar R 

PROPER MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR FIRE-RE- 
SISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUID SYSTEMS 

Lub Eng\ 32(10):539-541, 1976 

Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids provide industry with a 
valuable safety factor whenever ignition sources, with 
consequent fire hazard, are present in the work area. 
When these fluids are correctly selected and maintained, 
their performance is as good as or better than that shown 
by petroleum oils. However, maintenance engineers often 
have problems with them. These problems usually 
originate from lack of knowledge of differences between 
these fluids and petroleum oil. Proper selection and use 
of the fluids require consideration of the following factors: 
1) fluid types and their problems: 2) maintenance of fluid 
quality during use: and 3) hydraulic system design and 
operation. These three factors are discussed in detail in 
the article. (Author) 

2176. Wakabavashi K 

ANALYSIS OF FIRE-PROTECTION SYSTEMS USED IN 
INDUSTRY 

Netsu Kanri To Kogai; 28(4):40-47. 1976 (Japanese) 

It is pointed out that the reliability and efficiency of 
fire-protection systems used in large modern industrial in- 
stallations must be increased. It has been calculated that 
the complexity of such systems has increased on the 
average by a factor of 5 to 10 in the last 20 years owing 
to continuous improvement, and for this reason the 
problem of increasing their reliability is urgent. Analytical 



- 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

formulas governing the methods of verifying the reliability 
parameters of complex automatic fire-fighting systems 
under operating conditions are given. It is stated that the 
use of statistical methods to check such systems is most 
promising, because these systems, as a rule, are designed 
with a large number of standard components that can 
serve as prime objects for checking the reliability of 
operation and stability of characteristics. These com- 
ponents are sprinkler heads, fire detectors, automatically 
controlled pipe valves, etc. The standard methods for con- 
ducting such tests and their theoretical principles, which 
are given, are based primarily on the use of the theory 
of graphs, in particular, branching methods (fault trees), 
to determine the shortest and cheapest ways of finding 
and eliminating faults. Block diagrams of the reliability 
of several of the most widely used types of fire-protection 
systems are given. 13 figs, 15 refs. (RZh) 

2177. Ishikawa M 

FIRE SAFETY MEASURES IN INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(7):40-44, 1976 (Japanese) 

Statistical data characterizing the number and nature 
of fire and explosion incidents in a number of large 
Japanese enterprises are presented. Some of the modern 
fire safety systems used in individual industries are 
described. An automatic industrial gas analyzer works as 
follows. Samples entering the sensor of the analyzer are 
tapped periodically to check the atmosphere of an enclo- 
sure. If the gas concentration is hazardous, the sensor 
pulse is converted into a signal that automatically triggers 
the ventilation system, a siren, and a light panel. The 
fire protection of a transformer substation is also 
described. The transformer has an air-cooling system regu- 
lated by louvers. The oil bath of the transformer has 
a thermoresistor tuned to a certain temperature threshold. 
As soon as the transformer temperature reaches this limit, 
the thermoresistor cuts in the ventilation system. The 
visual and acoustic signals are triggered simultaneously 
with the ventilator and the transformer supply system is 
disconnected. If a fire breaks out, the safety device melts 
and the ventilator is shut off, the louvers are closed, 
and a valve for supply of carbon dioxide or nitrogen 
into the premise through a pipe distribution line is opened. 
One version of this system is designed for the fire protec- 
tion of a transformer substation located in the immediate 
vicinity of production equipment. It includes an automatic 
ventilation system that provides for pressurization of the 
air in the premise, preventing the intake of gas and air 
mixtures into the transformer substation and, con- 
sequently, ignition of this mixture by contact with sparks 
or overheated metallic parts. Some specific recommenda- 
tions on the introduction of advanced fire protection 
devices in industrial plants are made. 2 tables. (RZh) 

2178. Dzura M and Ostrowski T 
CENTRAL CHEMICAL SAFETY STATION 

Prz poz; 64(6): 17-20, 1976 (Polish) 

In recent years a number of large-scale accidents have 
occurred in chemical plants in Poland. Rescue teams and 
emergency services have been set up to eliminate ac- 
cidents in Bygdoszcz, Pulawy, Tarnow, Plock, and Brzeg- 
Dolny. In order to coordinate the activity of the rescue 
teams, to carry out training and research, and also to 
disseminate technical and economic information, a Central 



Chemical Safety Station is being set up at the Mazovetsk 
Oil Refinery and Petrochemical Plant. The mission of this 
station is to solve the problems of interaction between 
rescuers, fire protection, technical and medical services, 
and the police and coordinating the activities of the dif- 
ferent organizations engaged in rescue work. The station 
has the following sections: operations, technical, supply 
and transportation, medical, administrative and training 
The sphere of activities of each section is being examined. 
The operations section is entrusted with receiving reports 
on accidents, allocation of resources and rescue means. 
in accordance with the safety plans, ensuring communica- 
tions with teams at the accident site, etc. The technical 
section performs the following functions: study of the 
physico-chemical properties of harmful and hazardous 
vapors and gases, the possibility of utilizing the harmful 
materials, study of fire-extinguishing and neutralizing 
agents, ways and means of handling accidents, experimen- 
tal study of means and devices, and training the personnel 
operating these devices during emergencies. A diagram 
of the training area is given. The training section is 
equipped with the most modern training aids. The medical 
section is engaged in studying the health of rescue wor- 
kers, occupational illnesses, and rendering first aid to vic- 
tims. 5 figs. (RZh) 

2179. Ivanov A 

VORONEZH TIRE FACTORY (FIRE SAFETY) 

Pozhar delo; (6): 14-15, 1976 (Russian) 

The work of the plant and workshop fire-engineering 
teams, which is aimed at increasing fire safety, is reported 
in the article. The teams conduct quarterly inspections 
of the workshops and storage areas, train the workmen 
and employees in fire safety measures, and study the 
fire-hazard properties of new substances and materials. 
A particular task of the teams is the introduction of in- 
novative proposals aimed at reducing the fire hazard of 
production processes and improving the fire safety of 
storage areas. (RZh) 

2180. Kitagawa T 

PROPOSALS TO PREVENT PLANT EXPLOSION AC- 
CIDENTS 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(7): 17-23, 1976 (Japanese) 

An analysis is made of the most typical causes of fires 
and explosions in industrial enterprises, and recommenda- 
tions are made on increasing the fire and explosion safety 
for a number of chemical production processes. In particu- 
lar, a description is given of a new complex safety system 
especially developed for machinery producing cyclohexane 
used in plants manufacturing nylon and other synthetic 
fibers. The complex system includes the following assem- 
blies: a subsystem for automatic supervision of the work- 
ing concentration of a mixture of combustible gas and 
oxidizer; a subsystem of automatic gas-ratio regulators 
maintaining the required fire- and explosion-safe concen- 
tration of the mixture of combustible gas and oxidizer 
in the feed lines; a subsystem of fixed gas analyzers that 
automatically signal any deviation in concentration from 
the norm; an automatic subsystem that cuts off the supply 
of gas to an apparatus when the required concentration 
is exceeded and. simultaneously, introduces an incom- 
bustible gas or retarding additives into the system. The 
system provides for partial mutual takeover of the func- 



401 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

tions of its subsystems. This principle of partial duplica- 
tion of functions also ensures maximum operating safety 
of large production machinery and is recommended for 
safety systems being developed for analogous industrial 
apparatus used in various plants of the chemical industry. 
4 figs, 2 tables, 7 refs. (RZh) 

2181. Sawaki Y and Nishikawa K 

STEPS TO ENSURE SAFETY IN MANUFACTURING 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(5):41-48, 1976 (Japanese) 

Examples of ensuring the fire safety of large unenclosed 
manufacturing machines are presented. In particular, the 
design and operating principle of the automatic fire extin- 
guishing system of open reactors for the production of 
caprolactam are described in detail. The system automati- 
cally detects the seat of a fire occurring on the surface 
of the reaction vessel or when hot liquid overflows onto 
the floor beneath the vessel and initiates a fire alarm 
signal, at the same time actuating the supply of extin- 
guishants. The automatic detection system consists of 
electrical rate-of-rise fire detectors, which respond to a 
difference (increase) in temperature, and sprinkler heads 
with low-melting locks located along the pipelines, which 
are filled with compressed air or nitrogen. When a fire 
breaks out, the fire detectors or sprinkler locks are trig- 
gered. The fire alarm is actuated automatically, as are 
the control and initiating assemblies through which water 
and foam concentrate are supplied. The system contains 
a foam agent proportioner. The mechanical foam consists 
of a 5% aqueous solution of foaming agent in a foam 
generator. Some advanced methods of preventing other 
types of accidents in plants of the chemical and phar- 
maceutical industry are also reported. 2 figs. (RZh) 

2182. Umehara T 

METHODS OF PREVENTING FIRES IN PETROLEUM 
PLANTS 

Puranto Enjinia; 8(7):29-32, 1976 (Japanese) 

The status of fire safety in plants of the Japanese 
petrochemical industry is briefly evaluated. Statistical data 
characterizing the magnitude and nature of the material 
losses from some large fires in petroleum storage installa- 
tions in the last five years are presented. The outlook 
for increasing fire safety in this branch of industry is 
discussed; in particular, a graphic plan of a number of 
organizational and engineering measures that are to be 
taken to increase the fire safety on a nationwide scale 
is given. The principal measures provide for training and 
the solution of problems in the following areas: reducing 
the fire hazard of materials used in production; improving 
production processes and equipment by improving the 
smoothness and continuity of these processes; expanding 
the use of new stable corrosion-resistant and incombusti- 
ble materials, including plastics, organosilicon compounds, 
etc; introducing highly effective protective devices to 
guarantee fire safety, such as lightning protectors, ground- 
ing devices, safety valves, etc; perfecting supervision of 
the status of production-line equipment; and rigorous 
maintenance of production in accordance with the existing 
regulations. This plan is designed to cover five years. 
Also discussed in brief is the organization of methods 
to supervise fulfillment of the plan by the individual com- 
panies of the Japanese petrochemical industry. 1 fig, 2 
tables. (RZh) 



2183. Darnel R 

FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION IN INDUSTRI- 
AL ESTABLISHMENTS 

Rev Tech Feu: 17(157):48-51 , 1976 (French) 

It is noted in a paper presented by the Representative 
of the French Technical Fire Safety Council at the Na- 
tional Research Institute that the number of fires in indus- 
try and the losses from them are growing continuously. 
In France there are fires in 5,000 industrial establishments 
annually; the number of fires with losses greater than 
5 million francs has increased from 13 in 1969 to 45 in 
1974; the losses from these 45 fires (610 million francs) 
exceeded the losses from 5.000 fires in 1969 (540 million 
francs). The main aspects of the fire hazards of industrial 
plants are analyzed. Recommendations are advanced for 
ensuring the fire safety of premises. 

2184. Thomas CL 

FIRE PROTECTION IN AUTOMATED TEXTILE 

MACHINERY; Paper No. 6/1-3 

Textile Industry Technical Conf, Annual, Proc: 1976. May 

6-7, Atlanta, GA 

Sponsor: IEEE 

This paper discusses the problems encountered in de- 
tecting and controlling fire in automated textile machinery 
and stock transfer ducts and lists some of the successful 
and unsuccessful approaches to the solution of these 
problems. Such solutions include thermal, smoke, ioniza- 
tion, and optical types of fire detection equipment and 
the reasons for the use of each. Also included are points 
concerning water, CO2, Halon and dry chemical extin- 
guishing agents. (Author) 

2185. Lemke E 

EDUCATION OF SAFETY ENGINEERS 

VFDB Z; 26(l):19-22, 1977 (German) 

For some years a course on machine-construction opera- 
tions, with emphasis in the areas of labor protection and 
occupational safety, hazard reduction and loss prevention, 
and general operations engineering, has been offered in 
the field of machine construction at the Berlin Technical 
University, along with courses on machine design and 
production. The syllabus of this course of study, the in- 
dividual course phases, and the scheduling are presented. 
The development of course materials for correspondence 
courses is discussed. 3 figs. (Fachdok 13/0389) 



2186. Buecher fnu 

FIRE PROTECTION IN 

PROCESSING FACILITIES 

Werkfeuerverband eV. Rundschreiben: 
(German) 



ELECTRONIC DATA 



(95):2-4. 19"; 



The two principal reasons for carefully planned fire- 
protection measures in electronic data processing centers 
are mentioned: 1) the high power requirements during 
operation and the readily combustible equipment materi- 
als; 2) the high concentration of valuable property in a 
small area. To date the most frequent causes of ignition 
were negligence on the part of the personnel and faults 
in the electrical system. As a result of these findings, 
a large catalogue of structural fire -protection measures 
has been compiled, which is being supplemented by spe- 
cial operational protective measures. (Fachdok 13/0388) 



402 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

2187. West PT 

WASH TANK TREATING CAN SAVE FUEL, REDUCE 
FIRE HAZARDS 

World Oil; l83(2):35-39. 1976 

In some producing areas, the wash tank method of 
separating oil emulsions can be an attractive alternative 
to use of direct fixed heaters. Primary considerations are 
safety, simplicity of operations, and conservation of fuel 
gas. Conversely, the large long-retention-time systems 
must be closely evaluated for gas handling abilities, corro- 
sion maintenance, and chemical costs. This article 
presents some useful designs for wash tank systems, in- 
cluding schematic drawings of internal features and typical 
basic calculations. The pros and cons of wash tank versus 
heater treaters are discussed. 6 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

e. INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 

2188. Meyer E 

FIRE HAZARDS CONNECTED WITH HEAT-TRANSFER 
OIL 

Brandschutz; 30(12):336, 1976 (German) 

A few of the many shortcomings of heating plants with 
heat-transfer oils are pointed out. At the present time 
the safety of such plants leaves much to be desired. Be- 
fore a heat-transfer oil plant for heating circuits in 
hospitals and other buildings containing large numbers of 
people, such as schools, halls, etc, functions correctly, 
many safety regulations must be met, so that the success 
of the plant rests not only in the thermal efficiency and 
economy, but also in the safety-engineering aspects of 
protecting the people living or working in them. 1 fig. 
(Fachdok 13/0303) 

2189. Pieper H 

AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION EQUIPMENT IN 
HOSPITALS 

Krankenhaus Umsch; 45(9):653-654, 1976 (German) 

The importance of the earliest possible warning of a 
fire outbreak in a hospital is stressed and two types of 
automatic detectors are described and illustrated: the 
ionization smoke detector, which contains a very weak 
radioactive substance that is affected by the penetration 
of smoke and actuates the alarm; and the rate-of-rise de- 
tector, which is actuated when the temperature increases 
by more than 10°C in a minute or when 70°C is exceeded. 
The air-conditioning plant must be continually monitored 
for smoke, as it can spread smoke to other parts of the 
building. Press button alarms are also useful. Detection 
systems are linked to a central fire alarm point that must 
have a direct link to the public fire service. 

2190. Przybilla L 

HOSPITAL FIRE PREVENTION REGULATIONS 

Krankenhaus Umsch; 45(9):646-648, 1976 (German) 

Effective fire protection in hospitals requires that all 
fire prevention regulations are fully observed and that, 
if a fire occurs, rescue and firefighting measures are ex- 
pedited and supported. This paper gives the text of the 
fire protection regulations in force at the 392-bed Marien 
Hospital, Essen (FRG). These regulations are made 
known, on appointment, to each staff member, who signs 
a form to say that he has read them. They cover fire 



prevention duties, location and use of equipment, and 
behavior during an outbreak (including giving the alarm, 
firefighting. care of patients, and rescue work). An appen- 
dix lists the West German acts, regulations, orders, 
guidelines, and standards concerned with fire protection. 

f. MINING 

[For more complete coverage of the mining literature 
see SMRE Safety in Mines Abstracts (UK) ] 

2191. Kushnarev AM, Lapin K.I. Korzhov VT and 
Sergienko VI 

FIRE PROTECTION OF EXCAVATING RIGS USING 
WATER-SPRAY SYSTEMS 

Gornospasat delo; (13):3-6. 1976 (Russian) 

The design of an automatic water-spray system for the 
suppression of fires in long working faces equipped with 
excavating rigs is described. The results of field tests 
are given. (RZh) 

2192. Bolbat IE and Lebedev VI 

STOPPING THE MAIN VENTILATION FANS DURING 
UNDERGROUND FIRES 

Ugol; (9):58-60, 1 976 (Russian) 

Calculations and observations show that although the 
overall natural draft of mines deeper than 500 m 
throughout the year is, as a rule, in the same direction 
as the depression of the fans of the main ventilation 
system, the natural draft in shafts not infrequently 
changes directions even in the course of one day. In 
such cases, when the main ventilation fans are stopped, 
very often the air flows recirculate, resulting in contamina- 
tion of all the mine workings with combustion products. 
It is concluded that the main ventilation fans must not 
be stopped during fires, not only in vertical and inclined 
workings, but also in horizontal ones. If they are forced 
to stop, special measures to prevent or reduce recircula- 
tion of the air flows must be taken. 4 figs, 4 refs. 

g. POWER PLANTS 

2193. Anon 

TESTS WITH A FIRE-RESISTANT FLUID IN THE 
LUBRICATING AND HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF A 
STEAM TURBINE 

Maschinenschaden; 50(l):19-20, 1977 (German) 

Since fires from turbine oil leakage have caused con- 
siderable damage in recent years, the idea of replacing 
mineral lubricating oils by synthetic fluids with a higher 
ignition point has been resurrected. Positive laboratory 
tests of phosphate esters as lubricating agents are available 
from the United States, but adequate operational trials 
are as yet unknown. For this reason, tests were carried 
out in one of the steam turbines of the heating plant 
of the Technical University of Munich. The results are 
reported in this article. 20 refs. (Fachdok 13/0466) 

2194. Steinbauer E 

SAFETY AND FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES IN 
REMOTE-CONTROLLED PLANTS 

Oesterr Z Elektrizitaetswirtsch; 29(6):253-258, 1976 
(German; English and French Summaries) 



403 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

g. Power Plants — Continued 

For reasons of economy and operational convenience, 
remote control of transformer substations and power 
plants from central control points or master stations has 
become common practice. The fact that these stations 
are unmanned, however, has resulted in various safety 
and fire protection problems. The solutions found for 
problems in the particular case of the STEWEAG, the 
electrical supply system of the Province of Styria, Austria, 
is described in detail following a description of the basic 
layout of the remote control system. On the basis of 
the example of the new control center in Graz, it is shown 
that integrated remote-control stations even offer certain 
advantages from the safety-engineering standpoint in that 
multiple supervisory controls are possible. 10 figs, 1 ref. 

h. PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

2195. Elifani G 

RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF SOME MATERIALS 
IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

Antincendio protez civ; 28(4):259-261 , 1976 (Italian) 

Recently articles made from plastics have been widely 
used in construction as facing, decorative and insulating 
materials. But the large number of fires with losses in 
human life have made it necessary to take a critical look 
at the use of plastics in construction, especially in public 
buildings. The particular fire hazard of plastics is the high 
toxicity of the smoke and gas they release during com- 
bustion. In addition, some plastics (polyvinylchloride, 
polyethylene, polypropylene, etc) melt at a comparatively 
low temperature (135-160°C), which is one of the causes 
of fire spread if the fire breaks out in the upper part 
of an enclosure and burning particles drop on the floor. 
Some kinds of plastics (polystyrene and polyurethane) 
have a high rate of fire spread. In this connection, the 
standards in effect in Italy classify plastics by their degree 
of flammability, ignition point, melting tendencies, and 
rate of fire spread: (MO) — noncombustible; (Ml) — non- 
flammable; (M2) difficultly flammable; (M3) 
moderately flammable; (M4) — readily flammable; and 
(M5) — very highly flammable. In accordance with the 
classification of plastics for different public buildings 
(restaurants, hospitals, etc), certain classes of plastics can 
be used, depending on the number of people occupying 
a premise at the same time, the number of floors, etc. 
The existing standards also limit the amount of plastics 
that can be used for m 3 of area. 6 refs. (RZh) 

2196. Anon 

PROTECTION OF REST HOMES, NURSERIES, 
NURSING HOMES, HOTELS AND BOARDING HOUSES 

Electro Rev; 68(28):705-706, 1976 (German; French) 

Under supervision of the TNO Materials Testing In- 
stitute (the Netherlands) tests were carried out in Arnhem 
to determine the development of fires in rest homes, 
hotels, boarding houses and the like. Of particular interest 
in this connection was the question of the CO level in 
rooms at which it is required to awaken sleeping occu- 
pants via alarms or to rescue them from the outside. 
Ionization, optical and rate-of-rise detectors, as well as 
sprinkler nozzles, were tested. It was found that ionization 
detectors best fulfilled the requirements of protection for 
such institutions. 2 figs. 



i. RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

2197. OHagan JT 

HIGHRISE/FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY; 2X8 pages. 1976 
Dun Donnelley, NY 

The hard-earned lessons of highrise fires are told by 
the New York State Fire Commissioner. The author pro- 
vides the foundation for readers to develop the necessary 
skills to deal successfully with highrise fires. The book 
details the concepts and criteria that have been developed 
to build safe highrise buildings and to fight fires in them. 
The experience of the author will help to identify and 
correct conditions which could contribute to large fires 
and loss of life. The individual chapters are as follows: 
Evolution of the Highrise Building; Today"s Highrise - 
Central Core, Thin Skin; Full-Scale Fire Tests in a 22- 
Story Building; Organizing the Building's Resources; 
Structural Features - Effect on Fire: Basic Fire Fighting 
Strategy; Strategies Used at Actual Fires: Tactical Com- 
mand at the Highrise Fire; Highrise Holocausts in South 
America; and The Residential Highrise. The text is pro- 
vided with 125 photographs, two-color line drawings, 
charts and diagrams. 

j. TRANSPORTATION (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 

2198. Lauriente M and Wiggins JH 

A NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR FIRE SAFETY IN 
TRANSPORTATION 

Transportation Conf, Intersociety, 4th. Papers: 1976, Jul 

18-24. Los Angeles, CA 

Sponsor: Intersociety Committee on Transportation 

Fire is one of the many hazards that must be addressed 
within the concept of transportation safety and all its 
ramifications and influences on the other vital concerns 
of the nation. It is the purpose of this paper to outline 
a methodology based on risk analysis, technology analysis 
and policy analysis techniques to meet the requirements 
of the Secretary of Transportation. The methodology and 
the current conflicting policies that support the need for 
such a new policy development are demonstrated. 

2199. Hunt WR 

THE SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF FIRE PREVENTION AT 
VICKERS SHIPBUILDING 

Fire Prev; (118):16-20, 1977 

Vickers Ltd Shipbuilding Group at Barrow-in-Furness. 
UK, is the largest single employer of labor in Cumbria, 
with a workforce of some 14.000 men and women. The 
site consists of an engineering complex of 62 acres and 
a shipbuilding area of 78 acres, together with a 27-acre 
dock system. There is also an airfield some 2 miles from 
the main works. Each of these is covered by units of 
the main- works fire brigade. This article deals only with 
the special problems of the shipbuilding section. The fire 
hazards, grouped under the 4 headings of: 1) the variety 
of vessels built: 2) changes in the methods used, especially 
in hot work operations: 3) the continuous increase in a 
vessel's fire load during the course of its construction: 
and 4) the problems arising from the materials employed, 
are discussed first, followed by an outline of the fire 
service, its contact with the local fire brigade and the 
Royal Navy, the fire prevention committee, fire problems, 
shipboard precautions and equipment, training, contingen- 
cy planning, and fire exercises. 7 photos. 



404 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



(>. I IK I SAIL I Y 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) — Continued 

2200. Smith JRG 

FIRE SAFETY IN SHIPS: A REVIEW OF INTERNA- 
TIONAL REGULATIONS; SUGGESTIONS FOR IM- 
PROVEMENT IN FIRE SAFETY EQUIPMENT 

Safety Sea Internal, (89):20-23, 26, 1976 

The processes for the development and introduction of 
international marine fire safety regulations result in a 
delay of some considerable time before they become man- 
datory. Hence, the applicable regulations tend to lag be- 
hind current knowledge and experience and contain defi- 
ciencies in that light. The objectives of this article are 
as follows: to point out some of the deficiencies in exist- 
ing applicable fire safety regulations; to draw attention 
to amendments that have been developed to remedy these 
deficiencies, but which have not yet been adopted interna- 
tionally, to urge that those amendments be adopted, if 
necessary, on a voluntary basis before they become man- 
datory, and to suggest further improvements that could 
be made to the regulations, some of which could be 
adopted immediately and at relatively little cost. 2 figs, 
2 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 



2201 . Anon 

FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING 

VIVAL 

Safety Sea Internal: (89):7-8, 1976 



AN EXERCISE IN SUR- 



Losses due to fire on ships are decreasing, and most 
of those recorded are in ships sailing under the more 
irresponsible flags of convenience. The decline is the fruit 
of the improved education of the seafarer in fire hazards, 
minimization of fire risks on board ships, and in practical 
experience gained by the seafarer under trained fire of- 
ficers at well-organized, ship-oriented courses ashore, 
which are mandatory for candidates seeking the British 
Certificate of Competency. The ship emergency plan, 
prominently displayed in several places around the ship, 
provides all the information needed for emergency situa- 
tions. Specialized companies are experts at designing a 
firefighting system geared to a particular ship's needs and 
overseeing installation. Manuals are available regarding 
fire hazards of cargoes and proper method of storage. 
This situation is contrasted with the past experience of 
a fire incident dating from the 1880's. 1 fig. 

2202. Koboyashi H 

FIRE SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND 

RAILWAYS 

Tetsudo Doboku: 18(4):265-268, 1976 (Japanese) 

Light is shed on a number of problems connected with 
ensuring fire safety in underground railways, in subway 
systems and tunnels. It is stated that the greatest fire 
hazards are tunnel sections of multi-track railways 
powered by a d-c rail of up to 30 kV. Such railways 
are widespread in Japan: the total length of such tunnels 
is 6,000 meters. Subway trains in Tokyo are also powered 
by a d-c contact rail, and therefore the same fire-safety 
requirements are valid for both types of transit. The prin- 
cipal requirement is fully automated fire detection and 
shut-off of the power source over the affected section 
of the line when a fire breaks out. Recommendations 
are made on the use of specific fire detection and extin- 
guishing systems, as well as on the choice of heat-resistant 
electric power cables for electrical commutation in tunnels 



and of fire-retardant paint and varnish coatings for tunnel 
and car walls and fittings. Also presented is a model 
regulation for various kinds of fire-fighting measures, both 
organizational and technical, eg. preventive inspection of 
equipment, training of service personnel, etc. (RZh) 

2203. Hill R. Boris FN and Johnson GR 

AIRCRAFT CABIN COMPARTMENTATION CONCEPTS 

FOR IMPROVING POSTCRASH FIRE SAFETY. Nat 

Aviat Facilities Experim Center. Atlantic City, NJ; FAA 
NA-76-12, FAA RD-76-131. 74 paces. Oct 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 051/4GA 

Aircraft cabin compartmentation was investigated as a 
means of increasing escape time for passengers during 
a postcrash cabin fire. The size and configuration of vari- 
ous partitions and/or curtains were investigated to deter- 
mine their effectiveness in providing protection from a 
cabin fire by limiting the spread of heat, smoke, carbon 
monoxide (CO), and the depletion of oxygen from the 
vicinity of the fire to other areas of the cabin. The results 
of these tests indicated that a tightly sealed partition 
and/or curtain afforded the greatest protection from the 
spread of a given amount of heat, smoke, CO, and deple- 
tion of oxygen. The results also indicated that the use 
of compartmentation can adversely affect the intensity 
of a fire in an unclosed area, creating more products 
of combustion. Except for a limited number of cases, 
the amount of protection provided by the partition ex- 
ceeded the increase in fire intensity. (Author) 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. ADMINISTRATION, ORGANIZATION AND 
MANAGEMENT 

2204. Konig A 

DO YOU NEED AN ANALYST? 

Fire Command: 44(1): 16-1 7, 1977 

The Chief of the Vancouver Fire Department, British 
Columbia, Canada, describes his experiences in searching 
for a fire department analyst and the requirements for 
such a position, the chief ones being: skill in using mathe- 
matics as applied to engineering and research computation: 
the ability to readily acquire knowledge of fire department 
operations and equipment and the principles of fire protec- 
tion and prevention; and application of the general princi- 
ples of systems analysis and engineering to specific fire 
department problems. 

2205. Townley JP 
INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY 

Fire Chief: 21 (3): 36-38, 1977 

Fire prevention activity, including an inspection pro- 
gram, public education, training, fire/rescue service, fire 
safety patrolling, addition of the Rapid Water system, 
and code enforcement are some of the ways in which 
firefighter productivity can be increased to reduce fire 
losses and to help hold municipal budgets to a reasonable 
level. 



405 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 



b. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

2206. Robertson WD 

HOW DO YOU KEEP THEM READY? 

Fire Command; 44(1):18-21, 1977 

The Superintendent of Operations of the Seattle, WA, 
Sea-Tac International Airport describes the recruit training 
program, coupled with a well-rounded retraining schedule, 
to maintain a highly satisfactory level of proficiency in 
fire-fighting personnel. These training and retraining pro- 
grams, in conjunction with maximum use of personnel 
in such activities as inspection and control of the airport 
water distribution system, satisfy the two challenges of 
prime concern to chief administrators of an airport fire 
department, namely, to train fire-fighting personnel to a 
high state of readiness and to maintain suitable interest 
and alertness within each member of his department. 

2207. Graham CH 

TRAINING AND SAFETY IN THE FIRE SERVICE 

Fire Eng J; 36(104):29-31 , 1976 

The areas where dangers exist for the firefighter, name- 
ly, the station and its environs, the station's fire coverage 
area, and the fireground and accident scene, are first 
identified, and then the concept of "safe person/safe 
place" as an approach to the safety problem is discussed. 
The present tendency is to move away from the "safe 
person" approach toward the "safe place" approach, 
because the latter is more readily identifiable and its 
benefits and results are quantifiable, whereas the pay- 
off from safety training in the "safe person" approach 
is said to be comparatively less effective and profitable. 
The Fire Service training procedures, embodied in its 
Code of Safety Practice, are outlined, and the need for 
continuation training is emphasized. The relaxation in the 
"safe person" approach that occurs when too much 
emphasis is placed on the "safe place" approach is 
identified as an additional danger. (This paper was 
presented at the Institution of Fire Engineers Conference 
at Harrogate (UK) on 11-12 October, 1976.) 

2208. Richards DR 

REDUCING THE RISKS IN A FIREMAN'S WORK 

Fire Eng J; 36(104):21-24, 1976 

Ways in which firemen must be prepared at each stage 
of training to enable them to contribute to their own safety 
and that of their team are put into perspective. Risks 
are identified, objectives relating to individuals and the 
environment (the safe person/safe place concept), UK 
legislation, training, accidents and their prevention, 
breathing apparatus, leadership, and the UK code of 
safety practice for the fire service are the topics discussed 
in this paper, which was presented at the Institution of 
Fire Engineers conference at Harrogate (UK) on 11-12 
October, 1976. 1 fig. 

2209. Dallman BE and DeLeo PJ 

EFFECTIVENESS OF SMOKE ABATED TRAINING IN 
SIMULATED CRASH FIREFIGHTING. Brooks AFB. Air 
Force Human Resources Lab, TX; AFHRL TR-76-60. 39 
pages, Aug 1976 

Availability: NTIS AD-A034 843/3GA 



Concern for the environment has resulted in the 
development of a water spray apparatus that can greatly 
reduce the smoke associated with aircraft crash fire simu- 
lations used in firefighter training. This study compared 
the effectiveness of smoke-abated training with conven- 
tional procedures. Results showed no significant dif- 
ferences between students trained under smoke-abated 
conditions and those who experienced natural, or smoky, 
fires during training. However, students who had received 
smoke-abated training were less confident and more un- 
sure of the effectiveness of their training than conven- 
tional students. It was concluded that smoke-abated train- 
ing can be an effective method for training for protection 
specialists with certain constraints. Recommendations re- 
garding employment of the smoke-suppression apparatus 
are provided in the report. (Author) 

c. FACILITIES 

2210. Hall E and Torregas C 

A NEW TOOL TO SELECT FIRE STATION SITES 

Fire Chief; 20(1 1):36-38, 1976 

A computer has been developed to assist in the process 
of fire station location based on actual travel times on 
existing city streets, taking into account traffic congestion, 
one-way streets, hills, etc. The program has been supple- 
mented to include results in computer-drawn maps show- 
ing land use, fire incidents, transportation network, and 
actual response times. The methodology consists of 
several data collection forms, computer programs, and 
manuals to help each municipality solve its own fire pro- 
tection problem. 4 figs. 

2211. Hildebrand FC 

POLLUTION CONTROL AT NAVY FIRE-FIGHTING 
SCHOOLS 

Mil Eng; 68(442): 100-101 , 1976 

An essential element in the training curriculum of 
firefighters is exposure to actual or simulated fires, which, 
for the Navy fire-fighting schools, has been accomplished 
in ship mock-up structures, in which various petroleum 
fuels producing large quantities of smoke are ignited. To 
combat the nuisance of smoke to the nearby civilian popu- 
lation, two smoke removal methods were investigated, the 
afterburner and water spray methods. The afterburner 
system collects the smoke-laden gases and heats them 
to a minimum of 1 ,500°F for thermal oxidation. The 
water-spray technique uses an atomized water spray in- 
jected over the surface of the burning oil in conjunction 
with an automatic ignition system. The training devices 
and the smoke-abatement systems used with them are 
described, as are other ongoing smoke-abatement studies. 
2 figs. 

2212. Goldsmith A 

DEVELOPMENT OF SMOKE ABATED AIRCRAFT 
CRASH/RESCUE FIRE FIGHTING TRAINER. IIT Res 

Inst, Chicago, IL; IITRI J6339, NAVTRAEQU1PC-74-C- 
0152-1, 127 pages. May 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A035 999/2GA 

It was shown previously that liquid petroleum fuels can 
be burned from a free surface without smoke generation 
by injecting a water spray near the surface of the burning 



406 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

c. Facilities — Continued 

fuel. This program concerned the extension of this smoke- 
abatement method to aircraft crash/rescue trainers involv- 
ing fire spread to about 3000 sq ft. Smoke-abated fires 
of realistic severity for training purposes were obtained 
using either JP-4 or automotive gasoline, while JP-5 and 
No. 2 diesel oil were found ineffective for this purpose. 
Field experiments proved the compatibility of smoke- 
abated JP-4 fires with extinguishment using aqueous film- 
forming foam. A detailed design is presented for a 50- 
ft diameter smoke-abated fire area for firefighting training, 
together with step-by-step procedures for its operation. 
(Author) 

d. GENERAL EQUIPMENT 

2213. Kugelman M 

SAFETY WITH PRESSURIZED HOSE LINES 

Brewers Digest; 51(6):44-46, 1976 

When a hose line carrying pressurized steam, air, water 
or other liquids or gases breaks or blows off, the results 
can be both expensive and devastating. Many precautions 
can be taken by operators and maintenance men to reduce 
the potential for failure. Modern hose couplings and 
clamps are designed to provide maximum safety, but the 
use of the hardware is more critical to safety than is 
the hardware design. Simple pointers are presented to 
make pressurized equipment safer and its operation more 
efficient and less expensive. 6 figs. 

2214. Longcroft T 

FIRE ENGINE DESIGN — WHICH WAY? 

Commer Motor; 143(3654):55-58, 1976 

Cuts in government spending in the UK have caused 
Fire Brigades to take a closer look at replacement vehicle 
requirements. Many are turning to cheaper chassis derived 
from truck models rather than the specialist chassis. The 
average service life of a specialist-built chassis is 10 to 
12 years, which compares well with that of the truck- 
derived chassis. The trend is toward volume-produced 
chassis on which modular body units can be mounted 
to produce a standard apparatus. The emphasis on easy 
driving leads to an automatic gearbox, leaving the driver's 
hands free to control the vehicle. A higher capacity rear 
axle is also required to cope with the extra torque. Also 
discussed are cab developments, rear engine location, 
wood frame and aluminum clad timber panels for bodies, 
and other aspects. 8 photos. 

2215. Loeb DL 

LARGE DIAMETER HOSE 

Fire Chief; 20(1 1):39-44, 1976 

In this third installment of a five-part series on large- 
diameter hoses, the larger sizes from 4 to 6 in., as well 
as the equipment, couplings, and fittings required to use 
the hose, are discussed. The hoses, supplier firms, water- 
hammer effects, tests with 5-in. hose, etc are described. 
(For preceding and subsequent installments by this author, 
see the author index.) 13 photos, 1 table. 

2216. Loeb DL 

LARGE DIAMETER HOSE 

Fire Chief; 21(l):60-62, 64. 66-67, 1977 



In this final fifth installment on large-diameter hose 
(LDH), the author discusses the facts and opinions result- 
ing from a questionnaire sent to fire chiefs using such 
hose. Some of the questions asked were: How do you 
load your LDH° What type load do you use? How is 
LDH hose being used in urban firefighting 9 How many 
units do you have equipped with LDH? etc. 6 photos. 

2217. Waters JM 

SLEP — HOW TO BEAT THE RISING COST OF FIRE 
APPARATUS 

Fire Chief; 20(1 1 ):33-35, 1976 

A Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) for aircraft, 
involving modifying, updating, and repairing, has been 
adopted as an alternative to buying increasingly expensive 
new firefighting equipment. The SLEP experience of the 
Jacksonville, Florida, department is recounted. 2 photos. 

2218. Kotov A 
HIGH-EXPANSION FOAM GENERATORS 

Pozhar delo; (10):28, 1976 (Russian) 

Specialists of the Leningrad branch of the All-Union 
Fire Protection Research Institute (USSR) have 
developed, produced and tested four fan-type foam 
generators for foam with an expansion factor of about 
1,000, two of which have been introduced into service 
in the district, one truck-mounted (GVPV-400) with an 
output of 400 m 3 /min, the other trailer-mounted (GVPV- 
250) with an output of 250 m 3 /min. The technical charac- 
teristics of these four generators are given in a table. 
These generators are recommended for the suppression 
of large- volume enclosure fires. 2 photos. 1 table. 

2219. Sokolov V 

FIREFIGHTERS ON THE KAMCHATKA PENINSULA 

Pozhar delo; (11)10-11, 1976 (Russian) 

The climatic conditions on the Kamchatka peninsula 
(USSR), namely, thick fog in the summer and snow cover 
in the winter, have left their mark on the organization 
of the fire service. The District Executive Committee has 
approved a plan for basic fire-protection measures. Atten- 
tion is devoted in this plan to questions of both prevention 
and suppression. Particular emphasis was placed on equip- 
ment. Because of the high humidity, hoses have to be 
dried frequently, even when they are not used. Particu- 
larly important for the wintertime are high-mobility fire 
apparatus capable of carrying large quantities of water. 
These requirements are met by a fire apparatus made 
by local efficiency experts from the chassis of a T-34 
tank. A 13 m 3 watertank, a monitor, and an M-1600 
motor-operated pump were mounted on the chassis. The 
fire-fighting tank has completely justified the funds spent 
on it. (RZh) 

2220. Anon 

FIREFIGHTING TUGS BUILT IN BELGIUM 

Ship World Shipbuild; 169(3915):264-265, 1976 

The particulars and two photographs of a series of four 
tugs constructed specifically to handle large tankers are 
given. The interesting feature of these tugs is their fire- 
fighting ability. Each tug has triple monitors with a capaci- 
ty of 2,000 tons of water per hour. Two jets are mounted 
on a platform above the wheelhouse and a third on a 



407 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
d. General Equipment — Continued 

telescopic tower with a maximum extension of 24m above 
the waterline. A monitor-controlled oil slick gathering and 
dispersal system has been installed on board each tug. 
2 photos. 

2221 . Bernstein JL and Kovach PE 

FIRE HOSE NOZZLE COUPLER SWITCH 

US Patent No. 3,943,312; CI 200/61.58 R, (H01H 3/16), 
Appl 14 Feb 1975, Disci. 9 Mar 1976, Assignee: Grumman 
Aerospace Corp, Bethpage, NY 

An electrical switch assembly includes a housing 
adapted to be coupled to a hose and nozzle to form a 
fluid passage therebetween. The assembly has a pair of 
reed switches that provide signal input to circuitry and 
each switch may be activated by the manual rotation of 
a sleeve. The sleeve carries a magnet to actuate the switch 
and may be rotated in either direction from a centered 
position between the reed switches. 6 claims, 4 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




2222. Gagliardo JP 
FIREFIGHTING TURRET 

US Patent No. 3,989,109; CI 169/24, (A62C 27/16), Appl 
21 Jul 1975, Disci. 2 Nov 1976, Assignee: Feecon Corp, 
Westboro, MA 

Disclosed is a fire-fighting turret including three 90° el- 
bows arranged seriatim with swivel joints where the two 
end elbows are connected to the central elbow attached 
to a second turret in such a manner that reaction forces 
create no problem and the field of aiming is affected 
very little. 8 claims, 6 drawing figs. (Author) 




2223. Hux FM and Hudson T 
FIRE FIGHTING APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 4,007,793; CI 169/25, (A62C 27/00), 
Appl 25 Aug 1975, Disci. 15 Feb 1977 

Apparatus for fighting fires including a plurality of noz- 
zles mounted on an aerial ladder and supplied with water 
under pressure which is directed onto the fire is disclosed. 
Each of the nozzles is controlled from a remote position 
in a manner such that the direction of the water and 
the intensity of the water being discharged can be altered 
as desired. 6 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 




2224. Matsuyama T, Nishida T and Uraya T 
PORTABLE FIRE HOSE 

US Patent No. 3,942,636; CI 206/349, Appl 8 Mar 1973, 
Disci. 9 Mar 1976, Priority: Japan, 30 Mar 1972, 47- 
3801 9[U], Assignee: Kanebo Ltd, Japan 

Disclosed is a portable fire hose composed of a foldable 
fire hose and a wrapping sheet member provided with 
at least one fastening member secured to the wrapping 
sheet member to tighUy wrap the fire hose in its folded 
condition. The fire hose is provided with a metallic joint 
composed of a male member rigidly mounted on one end 
of the fire hose and a female member rigidly mounted 
on the other end of the fire hose. The fastening member 
is provided with at least one velvet type fastener. 5 
claims, 7 drawing figs. (Author) 




408 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
d. General Equipment — Continued 

2225. Terayama F and Nakagawa S 

DEVICE FOR PREVENTING JUTTING-OUT OF 

LADDER TRUCK 

US Patent No. 3,980,156; CI 182/66, (E06C 5/06), Appl 
25 Aug 1975, Disci. 14 Sep 1976, Assignee: Morita Pump 
KK, Osaka, Japan 

There is provided a device for preventing the jutting- 
out of the ladder of a ladder truck, wherein when the 
extending and contracting operation of an extensible 
ladder is completed and a ladder extending and contracting 
changeover valve is returned to its neutral position, 
locking levers are automatically turned to their locking 
position with respect to several stage ladders required 
to be prevented from jutting out, thereby providing for 
prevention of jutting-out, whereas at the time of extension 
and contraction of the extensible ladder said locking levers 
are turned to their retracted position to enable the exten- 
sion and contraction to be effected without hindrance. 
2 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 

* /I 

/4- 




e. INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

2226. Abramov M 

SEMIAUTOMATIC ELECTRIFIED REGIONAL FIRE 
CONTROL MAP 

Pozhar delo; (12):26, 1976 (Russian) 

A semiautomatic electrified regional fire control map 
consisting of a control station and a 3.2 x 2.0 m wooden 
panel with numbers for target facilities and jacks and 
plugs has been installed at the Angarsk fire control center 
of the Irkutsk District in Siberia, USSR. The fire-fighting 
situation is monitored by means of indicator lamps in 
various colors, symbols, connecting bands, etc. The in- 
dicator lamps show the situation in each installation of 
the system: the fire-extinguishing equipment, operational 
status, fire hazards, etc. The map also permits the opera- 
tor to control the fire operations. 1 fig. 

f. INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

2227. Guenther DA, McGarry DL, Shearer RP and 
MacCleary RC 

FIRE ANALYSES FROM MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 

Fire Technol; 12(3): 173-1 85, 1976 

Often after a severe fire, evidence of a flammable liquid 
cannot be accurately determined. It is therefore imperative 
that some additional physical measurement be made on 
something that is remaining. Pieces of metal are left after 
a fire. It has been proposed that the tensile properties 
of the metal would certainly change with extremes of 



temperature. If certain limits could be established that 
would allow predictions to be made regarding the tempera- 
ture to which a certain piece of metal had been subjected, 
the fire investigator could make a decision based upon 
what temperatures could be expected in a normal fire 
and one that was accelerated. This paper is a preliminary 
investigation into the feasibility of determining fire causes 
by analysis of tensile properties of metals. 17 figs, 9 refs. 
(NFPA) 

2228. Bezuglov M 

FIRE INVESTIGATION EXPERTISE 

Pozhar delo; (10):23-24, 1976 (Russian) 

In the USSR all fire incidents are investigated as a 
matter of law by fire inspectors. In difficult cases experts 
are called in to assist in the investigation. The order in 
which expert investigations are carried out and the preced- 
ing steps and documents made available to the expert 
are detailed. It is emphasized that the quality of this in- 
vestigation depends on the timeliness of calling in the 
experts. The primary material of the investigation is the 
fire scene proper. The problems to be solved by the expert 
are determination of the seat of the fire, its causes, viola- 
tions of the fire safety regulations, causal connection 
between the violations, the outbreak of the fire and its 
development. The roles of the expert and the specialist, 
who may also be called in by the investigator to add 
his particular knowledge on some specific point, are not 
to be confused, since their training and spheres of activity 
are different. 

2229. Berrin ER 

INVESTIGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHY. Soc Fire Prot Engrs, 
Boston, MA; SFPE TR-77-1, 1 1 pages, 5 figs, 1977 
Availability: SFPE 

This article is directed toward arson investigators, fire 
protection consultants, engineers, metallurgists, or other 
technical specialists who could use photography as an 
adjunct to their reports and as a valuable aid in court. 
Cameras, light meters, electronic flashes, filters, and film 
suitable for investigative photography are discussed in 
nontechnical language, as well as techniques such as 
shutter speed, diaphragm settings, lighting, and composi- 
tion. Numerous tips are given, along with special require- 
ments of investigative photography, with emphasis on the 
admissibility of photographs in court. (Author) 

g. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

2230. Burgess WA, Sidor R, Lynch JJ, Buchanan P and 
Clougherty E 

MINIMUM PROTECTION FACTORS FOR RESPIRATO- 
RY PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR FIREFIGHTERS 

Am Ind Hyg Assoc J; 38(l):18-23, 1977 

Carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations were mea- 
sured in 72 structural fires using a personal air sampler 
carried by working firefighters. In a total sampling time 
of 1329 minutes the carbon monoxide concentration ex- 
ceeded 500 ppm approximately 29% of the time. The max- 
imum carbon monoxide concentration wis 27,000 ppm, 
and in 10% of the fires the maximum concentration ex- 
ceeded 5,500 ppm. Only six runs indicated oxygen concen- 
trations less than 18%. On the basis of these exposure 



409 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
g. Personal Equipment — Continued 

data, a minimum protective factor of 100 is proposed 
for breathing apparatus for structural firefighting. 9 figs, 
1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

2231. Anon 
PROTECTIVE FACE MASKS 

Antincendio protez civ; 28(3):191-192, 1976 (Italian) 

Protective helmets and masks are important components 
of a fireman's equipment. Protective masks must meet 
certain specifications, such as reliable fire protection and 
good visibility. A special study has been made to select 
optimal mask characteristics. The prime result was the 
determination that masks used for similar purposes (eg, 
in metallurgy) are not suitable for fire extinguishing 
because they do not protect certain parts of the face 
reliably. A face sleeve made of rubberized fabric 2 mm 
thick is recommended to protect the faces of firefighters. 
This equipment is recommended for extinguishing 
liquefied-gas, combustible-liquid, vehicle, and other fires. 
(RZh) 

2232. Stoll AM, Munroe LR, Chianta MA, Piergallini JR 
and Zaccaria DE 

FACILITY AND A METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF 

THERMAL PROTECTION 

Aviat, Space and Environ Med; 47(1 1 ): 1177-1 181 , 1976 

The rationale, construction, operation, and protection 
assessment methodology of the Naval Air Development 
Center Fuel Fire Test Facility is described. The 
background and developmental progress to date are 
discussed. It is shown that the main difficulties associated 
with full-scale evaluation of fire-protective clothing have 
been identified and largely surmounted for present practi- 
cal purposes. Evaluation can now be made reliably with 
a reasonably small number of prototypes. Modifications 
in apparatus and method can be made to provide for 
other studies. Future effort should be directed toward 
engineering development of scalar models on the one hand 
and, on the other, basic research into the depth of burns 
associated with thermal exposures to radiation and to 
flame contact. Engineering effort on scalar modeling may 
greatly reduce the time and cost of obtaining valid burn 
protection assessments. 17 refs. (Author) 

2233. Meyer EC 

MEDICAL TESTING OF BREATHING APPARATUS 

Draegerheft; (306):23-27, 1976 (German) 

The aim of the investigations was to record test data 
relating to the physiology of breathing in order to prove 
that there are no objections to the use of the positive- 
pressure system. A special positive-pressure lung simula- 
tor was used for the tests. During the tests the breathing 
process was simulated with normal pressure, that is, nega- 
tive inhalation phase, with the prescribed positive pres- 
sure, and with an intentionally higher setting of the posi- 
tive pressure. The lung simulator with the prescribed posi- 
tive pressure, or protective pressure, did not exhibit any 
changes in measured values compared to the simulator 
at normal setting. Anomalous symptoms were detected 
at the higher positive-pressure setting. 7 figs, 3 refs. 
(Fachdok 13/0367) 



2234. Schlobohm J 

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREATHING AP- 
PARATUS USED FOR MEDICAL TESTS 

Draegerheft; (306):23-27, 1976 (German) 

A technical description is given of the breathing ap- 
paratus and lung simulator used to check the suitability 
of using a positive-pressure system in breathing apparatus. 
For the medical tests see the article by EC Meyer, 
"Medical Testing of Breathing Apparatus," in the same 
issue of Draegerheft. 7 figs, 3 refs. (Fachdok 13/0367) 



2235. Warncke E 

THE POSITIVE-PRESSURE SYSTEM 

PRESSED-AIR BREATHING APPARATUS 

Draegerheft; (306):2-15, 1976 (German) 



FOR COM- 



The excess-pressure system for compressed-air 
breathing apparatus is explained. The starting point is a 
discussion of the leakage rates of older masks as com- 
pared with the much lower rates of contemporary masks. 
Nevertheless, there are cases of use of breathing ap- 
paratus where the positive-pressure system may be ad- 
vantageous. The system, as it compares with the normal 
compressed-air apparatus, is described in generally un- 
derstandable language using graphic displays for both 
static and dynamic conditions. On the basis of the 
physiology of respiration it is shown how important it 
is to reduce the exhalation resistance as fully as possible. 
A decision tool for choosing an apparatus is given, using 
computational examples of the types of leakage that are 
permissible in the case of respiratory toxins. 6 figs, 7 
refs. (Fachdok 13/0343) 

2236. Varnedoe WW, Jr 

DIFFERENT DEVICE FOR SLIDING A ROPE 

Fire Eng; 130(3):27-28, 1977 

The history of the art of rappeling down a rope as 
practiced by mountain climbers and spelunkers and as 
applied to firefighter escape is briefly reviewed. The latest 
friction device to control descent, a rack (elongated 
carabiner with brakebars that swing open to opposite 
sides), and its use are described. 3 figs, 2 photos. 

2237. Karpekin VV 

COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 
PROTECTIVE GAS- AND HEAT-RESISTANT SUITS 

Gornospasat delo; (13):34-38, 1976 (Russian) 

A method for complex assessment of the effectiveness 
of protective gas- and heat-resistant clothing is presented. 
taking into account both the protective features and the 
constraints on the physical ability of the wearer. Formulas 
for calculating the absolute complex efficiency index for 
each suit and for comparative assessment are given. A 
complex assessment of the effectiveness of any other type 
of individual protection of human beings may serve as 
the basis for this method. (RZh) 

2238. Gehrmann W 

FLAMM ABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTrVE 
CLOTHING 

Lenzinger Ber; (40):96-101, 1976 (German; English Sum- 
mary) 



410 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
g. Personal Equipment — Continued 

Realizing that hazards have become more complex 
despite or, more precisely, because of technical advances, 
it is absolutely necessary that suitable protective clothing 
be developed or improved. The difficulties are that many 
requirements have to be met simultaneously and that, in 
addition, the solutions turn out to have contrary effects. 
On the basis of a compilation of the properties required 
of such clothing, it is shown that compromises simply 
cannot be avoided, even though some problems may be 
solved in the meantime using new materials and 
techniques. In each case the selection will have to be 
made in accordance with the use of the protective 
clothing, especially with regard to type of material and 
design. (This paper was presented at the 14th International 
Chemical Fiber Conference held at Dornbirn, Austria, on 
24-26 Sep 1975.) 2 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

2239. Leconte R 

PROXIMITY CLOTHING (A FRENCH EXPORT ITEM) 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(157):38, 40-41, 1976 (French) 

Considered are the basic requirements for heat-resistant 
clothing as a function of the conditions of use. The 
clothing must protect a firefighter in a fire zone with 
a temperature of 1200-1400°C. The time the fireman 
remains under these conditions is determined by the 
necessity of accomplishing a comparatively simple task, 
eg, closing a damper or valve. Not more than 60 sec 
is required for this operation. It was found that it is 
useless to cover the clothing with an aluminized fabric 
because a thin aluminum sheet melts rapidly. (RZh) 

2240. Ardis AJ 

FIREMAN'S COMPOSITE TOOL 

US Patent No. 3,949,439; CI 7/1G, (B25F 1/04), Appl 
18 Jun 1975, Disci. 13 Apr 1976 

A combination tool especially suited for firemen, includ- 
ing a number of cooperating elements for efficient opera- 
tion during a fire, is disclosed. A large hook, normally 
folded to protect the hook point, and a folding pull handle 
are the primary components. Other useful elements com- 
prise a spanner wrench for opening and closing hose 
couplings, and a socket wrench for operating water and 



tfy-e-^ # ** 




gas valves. The tool is small enough to be carried in 
a fireman's coat pocket. 8 claims, 8 drawing figs. (Author) 



2241. Cotabish HN and Davison EL 
SELF-RESCUE BREATHING APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 3,980,081; CI 128/147, (A62B 7/08), Appl 
25 Jun 1975, Disci. 14 Sep 1976, Assignee: Mine Safety 
Appliance Co, Pittsburgh, PA 

A self-contained pendulum breathing main unit includes 
a first canister containing a bed of oxygen-generating and 
carbon-dioxide removing chemical, a breathing hose con- 
nected with the canister inlet at one side of the bed and 
a breathing bag connected with an opening to the opposite 
side of the bed. Tubular connections are associated with 
the canister inlet and outlet for connecting a supplemental 
unit thereto. There also is a normally open valve for 
the inlet. Attachable to the main unit is a supplemental 
breathing unit provided with a canister containing the 
same kind of chemical as the first canister. The supple- 
mental unit has a tubular inlet that closes the normally 
open valve and connects the second canister with the 
breathing hose when the two units are attached to each 
other. The second unit also is provided with a tubular 
outlet that connects the second canister with said opening 
in the first canister to put the second canister in communi- 
cation with the breathing bag. 12 claims, 9 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




2242. Klinger GS 

PROTECTIVE BREATHING APPARATUS AND VALVE 

THEREFOR 

US Patent No. 3,990,439; CI 128/142.4, (A62B 18/02), 
Appl 5 Dec 1974, Disci. 9 Nov 1976, Assignee: ESB Inc, 
Philadelphia, PA 



411 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
g. Personal Equipment — Continued 

A respirator or gas mask has a check valve having 
a seat with a raised border. A soft rubber valve is located 
on the seat and held thereto by a valve retainer. When 
the valve is not under any pressure, the valve is sealed 
solely by contact between the rim of the valve and the 
raised portion of the seat. When back-pressure is placed 
on the valve, it seats on the entire valve seat area. 7 
claims, 7 drawing figs. (Author) 



30 38 




2243. Mills JW, Jr 
DEMAND REGULATOR 

US Patent No. 3,978,854; CI 128/142.2, (A62B 7/00), Appl 
8 Apr 1975, Disci. 7 Sep 1976, Assignee: Lif-O-Gen, Inc, 
Cambridge, MD 

A demand regulator is disclosed for admitting oxygen 
into emergency breathing systems, resuscitators, and the 
like comprising a casing supporting a diaphragm and 
providing a chamber on one side of the diaphragm commu- 
nicating with the breathing system. The other side of the 
diaphragm is open to atmospheric pressure. A tilt valve 
assembly connected to a source of pressurized oxygen 
opens into the chamber at one side of the diaphragm 
and includes an elongated tilt valve stem having a free 
end disposed proximate the center of the diaphragm. The 
tilt valve is disposed at an acute angle to the diaphragm 
and is seated by a light cone spring so that only a slight 
pressure of the diaphragm on the valve stem is required 
to dislodge the valve from its seat to permit an inflow 
of oxygen through the valve. For use in a resuscitator, 




an exhaust check valve and means for normally actuating 
the tilt valve while closing the check valve are provided. 
5 claims, 10 drawing figs. (Author) 



2244. Veit HF 

EMERGENCY BREATHING MEANS 

US Patent No. 3,981,302; Cl 128/203, (A62B 7/14), Appl 
26 Feb 1975, Disci. 21 Sep 1976, Assignee: Robertshaw 
Controls Co, Richmond, VA 

There is disclosed an emergency breathing supply 
system that is suitable for use in cabin-pressured aircraft 
and which is operative upon failure of the cabin pressure. 
The emergency breathing supply system includes breathing 
facilities such as breathing face masks and the like stored 
within a container for retrieval therefrom, a lid attached 
to the container and secured thereon by a latch mechanism 
including a latch trigger that is responsive to a preselected 
value of ambient pressure to operate the latch and release 
the lid. The ambient pressure sensing device is preferably 
an aneroid barometer within a sealed housing having a 
vent port that is opened to the interior of the cabin. 
The latch mechanism of the container includes a pressure- 
responsive, latch -triggering subassembly carried on an in- 
terior wall of the container and including the sealed hous- 
ing that contains an aneroid barometer and that supports 
a hammer bracket, which carries a hammer that is pivotal 
and spring-biased into an advanced position where the 
hammer displaces the latch plate of the latch mechanism 
to release the housing lid. 10 claims, 8 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




2245. Warnow D and Ziebrecht H-J 

PNEUMATICALLY CONTROLLED RESPD1ATION 

DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,981,301; Cl 128/145.8, (A61M 16/00), 
Appl 26 Jun 1975, Disci. 21 Sep 1976, Priority: FRG, 
27 Jun 1974, Appl. No. 2,430,839, Assignee: Draegerwerk 
AG, FRG 

The device is of the type in which breathing gas, taken 
from a pressure-gas supply source through an injector 
and volume trically metered in a pressure regulating valve, 
is supplied, in the inspiration phase, to the user and 
discharged, in the expiration phase, through an exhaling 
valve. A control space is divided by an adjustable partition 
into an inspiration chamber and an expiration chamber, 
and the ratio of the volumes of the two chambers is 






412 



-. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Personal Equipment — Continued 



adjustable by adjustment of the partition. A frequency 
valve is connected to a source of control gas, and respec- 
tive first pneumatic control elements connect the cham- 
bers, on their upstream sides, to the frequency valve and 
control supply of control gas to the chambers. Respective 
second pneumatic control elements connect the 
downstream sides of the chambers to a bistable storage 
that is connected to the exhaling valve. The first pneu- 
matic control elements comprise NAND pneumatic ele- 
ments, and the second pneumatic control elements com- 
prise either identity gates or pairs of NAND elements 
connected in series with each other. The output sides 
of the bistable storage are connected to the respective 
first pneumatic control elements. When the inspiration 
chamber is filled with control gas, the bistable storage 
closes the exhaling valve and, when the expiration 
chamber is filled with control gas, the exhaling valve is 
opened. 10 claims, 2 drawing figs. 




h. PERSONNEL AFFAIRS 

2246. Anon 

RESPONSE READINESS. A DECISION OF THE AD- 
MINISTRATIVE COURT OF THE FREE HANSA CITY 
OF BREMEN 

Brandschutz; 30(12):315-316, 1976 (German) 

The Senator for Internal Affairs of the Hansa City of 
Bremen (FRG), in a decision dated June 7, 1974, revised 
the working schedule of the upper ranks of the fire service 
to 36 hours on duty and 32 hours "on call," one-eighth 
of which is to be considered working time. The senior 
fire officials have protested and filed a suit against this 
decision ("on call" is considered just another name for 
on duty and impermissible reduction of income); they 
moved that this decision be revoked. The suit was judged 
to be justified and suspension of the decision was ordered 
in the legal opinion. Arguments supporting this ruling are 
presented in detail. (Fachdok 13/0349) 

2247. Prokhorov A 

THE STATISTICS SHOW (FIRE APPARATUS AC- 
CIDENTS) 

Pozhar delo; (9):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

Analyses of highway accidents involving fire apparatus 
show that most accidents are due to collisions (47-52% 
of all accidents). Most of the time they are caused by 
failure to observe the right of way at controlled and un- 
controlled crossings (48-69%). Collisions were also caused 
by drivers misjudging speeds under dangerous conditions 



(20-34%) and failing to observe passing rules (11-20%). 
Cases of apparatus overturning merit particular attention. 
These accidents annually account for 33-46% of the 
number of accidents attributable to the fault of apparatus 
drivers. Overturning accidents are caused mainly by 
drivers exceeding speed limits under hazardous conditions 
(68-84%) and failing to observe passing rules (12-15%). 
The basic conditions for safe driving are discussed and 
specific cases of failure to observe the rules are analyzed. 
2 figs. 

2248. Payne SS 

GUIDE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITTEN JOB- 
KNOWLEDGE PROMOTION TESTS FOR 
FIREFIGHTERS. Civ Serv Comm, Personnel Res and Dev 
Center, Washington, DC; TM-76-16, 69 pages, Dec 1976 
Availability. NTIS PB-262 776/8GA 

This manual describes a procedure for developing con- 
tent valid and job-related promotion tests for firefighting 
personnel in municipal fire departments. It does not ad- 
vocate the use of such tests; rather it describes one 
procedure designed to develop such tests if the decision 
has been made to use them. Although the manual is writ- 
ten for the layman to use and understand, it highly recom- 
mends that an appropriately trained psychologist assist 
in the test development project. (Author) 

2249. Payne SS 

READING EASE LEVEL OF DC FIRE DEPARTMENT 
WRITTEN MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR ENTRY- 
LEVEL JOB PERFORMANCE. Civ Serv Comm, Personnel 
Res and Dev Center, Washington, DC; TM-76-12, 23 
pages, Aug 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-261 704/1GA 

This report describes the analysis of the reading ease 
level of the written materials required for successful 
entry-level job performance in the District of Columbia 
Fire Department. The analysis method used is the Flesch 
Reading Ease Index. The report also offers a modification 
of the Flesch method for the analysis of the reading level 
of written texts in the multiple-choice item format. This 
report is one of several prepared as part of the DCFD 
Firefighter Selection Examination Project conducted by 
the DC Fire Department and the Personnel Research and 
Development Center, Bureau of Policies and Standards, 
US Civil Service Commission. 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION 
AND SUPPRESSION 

a. COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALLING 

2250. Kido S 

OUTLOOK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNI- 
CATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION AND OTHER SER- 
VICES CHARGED WITH HANDLING NATURAL DIS- 
ASTERS 
Denpa Jiho; (2): 3 2-35, 1976 (Japanese) 

A survey is made of Japanese achievements in the area 
of the use of radio communications systems and equip- 
ment for fire protection and for other services charged 
with handling natural disasters, such as floods, 



413 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

a. Communications and Signalling — Continued 



earthquakes, etc. The effectiveness of the primary radio 
frequency ranges used for these purposes, namely, 60 
MHz, 150 MHz, 400 MHz, and 2 GHz, is assessed. Data 
characterizing the equipment status of Japanese rescue 
services in terms of modern radio communication gear 
are presented. Block diagrams and operating principles 
of a complex radio-telephone communication system that 
operates in conjunction with a standard automatic fixed 
fire-detection and extinguishing system designed for use 
in highrise buildings and in installations remote from an 
urban area are given. The functions of the communica- 
tions system include processing of d-c signals transmitted 
to the automatic control station from outlying fire detec- 
tors, the generation of optical and acoustic alarm signals 
when the logic circuit decides that a fire has broken out, 
automatic connection with and dispatch of a call to the 
municipal fire protection center in two ways simultane- 
ously, by wire over the emergency telephone communica- 
tion network and by radio using the automatic transmitter 
that is constantly connected to the control station and 
transmits a signal via a directional antenna. 2 figs. (RZh) 

2251. Voropaev A 

RELIABLE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 

Pozhar delo; (12):25, 1976 (Russian) 

The effective radius of fixed radio stations is 15-25 km, 
whereas fire-fighting stations are often from 80-160 km 
distant from district centers, making it impossible to use 
the fixed stations for radio communications without sup- 
plemental installations. The radio workshop of the Vitebsk 
(USSR) Fire Protection Division built special 80-W radio 
sets for installation at all fire control centers, at the 
Polotsk petroleum refinery, and in some fire fighting units. 
A 54-m tower was also built for a range of 80 km and 
a 30-m directional antenna for a range of 100 km. A 
radio-relay system is presently being mounted on a 350- 
m TV tower to permit communication with all firefighting 
units. 

2252. Kravontka SJ 

COMMUNICATIONS FOR FIREFIGHTING AND 
EVACUATION. Soc Fire Prot Engrs, Boston, MA; SFPE 
TR-76-5, 1 1 pages, 5 figs, 9 refs, 1976 
Availability: SFPE 

The traditional functions of protective signaling are 
being expanded to include a wide range of audible and 
visual signaling systems that are being applied to the new 
demands of the high-density modern building complex. 
The needs for security protection could complement the 
fire protection needs. Fire-immune radio-transmission 
links equivalent to traditional wire links could replace 
many of the wire links. Audio-visual appliances, televi- 
sion, and film cameras could become standard appliances 
for protective systems. The superior information con- 
veyance of light over sound, especially for those with 
hearing impairment, is the basis for visual signaling ap- 
pliances which could supplement audible appliances. 
(Author) 

b. EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND ADDITIVES 

2253. Anon 

EXTINGUISHING FIRES CLEANLY AND QUICKLY 
WITH LIQUID GAS 

Betr Manage Ser; 17(U):102, 104, 1976 (German) 



The particular advantages of fire extinguishment using 
Halon 1211 are reviewed, such as speedy action, suitabili- 
ty for all classes of fires, and harmlessness, with particu- 
lar emphasis on its nondamaging effects on humans and 
objects. 3 photos. 

2254. Broell R 
FLUOROPROTEIN FOAM 

Brandschutz; 30(12):325, 1976 (German) 

The fluoroprotein foam concentrate Tutogen FP 
(produced by adding fluorine surfactants to protein foam 
agents) combines the advantages of protein foam with 
greatly improved fluidity. The results of VP4 jet fuel 
fire-extinguishing tests using fluoroprotein foam are re- 
ported and compared with data for protein foam: at medi- 
um extinguishing rates the times required for extinguish- 
ment using fluoroprotein foam were cut in half compared 
to normal protein foam. Owing to the more rapid extin- 
guishment, as well as its good foam quality, fluoroprotein 
foam is suitable for use at airports. The expenditure of 
extinguishant is lower, and therefore the reserve is 
greater. (Fachdok 13/0350) 

2255. Raffalsky K 

USE OF DRY POWDERS AND HALONS TO EXTIN- 
GUISH FIRES 

Brandhilfe; 23(1): 270-273, 1976; 

23(12):316, 1976 (German) 

The extinguishing effect of powders and Halons is based 
on a different principle from that of water, foam, or CO2. 
The effect of the latter is to cool or choke a fire, while 
the extinguishing effect of the former is due to chemical 
processes (fire classes B and C). The "inhibiting effect" 
and the "recombination" principle bring about a reduction 
and destruction of the radicals required for progress of 
the chain reaction of the burning process (interaction 
between the inhomogeneous electrical fields of the dry 
powder crystals and radicals and interaction of the Halon 
separation products and radicals). Knowledge of these 
facts determines the extinguishing tactics. The develop- 
ment of optimal dry powders based on cryolite, bicar- 
bonate, KG! and K(2)SO(4); the "barrier layer effect" 
when extinguishing metal fires; and tests of combinations 
of dry powder and Halon are also discussed. (Fachdok 
13/0298) 

2256. Kazakov MV, Sharovarnikov AF, Gorkunenko VM, 
Karpov VI, Odinets MV and Dyagleva LK 
SURFACTANTS — FOAM CONCENTRATES FOR FD1E 
EXTINGUISHING 

Khim prom; (8):613-616, 1976 (Russian) 

It is shown that the fire-extinguishing capability of a 
mechanical foam is a complex function of a number of 
its parameters. The possibility of using surfactants as 
foam concentrates for fire extinguishing is evaluated. The 
parameters that can be used to assess the foam-making 
capability of foam -concentrate solutions are proposed. The 
operational qualities of solutions of surfactants are pointed 
out as factors making them suitable for broad use in fire 
protection. 4 figs, 1 table, 9 refs. (RZh) 

2257. Anon 

USING FOAM AS A FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENT 

K'o Hsueh Shih Yen; (4):158-159, 1976 (Chinese) 



414 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS. PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives — Continued 



Foam concentrates are the primary and most effective 
fire-extinguishing agent. The organizational and technolog- 
ical problems connected with the production and use of 
foam materials and some aspects of the mechanism of 
foam making are considered. The technological process 
of producing a chemical foam by reacting sulphuric acid 
with solutions of sodium bicarbonate in the presence of 
a special foaming agent is described in brief. Also ex- 
amined are the structure and properties of a mechanical 
foam consisting of air (90%), water agent (-10%), and 
foam agent (0.2-0.5%). It is pointed out that mechanical 
foam is highly effective in extinguishing fires of petroleum 
products and some solid materials and for preventive pro- 
tection of objects from ignition by thermal radiation from 
a nearby fire. The advantage of this foam is that it does 
not disintegrate for 40 min, which is long enough to sup- 
press a fire in oil and petroleum-product containers. A 
description is given of a chemical foam generator which 
works like a water-jet pump. As the water passes through 
the diffuser, the vacuum chamber becomes rarefied, forc- 
ing powder up from the storage container. The mixture 
of powder and water in the foam pipe changes into foam, 
which is discharged onto the fire by means of multi-bladed 
fans. Also described is the design of a foam generator 
for the production of a high-expansion mechanical foam. 
5 figs. (RZh) 

2258. Anon 

EXTINGUISHANTS FOR SHIP OPERATIONS 

New Ships/Neubauten; 21(7/8):170-171, 1976 

The various extinguishants for ship fires are discussed, 
including water, gas, foam, and dry powder extin- 
guishants, their properties, the classes of fires against 
which they can be used, etc. The particular properties 
of the widely used, multi-purpose KOMET EXTRAKT 
S are described, as are Halons, as replacements for CO2. 

2259. Starokozhev II and Semenov VP 

STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTINGUISHING 
COTTON WOOL 

Pozhar delo; (12):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

Special tests were carried out in Tashkent, USSR, to 
determine the effectiveness and optimal methods of extin- 
guishing fires in bales of cotton with a moisture content 
of 9.6% and a density of 200 kg/m 3 ; the bales measured 
1 x 1 and 2 x 2.4 m. Various extinguishants, including 
water and wetting agents, were applied by drencher 
systems. The test conditions and experimental results are 
compiled in a table. The extinguishing efficiency was mea- 
sured in terms of the specific quantity of extinguishant 
required to extinguish the fire in 10 min. The wetting 
agents "Nekal" (a surfactant) and "PO-1A" (a mixture 
of sodium alkylsulfates) were found to be more effective 
than water and a 0.07% solution of polyacrylamide. 2 
figs. (See also a similar article by the same authors in 
Khlopk Prom in this issue of FTA.) 



2260. Morikawa T 

A NEW SODIUM-CARBONATE-BASED 

GUISHANT FOR SODIUM FIRES 

Rep Fire Res Inst Japan; (42):2-10, 1976 (English) 



FXTIN- 



A large number of tests has shown that sodium car- 
bonate alone cannot be used as a basis for a new extin- 



guishant because of its susceptibility to pick up moisture 
and its specific gravity. But mixtures with 6% 
polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and 4% of either polyethylene 
(PE), polystyrene, or Mg-stearate have proved to be relia- 
ble extinguishants for sodium fires. The apparent effect 
of these additives is to make the mixture more flexible 
and fluid, whereas it seems to be inhibited by a binder 
without these additives. In practice PAN and PE should 
be used as the principal additives, the Mg-stearate as a 
secondary additive. 3 figs, 3 tables, 6 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0398) 

2261. Broell R 

MECHANICAL FOAM EXTINGUISHANTS 

VFDB Z; 26(1): 30-33, 1977 (German) 

In this second part of a two-part review article on foam 
extinguishants (for part 1 see FTA, 1(5), abstract 1811) 
the author continues with a description of foam properties, 
such as adhesion, yield, stability, and extinguishing ef- 
fects. The influence of the proportion of foam compound 
on foam quality, particularly yield and stability, is 
discussed, as are the working pressure at the foam nozzle, 
external effects (water and smoke gas) on foam genera- 
tion, physical data of foam compounds (pH, sediment, 
precipitate, viscosity, pour point and surface tension), 
quality control of compounds, and storage. 9 refs. 

2262. Corrie JG 

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR THE STUDY OF 
FIRE-FIGHTING FOAMS. Fire Res Sta (UK); BRE CP- 
74-76, 10 pages, 14 figs, 25 refs, Dec 1976 

Described in this paper are studies on the use of foam 
in the extinction of flammable liquid fires and experimen- 
tal techniques which can be used to evaluate its per- 
formance. These include four methods for producing foam 
in the laboratory and methods for measuring the expan- 
sion, drainage rate, and shear stress of the foam produced. 
Areas in which further knowledge of foam performance 
are required are suggested, and 24 references are given. 
(Author) 

c. HYDRAULICS AND WATER SUPPLIES 

2263. Myrick CR 

EQUITABLE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE FIRE-PROTEC- 
TION CHARGES 

Am Water Works Assoc J; 68(4):185-188, 1976 

To be prepared to meet the water demand caused by 
large fires requires a large capital investment by the water 
utility, as does bearing the maintenance and operating 
costs of providing this service. Although there is not 
complete agreement among authorities as to the best 
method, this article presents several methods that may 
be used in allocating public and private fire-protection 
costs. (Author) 

2264. Thompson WJ 
FIRE HYDRANT 

US Patent No. 3,939,861; CI 137/299, (E03B 9/04), Appl 
19 Jul 1974, Disci. 24 Feb 1976 

A fire hydrant designed to prevent the unauthorized 
use of an outlet nozzle that is located on the above- 
ground barrel portion of the standpipe is disclosed. The 



415 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 
c. Hydraulics and Water Supplies — Continued 



hydrant includes a valve means located within the barrel 
portion and provided with a valve member that is biased 
to a closed position extending across the upstream end 
of the outlet nozzle. A valve actuator is provided to be 
threaded onto the outlet nozzle for moving the valve 
member away from the closed position to an open posi- 
tion, permitting the flow of water through the outlet noz- 
zle. 7 claims, 8 drawing figs. (Author) 

2265. Franceschi PA 

TAMPER-PROOF LOCKING SYSTEM FOR FIRE 
HYDRANTS 

US Patent No. 3,935,877; CI 137/296, (F16K 35/06), Appl 
23 Jul 1974, Disci. 3 Feb 1976 

Disclosed is a tamper-proof locking system for a stan- 
dard fire hydrant, one embodiment of which includes a 
cap assembly that fits over the valve stem of the hydrant 
and is fastened thereto. The cap assembly cannot be 
turned to open the valve except by means of a special 
wrench that is adjustable to securely grip the assembly. 
In another embodiment, the system includes a cover as- 
sembly that replaces a standard hydrant port cover and 
cannot be taken off the nipple of the port except by 
the special wrench. 8 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 

d. INSPECTION 

2266. Nielsen R 

DUAL RESPONSIBILITIES RESULT IN DOUBLE 
BENEFITS 

Fire Command; 44(4):24-25, 1977 

Assigning responsibility for building permits and inspec- 
tions to the fire department may give a municipality two 
tangible results: 1) the measurable productivity of the fire 
department is improved and 2) costs to the taxpayers 
are lowered. If the program is well organized and enthu- 
siastically conducted, increased fire safety is likely to be 
the greatest benefit. The experience of the Oak Brook, 
Illinois, Fire Department is presented. 

2267. Miller DM 

A COMPUTERIZED PLANNING SYSTEM FOR BUREAU 
INSPECTORS 

Fire Technol; 12(3):237-246, 1976 

A computerized system, developed for the Atlanta Fire 
Prevention Bureau to help use its full-time inspectors in 
the most effective and efficient manner, is described. The 
system is concerned with how often to conduct routine 
planned inspections in all public and commercial buildings 
in the city, how to set up territorial responsibility for 
each inspector, and when to conduct each routine, planned 
inspection. Man-hours available for inspections can be 
more effectively used, and there is a potential for reduc- 
tion in the number of supervisors. By better balanced 
districts, there will be more equality in work loads, leading 
to better morale. More compact inspection districts permit 
reduction of travel time. 3 figs, 1 table, 1 ref. (NFPA) 



e. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS 

2268. Anon 

THE NFPA ORGANIZED THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL 
SEMINAR ON AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND 

FIREFIGHTING IN GENEVA 

Air Cosmos; 14(638):31, 48, 1976 (French) 

The "Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting" section of the 
National Fire Protection Association held an extended col- 
loquium devoted to aircraft design, airports and airport 
installations, and control of rescue and firefighting opera- 
tions in Geneva in September 1976. The colloquium is 
criticized for the length of the papers read in the restricted 
time allotted (14 in 20 hours), for the emphasis placed 
upon fire extinguishment rather than fire prevention, and 
for the lack of attention devoted to problems involving 
the aircraft proper. 2 photos. 

2269. Cleary MJ and Whippen JA 

CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE FIRE SERVICE 

Fire Chief; 21(4):62-64, 1977 

Firefighting presents an environment in which perfect 
decision making is impossible. In this article a closer look 
is taken at that environment in order to examine possible 
methods to better prepare individuals for "crisis decision 
making" situations. The influences affecting the ability 
to make better decisions are identified as the experience 
level, the tactical ability of the officer, and pre-fire 
planning. A systems analysis approach to decision making 
is outlined in a flow chart. 1 fig. 

2270. Etienne fnu 

MALICIOUS FALSE ALARMS: HOW CAN THEY BE 
REMEDIED? 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(158):53-55, 1976 (French) 

In 1964 there were 2,143 false alarms in Paris and three 
Departments; in 1974 this figure had increased to 5,984. 
The trend toward an increase in false alarms has also 
been noted in other cities. Responses to false alarms 
represent an appreciable economic loss (expenditure of 
fuel and lubricants), lead to increased wear of the 
firefighting equipment, especially vehicle tires, result in 
congested traffic, and cause the personnel of the fire- 
protection units to become edgy. In Belgium a fire com- 
munications center has been set up in which it is techni- 
cally feasible to find out in 5 sec the number of the 
telephone or telephone booth from which a call has been 
made and its location. If the caller does not give the 
correct number of the telephone or if the place from 
which the call was made is located a considerable distance 
away from the address of the call, the call can be con- 
sidered false. The operator at the center can arrange for 
commutation with the set from which the call is coming. 
The conversation with the caller is recorded on a tape 
recorder with automatic recording of the time of the call. 
The perpetrator can be arrested by the police on the spot. 
Legislative bodies are considering fines and imprisonment 
as a punishment. 3 figs. (RZh) 

f. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS 

2271. Rasbash DJ 
THOSE FIRE DISASTERS 

Med Leg J; 44(3):71-84, 1976 



416 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 
f. Public Education and Public Relations — Continued 



In an address presented to members of the Medico- 
Legal Society meeting in London in February, 1976, the 
head of the Department of Fire Safety Engineering of 
the University of Edinburgh reviewed in considerable 
detail (illustrated by slides) a number of modern fires 
of disaster proportion in various kinds of premises to 
illustrate the problems involved in modern fire safety en- 
gineering and to inform the audience of causes and 
remedies for these disasters. Lessons to be derived from 
an analysis of these fires and how these lessons are to 
be applied to disaster prevention were brought out in the 
course of the address. 

2272. Friedag H, Pabst S and Geisler K 
PUBLIC RELATIONS 

VFDB Z; 26(l):5-9, 1977 (German) 

Three addresses on the public relations topic, one by 
each of the authors, were presented at the public sessions 
of the Professional Fire Department Committee of the 
Association for the Advancement of Fire Protection in 
Germany (VFDB) during its 1976 annual professional 
meeting in Berlin. Various viewpoints were expressed, 
ranging from the absolutely positive impression implanted 
in the public by every fire response, in the opinion of 
Friedag, especially when compared with police actions, 
to Pabst's criticism of the fire departments' operations 
in the wildfire disaster in the Lueneburger Heide in 1975, 
as expressed by the media, which gave too little credit 
to the unstinted efforts of individuals, to the report of 
a press representative concerning his positive cooperation 
with the Berlin Fire Department (Geisler). Even negative 
events will be understood by the public if presented in 
the right light. (Fachdok 13/0436) 

g. RESCUE OPERATIONS 

2273. McRae M 

FIRE DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS WITH MODERN 
ELEVATORS 

Robert J Brady Co, Bowie, MD; 128 pages, 1977 

This manual is written specifically for firefighters to 
help them deal with the special hazards posed by modern 
elevators and burning buildings. The organization of the 
book follows a logical sequence. First the author discusses 
the history of the elevator, then construction and opera- 
tion of modern elevator installations. Building upon this 
knowledge of structure and function, the manual details 
three categories of elevator emergencies that confront the 
firefighter: the problem of elevator use by firefighters 
under fireground conditions; the task of rescuing trapped 
persons; and the fire potential in elevator installations 
themselves. For each area, procedures and alternatives 
are presented. A total of 40 illustrations help to clarify 
the written descriptions and instructions. 

2274. ChicareUo PJ and Shpilberg DC 

MINIMUM EXTINGUISHMENT AREA REQUIRED FOR 
SAFE ESCAPE OF AIRCRAFT OCCUPANTS DURING 
A FUEL SPILL FIRE 

Fire Technol; 12(4):276-289, 1976 

The minimum area of an aircraft fuel spill fire that 
must be extinguished and secured to retard fuselage melt- 
ing and provide a fire-free route for sufficient time to 



allow the plane's occupants to escape was determined 
analytically. In the case of a severe spill fire, equipment 
response time of 60 seconds or less is required for a 
reasonable chance of rescue of the occupants of an air- 
craft. Flame contact with the fuselage must be terminated 
quickly, and the flame front must be moved back suffi- 
ciently to cause a significant delay in burn-through. A 
separation distance of only 5 ft will cause an important 
delay in burn-through, provided the fire is extinguished 
in time. 7 figs, 7 refs. (NFPA) 

2275. Jin T 

VISIBILITY THROUGH FIRE SMOKE. PART V: AL- 
LOWABLE SMOKE DENSITY FOR ESCAPE FROM 
FIRE 

Rep Fire Res Inst Japan; (42):1 1-18, 1976 (English) 

A description is given of investigations aimed at deter- 
mining the smoke density level that can be allowed when 
the evacuation of burning buildings is not seriously 
threatened. In these tests, which were carried out under 
various conditions, it was found that the measured walking 
speeds were in approximate agreement with the values 
established as a minimum requirement. The allowable 
smoke density also depends on whether the building occu- 
pants are familiar with the local situation, on how they 
are irritated by smoke under other conditions, and on 
whether there are objects along the escape routes that 
represent an appreciable impediment to escape. 6 figs, 
3 tables, 12 refs. (Fachdok 13/0422) 

2276. John R 

SCIENTISTS AGAINST FIRE FATALITIES — THE FIRE 
PROTECTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER IS 
STUDYING ESCAPE ROUTES IN BUILDINGS 

Uni-Inf Karlsruhe; (1):10-11, 1977 (German) 

Escape routes are an important factor for life safety 
in buildings. The greater the number of people in a build- 
ing, the greater the care that must be exercised in desig- 
ning escape routes. In order to provide correct instructions 
for dimensions in planning buildings, the characteristics 
of the movement of flows of people in vestibules and 
on stairs must be known. With the goal of permitting 
exact preliminary calculations to be made of the times 
required to evacuate various kinds of buildings, the Fire 
Protection Engineering Research Center of the University 
of Karlsruhe (FRG), in collaboration with the professional 
fire departments of the cities of Cologne, Duesseldorf 
and Hamburg, carried out six evacuation tests in highrise 
administrative buildings in October, 1976. A report is 
made on the test methods. 3 figs. (Fachdok 13/0395) 

2277. Dalhoff W, Knippertz HJ and Timmerberg CH 
EMERGENCY GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR THE 
EVACUATION OF PEOPLE FROM BUILDINGS IN CASE 
OF DANGER 

VFDB Z; 26(l):37-40, 1977 (German) 

Following a brief description of the unsatisfactory status 
of life safety protection in buildings, the topic of develop- 
ment of new kinds of safety devices, in particular emer- 
gency guidance systems, is introduced. These systems are 
designed to aid people to escape from endangered 
buildings, under panic conditions, regardless of their level 
of education, language or sophistication. But an important 



417 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

Rescue Operations — Continued 






prerequisite for a safety-oriented development of such 
systems is an understanding of human behavior in fires 
and disasters. This psychological problem is the theme 
of this first part of a two-part article on emergency 
guidance systems. The psychology of panic is discussed 
as an introduction to the problem of human behavior in 
fires and disasters, which is considered in terms of factors 
affecting behavior and behavior observed in actual fires. 
The psychological experience underpins the need for 
guidance systems, the parameters of which are derived. 
The design, structure, and operating principles of the 
newly developed systems are outlined. 

2278. Pieper H 

EVACUATION BY MEANS OF THE RESCUE CHUTE 

ZS Magazin; (12): 26-27, 1976 (German) 

Only a few manipulations are required to ready a rescue 
chute which was recently introduced to the public by 
a Hamburg (FRG) manufacturer. Within one minute 20 
people can be evacuated from second and third stories 
via the chute, which can be used up to a height of ten 
meters. This rescue system is suitable primarily for public 
buildings such as youth hostels, boys homes, hospitals, 
and old-peoples' homes. The merits of the device are 
ease of handling, high capacity, and weather resistance. 
5 figs. (Fachdok 13/0295) 

2279. Booth F 
FIRE ESCAPE 

US Patent No. 3,982,608; CI 182/49, (E06C 9/10), Appl 
9 Jun 1975, Disci. 28 Sep 1976, Assignee: Booth Fire 
Escape Ltd, New Westminster, Canada 

Disclosed is a fire escape apparatus having a flight of 
stairs formed of a smooth material having treads and risers 
and which is mounted beneath a balcony for swinging 
movement between a horizontal position and a 
downwardly inclined position, the treads and risers being 




so shaped that when the flight of stairs is in the inclined 
position, the treads slope inwardly and downwardly and 
the risers curve outwardly and downwardly to the treads 
so as to facilitate descent in a sitting position and to 
enable the stairs to be climbed in a normal manner. 4 
claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 



2280. Campbell WM 
FIRE ESCAPE 

US Patent No. 3,980,155; CI 182/49, (A62B 1/20), Appl 
24 Jun 1974, Disci. 14 Sep 1976 

A fire escape is patented for use in multi-storied 
buildings having floors spaced generally equally from ad- 
jacent floors at floor spacing. The fire escape has a 
fire-resistant, vertical, hollow outer column and a similar 
inner column positioned generally centrally within the 
outer column. The outer and inner columns have a 
generally oval-sectioned inner and outer wall, respectively, 
spaced apart to provide columnar space therebetween. A 
chute within the columnar space follows a generally helical 
path of essentially constant pitch of twice the floor spac- 
ing so that one complete circuit of the chute passes two 
floors. In one embodiment for wide floor spacing, the 
inner column is hollow and has column floors disposed 
therein level with floors outside the outer column and 
a spiral stairway spaced above the chute to follow the 
chute with sufficient head room for persons on the chute 
or stairway. A person escaping enters the outer column 
through a door opening and can descend the stairs 
directly, or through openings in the inner column can 
descend by the chute. In a second embodiment for nar- 
rower floor spacing, a columnar space contains the chute 
and stairway arranged side-by -side having equal helical 
pitches, the stairway spaced outwards from the chute. 
A dividing wall between the chute and stairway prevents 
interference between persons using the chute or stairway. 
An opening through the outer column permits access to 
the stairs, and an opening through the dividing wall per- 
mits access to the chute. In both embodiments a second 
complementary chute and stairway can be provided so 
that each embodiment has four independent escape routes. 
11 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 

2281. Jimenez R 

PORTABLE WINDOW-ATTACHED EMERGENCY 
DESCENT MECHANISM 

US Patent No. 3,978,942; CI 182/75, (A62B 1/08), Appl 
17 Apr 1975, Disci. 7 Sep 1976 

A portable descent mechanism is disclosed that allows 
the use of a conventional window as an avenue of escape 
in emergency situations such as fires and comprises a 
passenger chair, spools with cable wound thereon, a 
brake, and window attachment apparatus designed for sim- 
ple engagement with a conventional windowsill and utilizes 
a pair of hooks that fit over the windowsill. 5 claims, 
5 drawing figs. (Author) 



418 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 
g. Rescue Operations — Continued 




2282. Murukurthy RK 

LADDERLESS SAFETY ESCAPE DEVICE 

US Patent No. 4,026,385; CI 182/75, (A62B 1/10), Appl 
19 Jan 1976, Disci. 31 May 1977 

A ladderless safety escape device includes a cable drum 
upon which a cable is wound having means secured to 
the free end thereof for the support of a person. A braking 
mechanism is operatively connected to the cable drum 
for controlling the rate of descent of the person. A brake 




control mechanism is provided for operatively disconnect- 
ing the brake mechanism from the cable drum during re- 
winding of the cable and insures operative connection 
of the brake mechanism and cable drum during unwinding 
of the cable. 4 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 



2283. Kravontka SJ 

ELEVATOR USE DURING FIRES IN MEGASTRUC- 
TURES. Soc Fire Prot Engrs, Boston, MA; SFPE TR-76- 
1, 8 pages, 9 refs, 1976 
Availability: SFPE 

With the possible advent of "megastructures" (very high 
multiple-use towers), which could be considered as a 
number of buildings (100 ft cubes) within one large build- 
ing, the problem of fire safety will be itensified. Occupant 
safety during fire emergencies would involve movement 
from fire-alarmed areas to fire-safe areas by redesigned 
elevator equipment that would be operationally safe for 
the time required for occupant movement during the fire. 
Of course, passage of elevators through the fire area 
would not be contemplated. Future traction machines 
would be characterized by miniaturization and encapsula- 
tion. Controlled rectifiers with associated silicon-based, 
solid-state circuitry would replace the conventional motor- 
generator sets with associated starters on traction 
machines. Solid-state circuitry would be preferred to con- 
ventional relay circuitry for car control and dispatch. Cab 
design should involve consideration of the effects of metal 
exposure to relatively short periods at elevated tempera- 
tures. The paper provides some innovative ideas on the 
solution of this difficult problem based on a total systems 
approach. 

h. TACTICS 

2284. Nash P 

FIRE-FIGHTING AND RESCUE TECHNIQUES AND 
EQUIPMENT 

World Airports Conf, 5th, Proc; 1976, May 5-7, Brighton, 
England, pages 21/1-21/8 

Part 1 of the paper deals primarily with the development 
of fire extinguishing materials to deal with the high poten- 
tial fire risks presented by modern aircraft. The aim is 
to achieve major control of the fire within a very short 
time in order to effect rescue. The advantages and disad- 
vantages of water-based foams, dry powders, inhibiting 
liquids or gases and water sprays are discussed. In Part 
2 the practical aspects are dealt with, particularly in rela- 
tion to the recommendations of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. Both parts of the paper emphasize 
that speed and efficient deployment of staff and equip- 
ment are essential, and that airports must have emergency 
plans for instant implementation. (Author) 

2285. Kerr JW 

PREPLANNING FOR A NUCLEAR INCIDENT 

Fire Command; 44(4): 18-20, 1977 

Preplanning for nuclear incidents, which are most 
frequently handled by the fire department, is different 
from planning for a fire in a specific building, in that 



419 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 
h. Tactics — Continued 



the planning must be done without regard to location or 
structure, particularly when transport is involved. Re- 
gardless of the size of the incident, the basic rules are: 
1) to notify the proper authorities; 2) to identify the 
hazards; 3) to find the limits of the area involved; and 
4) to reduce the risk of exposure to people. It is 
emphasized that operations are generally similar to those 
for ordinary fires, except that rescue requires extra speed 
and that radiation hazards require fast approach and exit. 
Training and prevention are described. A sample calcula- 
tion of dose rates and firefighter exposure time is given. 
The radiation characteristics of common isotopes are com- 
piled in a table. 1 fig, 1 table, 4 refs. 

2286. Takita M, Sirako N and Kita H 
FIRE FIGHTING IN RAILWAY TUNNELS 

Kasai; 26(2):73-84, 1976 (Japanese) 

Statistical data characterizing various fires that took 
place in railway trains in Japan from 1962 through 1974 
are presented. The fires are classified in detail by a 
number of features, the main ones being as follows: time 
and place of outbreak of the fire; type of train and car 
in which the fire occurred; speed at the time the fire 
broke out and while it was being extinguished; meteorolog- 
ical and atmospheric conditions at the time the fire broke 
out; causes and circumstances of the fire; means used 
to extinguish the fire; duration; number of casualties; and 
magnitude of the material loss. The sequence and nature 
of the actions taken to fight the fires are analyzed. A 
block diagram of an optimal fire suppression process in 
the case of a moving train is presented. An analysis is 
made of the specific features of outbreak, spread and 
suppression of fires in railway trains in tunnels. The struc- 
ture of several of the most widely found railway tunnels 
in Japan is discussed from the viewpoint of fire safety. 
The design, parameters, and operating principle of a com- 
plex automatic fire extinguishing system for a Ryokoku 
railway tunnel that is more than 13 km in length are 
described. The system is equipped with a set of TV 
cameras to provide visual supervision of the situation. 
9 figs, 9 tables, 9 refs. (RZh) 

2287. Naylor D 

THE EFFECT OF FIRE ON CONTAINERS 

Safety Sea Internat; (89):12, 1976 

The two effects considered briefly in this article are 
the effects of fires that begin inside containers and those 
that begin outside them, the containers being differentiated 
with regard to whether they are closed or open. Con- 
sidered in particular are closed containers, since open con- 
tainers have little or no effect on the flammability. 
Methods of fighting fires in containers are outlined. 



9. PLANNING 

a. BUDGETING 

2288 Kasmekat W 

FIRE DEPARTMENT — COMMERCIAL VENTURE OR 
HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATION? SOME THOUGHTS 
ON EFFICIENCY STUDIES IN THE AREA OF PROFES- 
SIONAL FIRE DEPARTMENTS 
Brandschutz; 30(12):313-314, 1976 (German) 



The practice of increasing the cost-benefit ratio of an 
organization on the basis of statistical evaluations can 
lead to disastrous situations when applied to the profes- 
sional fire department. A major fire can also break out, 
valuable property can be destroyed, and human lives can 
be endangered at times not within the statistically deter- 
mined peak periods of the day. The author questions 
whether theoreticians who want to reorganize a fire de- 
partment along economic lines are also willing to bear 
the responsibility for an unsuccessful response and the 
sacrifice of human lives. A cost-benefit analysis weakens 
the striking power of the fire department. (Fachdok 
13/0325) 

2289. Baldwin TF, Wirth MO and Yadon RE 
PREFIRE PLANNING COST ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY 

Fire Chief; 21(4):65-70, 1977 

Prefire planning provides much of the information 
necessary to fight fires safely and efficiently. The net 
social benefits to be derived therefrom would appear to 
be positive if the costs are reasonable, eg, if fire depart- 
ment personnel can conduct prefire planning as a collateral 
duty. This method was the one selected for evaluation 
of the feasibility of prefire planning with the goal of 
short-term completion at the Rockford, Illinois, Fire De- 
partment. An estimate was obtained of the number of 
buildings involved and the amount of time necessary to 
conduct a prefire plan. Still to be identified are the most 
cost-effective methods of prefire plan training. Tables 
identify buildings by size and type, time allocation per 
activity and building size, projected costs per activity and 
building size, minimum costs for full-time prefire spe- 
cialists, and cost-effectiveness ratios for alternate methods 
of prefire plan staffing. 5 tables. 

b. LOGISTICS 

2290. Corman H, Ignall EJ, Rider KL and Stevenson A 
FIRE CASUALTIES AND THEIR RELATION TO FIRE 
COMPANY RESPONSE DISTANCE AND DEMO- 
GRAPHIC FACTORS 

Fire Technol; 12(3):193-203, 1976 

Fatalities and injuries per structural fire in New York 
City have been compared by time of day, season, year, 
construction, region of the city, floor of origin, and occu- 
pancy. The number of casualties per structural fire has 
not been on the increase, but there are significant time 
of day and seasonal effects on life hazards that should 
be considered in providing fire protection services. A 
study of the relationship between response distance and 
fire casualties indicated a significant correlation, but one 
which was overwhelmed by many other factors and could 
not be used as a primary criterion in developing mathe- 
matical fire resource allocation models. 1 fig, 12 tables, 
3 refs. (NFPA) 

c. OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

2291 . Walsh CV 

HOW VALUABLE ARE YOUR PREFIRE PLANS? 

Fire Command; 44(3):24-25, 1977 

Prefire planning is limited by the fact that it must be 
based only on static factors. The effects of dynamic fac- 



420 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 
c. Operations Analysis — Continued 



tors can make it difficult, if not impossible, to implement 
as intended some decisions made during prefire planning. 
The most important prefire planning consists of training 
fire officers to recognize and deal with the highly variable 
conditions that they may encounter. The possibilities of 
applying operations research to the problem, that is, the 
application of scientific methods to the study of alterna- 
tives, are mentioned. 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND 
MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

[For more complete coverage of the behavioral and 
medical literature see: Psychology Abstracts and 
Index Medicus.] 

a. ARSON 

2292. Suchy JT (Ed) 

ARSON: AMERICA'S MALIGNANT CRIME 

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, 
Washington, DC, 34 pages, 1976 

This booklet presents the results of two "Leadership 
Seminars for Developing a Coordinated Attack on Arson" 
organized by the National Fire Academy in January and 
February, 1976, in which 36 experts on arson (listed in 
Appendix C) from throughout the nation identified nine 
needs areas and recommended a number of specific cour- 
ses of action for both public and private agencies and 
private industry. As a direct result, the National Fire 
Academy is preparing courses in arson detection and in- 
vestigation, and the National Fire Data Center is establish- 
ing an arson information center as part of the National 
Fire Reference System. The needs identified by the par- 
ticipants are: to develop and define responsibilities; to 
reclassify arson in crime reporting systems; to develop 
and improve public awareness; to develop and apply train- 
ing programs keyed to job-related requirements; to 
develop and apply better reporting, data collection, and 
data analysis; to promulgate and apply effective laws and 
regulations (it is recommended to reclassify arson as a 
Part-One crime); to identify and develop sources of fund- 
ing; to conduct research and development; and to develop 
a consistent, uniform terminology. (This booklet is availa- 
ble from the NFPCA.) 

2293. Sluga W 

FIRESETTING AND THE FIRE DEPARTMENT 

Brandaus; 84(12):485-488, 1976 (German) 

Firesetters are people with an abnormal psychological 
makeup. Childishness, low intelligence, bedwetting, aliena- 
tion, and incapability of coping with life are some of 
the features common to firesetters which produce aggres- 
sion. In the history of mankind firesetting is one of the 
earliest forms of acting out aggressions. Brain damage 
in early childhood and early unfavorable developmental 
conditions can lead to the features mentioned above. 
Scientific knowledge of firesetting should be considered 
in suitability and hiring of investigators in the fire depart- 
ment. (Fachdok 13/0321) 



2294. Wise MK, Jackson D and Maguire HM 

WHAT THREE CITIES ARE DOING IN THE FIGHT 
AGAINST ARSON 

Fire Chief; 21(4):53-57, 1977 

The arson squad of the Denver, Colorado Fire Depart- 
ment, the police detective/fire lieutenant arson investiga- 
tion teams of the Calgary, Canada, Fire Department, and 
the arson investigation training program for western 
Washington's fire departments based on Seattle's Arson 
Task Force program and their successes in combatting 
arson are described. 

2295. Provencher RG 

ARSON '76. INS Investigations Bureau Inc, New York; 
SFPETR-76-3, 7 pages, 1976 
Availability: SFPE 

Arson represents a dollar loss four to eight times greater 
than any other individual crime. Only in cases where there 
are deaths does arson concern the public. Arson investiga- 
tion is frustrating, difficult, time-consuming, dangerous, 
and often fruitless. In the majority of cases of arson, 
the victim or alleged victim can frequendy provide both 
the motive and the suspect. Arson is a very personal 
thing and the victim may be closely associated with the 
crime and the perpetrators. The control is based on 
thorough investigation before the insurance is written, ag- 
gressive investigation after the fire, and a no-compromise 
defense in the denial of the claim before the civil court. 
Thorough investigations act as a deterrent to other ar- 
sonists. (Author) 

2296. Borg N and David L 

ARSON: A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM. Soc Fire 
Prot Engrs, Boston, MA; SFPE TR-76-4, 5 pages, 1976 
Availability: SFPE 

Arson is the fastest growing and one of the most cosUy 
crimes in the United States. A large segment of profit- 
motivated arson can be controlled by tactically reducing 
the motivation by removing the dollar incentives. A more 
selective method of writing insurance and a tougher policy 
of settling claims is indicated. Neighborhood preservation 
is essential to arson reduction. Vacant buildings must be 
demolished or sealed. Arson is a symptom of many social 
phenomena such as poverty, a deteriorating housing in- 
frastructure, a poor investment climate, and an antiquated 
welfare system. Solution to these social ills must come 
from the federal government, although this is unlikely 
in the foreseeable future. The constraints of the legal 
environment on public policy alternatives vis-a-vis arson 
must be altered to favor law-abiding tenants, landlords, 
and businessmen at the expense of profit-oriented ar- 
sonists. (Author) 

b. COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

2297. Anon 

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS 
OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

Nat Acad Sci Printing and Publ Office, Washington, DC; 
255 pages, 1976 

Explored in this book from the Committee on Fire 
Research of the National Research Council are the effects 
of combustion products on the human body. The 18 

421 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



presentations comprising the volume center on four major 
subject areas: smoke problems arising during fires, smoke 
and fire casualties, physiological and toxicological aspects 
of fire exposure, and the development and characteriza- 
tion of smoke. The material is taken from papers 
presented at an international symposium held in March 
1974. The authors are experts in fields such as environ- 
mental medicine, toxicology, surgery, and flammability 
research, and include representatives of fire departments, 
government, educational institutions, and industry. 

2298. Hilado CJ and Lopez MT 

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS OF 
SOME ELASTOMERS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):61-68, 1977 

Ten samples comprising seven generic types of 
elastomers were evaluated for relative toxicity using the 
USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. The nitrile 
rubber samples appeared to generally exhibit greater tox- 
icity than the samples of polyisoprene, styrene butadiene, 
and chlorinated polyethylene rubber. Carbon monoxide 
was present in sufficient concentration in the blood of 
the test animals to be the principal cause of death in 
the case of polyisoprene and styrene butadiene rubber. 
6 tables, 4 refs. (Author) 

2299. Hilado CJ, Marcussen WH, Furst H, Kourtides DA, 
Parker JA and Fewell LL 

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS OF 
SOME AIRCRAFT SEAT MATERIALS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):16-20, 1977 

Eighteen samples of aircraft seat materials were evalu- 
ated for relative toxicity using the USF/NASA toxicity 
screening test method. Nine samples were upholstery 
fabrics and nine samples were cushioning foams. Under 
these particular conditions of test, the aromatic phenolic 
and aromatic polyamide fabrics exhibited less toxicity than 
the samples of wool and wool/nylon fabrics, and the sam- 
ples of neoprene foams exhibited less toxicity than the 
samples of polyurethane foams. These relative toxicity 
rankings were obtained using both apparent lethal concen- 
tration for 50 percent of the test animals (ALCso), and 
time to death (Td) at a fixed weight of material. 2 tables, 
2 refs. (Author) 

2300. Hilado CJ and Crane CR 

COMPARISON OF RESULTS WITH THE USF/NASA 
AND FAA/CAMI TOXICITY SCREENING TEST 
METHODS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):56-60, 1977 

Samples of nine materials were evaluated using the 
USF/NASA and FAA/CAMI toxicity screening test 
methods. The materials were wool, modacrylic/rayon, 
polysulfone, polychloroprene, polyvinyl chloride, ABS, 
nylon 6/6, nylon 6/10, and polyphenylene sulfide. Fair 
correlation was obtained between times to incapacitation 
and times to death. The relative rank order of materials, 
however, tended to be significantly different. 2 figs, 1 
table, 3 refs. (Author) 



2301. Hilado CJ, Slattengren CL, Kourtides DA and 
Parker JA 

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS OF 

SOME POLYURETHANE AND POLYCHLOROPRENE 

FOAMS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(1):21-31, 1977 

Polyurethane and polychloroprene foams are widely 
used as flexible cushioning materials. Their fire response 
characteristics are of interest in many applications. Results 
of toxicity screening tests on some polyurethane and 
polychloroprene flexible foams are presented. The test 
method involves the exposure of four Swiss albino male 
mice in a 4.2-liter hemispherical chamber to the pyrolysis 
effluents from 1 g of sample exposed to temperatures 
rising from 200° to 800°C at a rate of 40°C/min. Mortality 
and times to incapacitation and to death are recorded. 
With this rising temperature method, the more toxic 
materials are associated with the generation of toxicants 
at lower temperatures. Comparisons indicate that flexible 
polyurethane foams without fire retardant are more toxic 
than the corresponding foams containing fire retardant, 
and polychloroprene foams are least toxic. The flexible 
polyurethane foams were based on a hybrid propoxylated 
epoxylated glycerine triol. Some samples contained no fire 
retardant, and others contained 12 percent tetrakis(2- 
chloroethyl)ethylene diphosphate. 2 figs, 4 tables, 10 refs. 
(Author) 

2302. Hilado CJ and Schneider JE 

TOXICITY STUDIES OF A POLYURETHANE RIGID 
FOAM 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):79-86, 1977 

Relative toxicity tests were performed on a polyurethane 
rigid foam containing a trimethylolpropane-based polyol 
and an organophosphate flame retardant, a type of com- 
bination reported to be unusually toxic. No unusual toxici- 
ty was observed with either gradual or rapid pyrolysis 
to 800°C in the absence of air flow. Convulsions and 
seizures similar to those previously reported were ob- 
served when the material was essentially flash pyrolyzed 
at 800°C in the presence of air flow, and the toxicity 
appeared unusual because of the dramatic effect rather 
than because of low sample weights required to produce 
death. 4 tables, 8 refs. (Author) 

2303. Jenkins LJ, Jr, Jones RA and Anderson ME 

THE USE OF MEAN SURVIVAL TIME ANALYSIS TO 
DETERMINE COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF FIRE AT- 
MOSPHERES 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):87-96, 1977 

Personnel survival in a fire is often determined by the 
toxicity of the atmosphere generated by the fire. The 
composition of the atmosphere is determined by the 
materials that are being combusted and the conditions 
under which they are burned. A method utilizing mean 
survival time measurements of rodents has been developed 
that provides a relatively rapid and inexpensive way of 
comparing the toxicity of fire atmospheres so that 
designers can have the necessary information to substitute 
less hazardous materials whenever possible. 6 figs, 2 ta- 
bles, 6 refs. (Author) 



422 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 
b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



2304. Peabody HD 

PULMONARY FUNCTION AND THE FIRE FIGHTERS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(1):8-15, 1977 

It is usually assumed that the lungs of a firefighter 
may be subject to a gTeat amount of irritation and poten- 
tial damage. The fireman has been considered a "smoke- 
eater," and exposure is part of his job. However, very 
little concrete information is available about pulmonary 
function evaluation in the firefighter, who is faced with 
potentially hazardous inhalation exposure daily. In order 
to know what exposure to inhalation of smoke and toxic 
gases may do to pulmonary mechanics, it is desirable 
to have a normal lung function reference (age and height 
related) and a normal regression formula according to age. 
Also needed is additional information about the acute and 
chronic effects of inhalation of combustible products on 
the lung function of the firefighter. From such studies 
it is hoped to develop regression formulae in the 
firefighter and relate this to the findings in the general 
population. There is adequate information in the medical 
literature about pulmonary function in the normal popula- 
tion, as well as in persons with acute and chronic pulmo- 
nary disease. There are many studies on risk factors in 
the general population, and an adequate number of long- 
term and interpolative studies to estimate longevity and 
the effect of risk factors on morbidity and mortality. For 
the firefighter, however, there is very little information 
about risk factors and no adequate long-term studies on 
pulmonary function from which regression formulae may 
be developed. In this paper an attempt is made to fill 
a few gaps in our information relative to the pulmonary 
status of the firefighters. 1 fig, 6 tables, 13 refs. (Author) 

2305. Saito F 

EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF COMBUSTION 
PRODUCTS 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):32-55, 1977 

In order to achieve rational safety countermeasures 
against the heat, smoke and gases of combustion products 
in fires, all of which inhibit escape of humans, it is neces- 
sary to know these products and to evaluate their toxicity. 
The smoke described in this article is treated as a factor 
inhibiting the range of vision, which is evaluated by an 
optical characteristic value (the coefficient of light diminu- 
tion). A logical system is established and the relation 
between the smoke concentration and effective range of 
vision (the threshold limit concentration) is clarified. The 
threshold limit of gas concentration is not found, and 
it is difficult to establish plans for smoke prevention. 
11 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. 

2306. Tsuchiya Y 

NEW JAPANESE STANDARD TEST FOR COMBUSTION 
GAS TOXICITY 

J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):5-7, 1977 

Adoption of a toxicity test has been announced in the 
latest revision of the Japanese building standard law 
(Ordinance of the Ministry of Construction No. 1231, 
dated August 25, 1976; effective April 1, 1977). According 
to the revision, "fire-preventive materials grade 2 and 
grade 3" have to meet the toxicity test in addition to 
the flammability test and the smoke test. Grade 2 materi- 
als include cement fiberboard and gypsum board; grade 



3 materials include fire -retard ant plywood, fire-retardant 
fiberboard and fire-retardant plastics; grade 1 materials 
are non-combustible. The standard test determines in- 
capacitation time of mice that are placed in rotary cages 
and exposed to combustion gases. The incapacitation is 
detected as mice cease to rotate the cages. 1 fig. (Author) 

2307. Yamamamoto K 

ACUTE COMBINED EFFECTS OF HCN AND CO, WITH 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A THEORETICAL CON- 
SIDERATION OF ACUTE COMBINED EFFECTS ON 
THE BASIS OF THE BLOOD CYANIDE AND COHb 
ANALYSES 
J Combust Toxicol; 4(l):69-78, 1977 

On the assumption that the acute toxicities of HCN 
and CO are proportional to their concentration-exposure 
time (ct) products and that blood concentrations of cya- 
nide and CO depend upon their ct products, an equation 
relating acute combined effects of HCN and CO with 
their blood concentrations was derived. In deriving the 
equation, death of the animal was used as an index of 
the acute toxicity. The application of the equation to the 
data on the blood CO and cyanide levels of rats acutely 
exposed to the combustion products from various com- 
binations of Polyacrylonitrile-gauze mixtures was 
discussed. 2 figs, 1 table, 17 refs. (Author) 

2308. Hilado CJ and Lopez MT 

PROCEDURES FOR SCREENING MATERIALS FOR 
POTENTIAL FIRE TOXICITY AND DATA ON SOME 
MATERIALS FOUND IN THE HOME 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 4(l):40-59, 1977 

The procedures used for screening materials for poten- 
tial fire toxicity can be divided into two groups: those 
intended to simulate the pre-flashover conditions of a 
developing fire, and those intended to simulate the post- 
flashover conditions of a fully developed fire. The 
procedures used at the University of San Francisco em- 
ploy a rising temperature program to simulate the develop- 
ing fire and a fixed temperature program to simulate the 
fully developed fire. The rising temperature program has 
been used in most of the work to date, because toxicity 
is more critical to the occupants of the room in the 
pre-flashover stage than in the post-flashover stage. Data 
are presented to illustrate the different types of informa- 
tion obtained, reproducibility, the effect of test variables 
such as temperature program and air flow, and the effect 
of material variables such as flame retardants, fabric dyes, 
and fabric type. 9 figs, 19 tables, 18 refs. (Author) 

2309. Anon 

COMMITTEE ON FIRE TOXICOLOGY SIX-MONTH 
PROGRESS REPORT. Nat Acad Sci, Nat Res Council, 
Advisory Center on Toxicol, Washington, DC; NAS 
ACT/P-843-1, 11 pages, Jul 1976 
Availability: NT1S AD-A033 028/2GA 

This report outlines desirable characteristics for a 
screening test for determining the toxicity of combustion 
and pyrolysis products of polymeric materials. 

2310. Alarie Y and Barrow SC 

TOXICITY OF PLASTIC COMBUSTION PRODUCTS. 
TOXICOLOGIC A L METHODOLOGIES TO ASSESS THE 
RELATIVE HAZARDS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSI- 



423 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



TION PRODUCTS FROM POLYMERIC MATERIALS. 

Univ Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Publ Health, Pitt- 
sburgh, PA; NBS GCR-77-85, 286 pages, 77 figs, 47 tables, 
149 refs, Feb 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

Sensory and pulmonary irritation effects of thermal 
degradation products from natural and synthetic materials 
were studied using mice. Mice were used to develop a 
sensory irritation stress index based on changes in respira- 
tory rate. In addition, acute lethality was obtained. Dose- 
response curves were generated for decomposition 
products from Douglas Fir, PVC, flexible polyurethane, 
teflon, and fiberglas reinforced polyester. Similar data 
were obtained for CO, CO2, low On, acrolein, HC1 and 
CI-.- , Preliminary studies on the pulmonary effects of 
combustion products using rabbits are also reported. 

c. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AND 

FACILITIES 

231 1 . Jelenko C, III and Frey CF 

EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES: AN OVERVIEW 

Robert J. Brady Co, Bowie, MD; 360 pages, 1976 

Twenty-seven scholars and clinicians contributed to this 
book, written for Emergency Medical Service planners, 
educators, and others involved with public health. 
Designed to give the reader an understanding of the inter- 
relationships and functions of an EMS program, it covers 
emergency care from first aid to critical care. The text 
deals with pre-hospital care and EMT training, emergency 
department physician training, emergency department 
procedures, critical care facilities, and community and dis- 
aster aid planning. One chapter, called "Medicolegal Im- 
plications of Emergency Care," discusses the timely issue 
of the legal ramifications of EMS. 

d. INJURIES AND FATALITIES 

2312. Anon 

REDUCING FIRE DEATHS IN NURSING HOMES 

Fire J, 70(5):11, 1976 

The basic multiple-death fire safety problem in health 
care faculties is the failure to confine a fire's resultant 
heat and smoke to the room of origin. The combustibility 
of the sleeping-room contents intensifies the problem. 
Time is insufficient to safely evacuate the occupants. The 
development of the fire must be slowed down, or its 
effects must be confined, by closing the door to the room 
of origin, eliminating or controlling the smoke, or by extin- 
guishing the fire. Some of the ways to reduce the risk 
of multiple-death fires in fire-resistive nursing homes in- 
clude smoke detection, smoke control systems, reduction 
of combustible contents, door closers, sprinkler systems, 
and increased staff training. Three recent nursing home 
fires in the Chicago area, all occurring in fire-resistive 
facilities, are reported in succeeding pages to illustrate 
the problem: the Wincrest Nursing Home fire, Jan 30, 
1976 (pp 12-15); the Cermak House fire, Feb 4, 1976 
(pp 18-21); and the Plaza Nursing Centre Fire, Feb 18, 
1976 (pp 24-27). 

2313. Dolinin VA, Burmistrov VM and Buglaev AI 
MULTI-FACTOR LESIONS DURING FIRES 

Voen Med Zh; (5):27-30, 1976 (Russian) 



Injuries received during massive fires and fires in en- 
closed spaces are reviewed in order to determine the 
causes, nature, and features of the clinical forms of such 
injuries. The study material consisted of 153 case histories 
of casualties arriving in the treatment center within the 
first few hours after fires in enclosed spaces and 108 
forensic autopsy protocols of fire fatalities. The observa- 
tions showed that fires in enclosed spaces most often 
result in complex injuries, due etiologically to the effects 
of several factors, that is, multi-factor injuries: of the 
261 cases examined, there were 621 lesions. 2 tables, 9 
refs. 

e. PHYSIOLOGY 

2314. Petroff PA, Hander EW, Clayton WH and Pruitt 
BA, Jr 

PULMONARY FUNCTION STUDIES AFTER SMOKE IN- 
HALATION. Brooke Army Med Center, Army Inst Surg 
Res, Fort Sam Houston, TX; AD-A033 157/9GA, 6 pages, 
1976 
Availability: NTIS 

Pulmonary function studies were performed within 72 
hours of injury in seven patients with smoke inhalation 
injury diagnosed by positive Xe(133) scintiphotographs and 
in eight patients with burns of similar size but with nega- 
tive Xenon 133 scans. The former patients showed 
decreased peak flow, decreased flow at 25, 50 and 75 
per cent of vital capacity, and an elevated pulmonary 
resistance. In addition, single breath nitrogen tests 
revealed evidence of maldistribution of ventila- 
tion/perfusion abnormalities. Total lung capacity, func- 
tional residual capacity, and compliance (both dynamic 
and static) were similar in the two groups. Pulmonary 
function studies can be of assistance in evaluating smoke 
inhalation, estimating the severity, and following the 
course of patients with this disorder. (See also FTA 1(5) 
for an abstract of the same article published in Am J 
Surgery, 132(3):346-351, 1976.) (Author) 

f. PSYCHOLOGY 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE 
HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF 
HAZARDS 

a. CODES 

2315. Miller DE 

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, HEALTH AND FIRE INDEX. 

VOL 1 

Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY, 224 pages, 1976 

The passage of the United States Occupational Safety 
and Health Act of 1970 opened a new chapter in the 
history of industrial safety regulation. This book provides 
a comprehensive and unified reference listing of the 
safety, health, and fire codes, standards, guides, and 
publications in the field. Since the information is being 
developed too rapidly for any one volume to be current. 
annual cumulative supplements to this volume will be 
published to include the latest available information. The 



424 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1 1. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

a. Codes — Continued 



book is directed chiefly to industrial personnel engaged 
in health and safety activities, and will also be of use 
to engineering, legal, educational, labor and governmental 
groups in the development of ongoing programs in occupa- 
tional safety and health. (Author) 

2316. Gaignou A 
SMOKE REMOVAL 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics; 29(341 ):68-69, 1976 
(French) 

The necessity of removing smoke during a fire is based 
on three important facts: the toxicity of smoke, the lack 
of visibility, and the excessive heat. The possibilities of 
diluting the smoke gases (combustion products), improving 
visibility and reducing temperatures can all be achieved 
by smoke removal systems. Regulations for smoke 
removal from highrise buildings were introduced in France 
in 1974. Pertinent regulations for public-access buildings 
are presently being developed. 



2317. Malaval B 

FRENCH FIRE REGULATIONS 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics; 29(341 ):52-53, 
(French) 



1976 



A brief description is given of the process of develop- 
ment of French fire regulations as they pertain to building 
designers, from the draft stage by administrative authori- 
ties (Public Safety), through application by designers, to 
supervision. The different kinds of fire safety texts, name- 
ly, those which establish the test and classification 
methods and those which determine the requirements for 
type of premise, are discussed. 



2318. Maltete L 

THE PUBLIC SAFETY VIEWPOINT 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics; 
(French) 



29(341 ): 48-49, 1976 



At the present time, many regulations on fire safety 
in France are undergoing revision. In the near future regu- 
lations on the use of building materials, as a function 
of their combustibility, as well as a decision regulating 
the toxicity of gases released during the burning of some 
synthetic materials, will be published. Some sections of 
the fire code for highrise buildings are being refined. Fire 
codes for 3- and 4-family residences are also in need 
of revision. Also presently being reviewed is the 1917 
law for buildings classified as being hazardous, incon- 
venient or unhealthy. Many other problems remain to be 
solved, but the lack of personnel on the public safety 
level required these problems to be dealt with one by 
one. 

2319. Motteu H 

THE VIEWPOINT OF BELGIAN CONSTRUCTORS 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics; 29(341 ):57-65, 1976 
(French) 

The four governmental sources of fire protection regula- 
tions in Belgium are identified, along with their spheres 
of responsibility. The research work being done to provide 
the data required for code development and the results 
achieved in the last two years are reviewed. The Belgian 
standards for fire protection in buildings, especially 
highrise buildings, are outlined. 6 figs, 2 tables. 



2320. Anon 

TECHNICS: LIFE SAFETY IN HEALTH CARE FACILI- 
TIES. WHERE THERE'S FIRE THERE'S SMOKE 

Progr Archil; (9):58-63, 1976 

There is little unanimity among the various codes and 
American government agencies on what constitutes the 
appropriate design for safety from fire. Most codes are 
composed of a multitude of well-intentioned but often 
self-defeating rules aimed at preventing the same disaster 
from re-occurring. An all-embracing national code respon- 
sive to new fire research findings is required, but there 
is nothing available so far. The pitfalls and confusion 
in the various current regulations on life safety design 
are considered. The need for an interlocked chain of ac- 
tion is outlined. Recommendations for detector-activated 
automatically closing doors in patients' rooms are the sub- 
ject of much controversy. Automatic sprinklers have a 
vital role to play in preventing the spread of fire. The 
construction of buildings and the required fire resistance 
of component parts is outlined. The value of fire control 
system detectors is assessed. Central control systems su- 
pervise all fire, smoke and ionization sensors and fire 
alarm and notification functions, but may also be used 
to control physical security, heating and air-conditioning, 
lighting, lifts, laundry and kitchen equipment, and waste 
disposal units. The wiring of such systems is considered. 
The consensus of opinion in the United States is that 
safety codes are essential, although they represent the 
minimum rather than the ideal. The answer to the problem 
is a well-trained staff maintaining good housekeeping stan- 
dards that knows exactly what to do in an emergency. 

b. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

2321. Wright CJ 

NEW HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PLACARDS 

Fire Eng; 130(3):21-23, 1977 

The new system of uniform marking of hazardous 
materials in transit, to be implemented on July 1, 1977, 
is presented. The revised placarding system contains 17 
new placards, which are identical for both rail and 
highway transportation. The new placards will be found 
on each side and each end of a motor vehicle or rail 
car carrying hazardous materials. The size, color, and 
other aspects of the new system are discussed and dis- 
played in tables and a color illustration. 1 fig, 4 tables, 
5 refs. 

c. SAFE HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS 

MATERIALS 

2322. Anon 

HANDLING FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS 

Hwy Heavy Construct; 119(5):30-31, 1976 

Safe handling and storage of hazardous liquids require 
that approved practices be followed. These practices are 
readily available from the National Safety Council, the 
National Fire Protection Association, Factory Mutual 
Research, the Underwriters Laboratory, and from local 
and state safety codes. Most important in the prevention 
of fire are good housekeeping practices and a thorough 
knowledge of proper handling procedures, as discussed 
in the article. 3 figs. 



425 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 
c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials — Continued 



2323. Stoppa J 

PROTECTIVE HEALTH, LABOR AND FIRE MEASURES 
FOR THE USE OF WOFASTERIL (BACTERICIDE) 

Lebensm Ind; 23(6):267-268, 1976 (German; English and 
Russian Summaries) 

Instructions regarding the handling of Wofasteril (a bac- 
tericide containing about 36-40% peracetic acid, about 
20% acetic acid, about 35% water and hydrogen peroxide, 
and a maximum of 0.25% stabilizer) are presented by 
the manufacturing company (in abbreviated form and edi- 
torially revised). Also discussed are the appropriate legal 
regulations; the transportation code for hazardous goods 
is cited. Conclusions for the use of Wofasteril in the 
beverage industry are drawn. (Author) 

2324. Wood WS 

TRANSPORTING, LOADING, AND UNLOADING OF 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS USING MOTOR VEHICLES 

ProfSaf; 21(7):25-30, 1976 

Safety in motor truck transport of hazardous cargo 
requires both improved rolling stock and the upgrading 
of carrier personnel through training. Identification of 
hazardous materials, accurate shipping papers, proper 
loading and unloading procedures, and correct use of 
placards are concerns of the Department of Transporta- 
tion, as well as the shippers and carriers. Changes in 
regulations are being promulgated to simplify compliance 
and improve safety. Emergency information services such 
as the Manufacturing Chemists Association's CHEM- 
TREC (Chemical Transportation Emergency Center) have 
proved valuable in times of spill or fire. 4 photos. (Author) 

d. STANDARDS 



2325. Robertson AF (Ed) 

FIRE STANDARDS AND SAFETY 

Americal Society for Testing and Materials; 
1977 



345 pages, 



This Special Technical Publication 614 of the American 
Society for Testing and Materials contains the papers 
presented at the Symposium on Fire Standards and Safety 
held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 
Maryland, on 5-6 April, 1976. The preprints of these 
papers were reviewed in Fire Technology Abstracts, Vol 
1 Nos 1-2, where they can be found by consulting the 
Source Index under Symposia. 

2326. Knoepfler NB 

COTTON MATTRESSES THAT MEET FEDERAL STAN- 
DARD FF 4-72 
Fire J; 7(K5):53-55, 58-59, 1976 

While the tide of Federal Standard FF 4-72, Mattress 
Flammability Standard, implies a resistance to flaming 
combustion, it actually requires that the mattresses resist 
ignition by lighted cigarettes. Cotton mattresses ignited 
by lighted cigarettes rarely flame; the combustion is the 
very slow smoldering or glowing types. Phosphorous-con- 
taining compounds do not protect cotton batting against 
smoldering combustion initiated by cigarettes placed on 
mattress surfaces, although they are effective on fabrics. 
Boric acid treatment of cotton batting offers the best pos- 
sibility for providing resistance to ignition by cigarettes 
in the context of Mattress Flammability Standard FF 4-72. 
9 figs, 2 tables. (NFPA) 



2327. Kerner G 

EVALUATION OF FIRE RETARDANTS AND WOODEN 

BUILDING COMPONENTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH 

THE NEW STRUCTURAL FIRE PROTECTION 

GUIDELINES 

Holzind; 29(9):258-259, 1976 (German) 

The testing and licensing procedures for fire retardants 
and wooden building components in the German 
Democratic Republic (GDR) are outlined. The basic docu- 
ment, the State Building Inspectorate regulation No. 9/74, 
"Structural Fire Protection," which classifies the com- 
bustibility of building materials and the fire behavior of 
building components, is discussed. In effect as of 1 July 
1976 is standard 10 685/12, "Determination of Fire Spread 
over Building and Structural Components." The stipula- 
tions of these standards and other regulations for struc- 
tural fire protection are presented. 

2328. Lin Y-N, Silverman M, Smith BF and Dardis R 
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF FLAMMABILITY STAN- 
DARDS FOR CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR AND 
CLOTHING 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 4(l):5-28, 1977 

The objectives of this paper were to investigate the 
role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer 
product safety standards and to apply such analysis to 
an evaluation of flammability standards for children's 
sleepwear and clothing, sizes 0-6X. The costs of safety 
standards included the costs of standard development and 
enforcement and the changes in consumer surplus due 
to product regulation. The benefits from safety standards 
were the reduction in product accidents and the direct 
and indirect costs of such accidents. The analysis demon- 
strated the impact of demand and supply conditions and 
the degree of protection provided by the standard on 
cost-benefit ratios. The results also indicated that the 0-6X 
Children's Sleepwear Standard was cost-effective in con- 
trast to the hypothetical 0-6X Children's Clothing Stan- 
dard, where high cost-benefit ratios existed. 3 figs, 11 
tables, 23 refs. (Author) 

2329. Braun E, Cobble VB, Krasny JF and Peacock R 
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPOSED FLAMMABILrTY 
STANDARD FOR COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT FLIGHT 
ATTENDANT UNIFORMS. Nat Bureau of Standards, 
Center for Fire Res, Washington, DC; FAA RD-75-176. 
193 pages, 96 figs, 3 tables, 10 refs, Aug 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A033 740/2GA 

The objective of this work was to develop information 
to support a proposed flammability standard for flight 
attendant uniforms. Currendy used uniforms were found 
to burn to varying degrees when exposed to a temporary 
small ignition source. The feasibility of designing uniforms 
with improved fire safety is demonstrated. Trade-offs in 
terms of cost, appearance, serviceability, and comfort are 
discussed. A proposed flammability standard for flight at- 
tendant uniforms is included. It describes the tests and 
qualifying criteria needed to add self-extinguishing charac- 
teristics and heat flux resistance to various types of F/A 
uniform items. (Author) 



426 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS 
AND PREVENTION 

a. INSURANCE 

2330. Roux J-C 

THE UNDERWRITERS' VIEWPOINT 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics; 29(341):55-56, 1976 
(French) 

Insurance premiums, methods of calculating insurance 
rates, methods of assessing the fire hazard of buildings 
and industries, and the requirements for building design 
as they apply in France are discussed. 

2331. Anon 

FIRE BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURES 

Face au risque; (125):59-63, 1976 (French) 

A study is made of the specific viewpoints of the in- 
surance industry regarding simple premiums, those of in- 
dustry, and the even more complex premiums of special 
enterprises. Of prime interest in the pyrolysis of structures 
insured according to these three premium levels are the 
quantities of gas and smoke emitted. Also of interest, 
however, is the stability and fire resistance of some 
modern building materials. Factors of even greater im- 
portance are possibilities of insulation and the composition 
of the building materials, especially the possibilities of 
preventive fire protection and active and effective 
firefighting. The difficulties for the insurance industry, 
however, stem from the fact that some modern building 
materials contain manufacturing secrets that cannot be 
ferreted out. 4 figs. (Fachdok 13/0453) 

b. LOSSES 

2332. Bresle A 

CORROSION DAMAGE FROM PVC FIRES 

KemialKemi; 3(5):234-235, 1976 (Swedish) 

The widespread use of plastics has brought about the 
problem of fighting the corrosion that occurs as a result 
of the effects of the combustion products generated during 
fires of plastics, especially those containing chlorine, such 
as PVC. During pyrolysis 1 kg of PVC forms 0.5 kg 
of gaseous hydrogen chloride which, when combined with 
water in a 4% concentration, yields 15£of an agressive 
acid, sufficient to cover an area of 150m 2 with a 0.1 
mm layer. As a result of corrosion, fire losses increase 
appreciably. The existing methods of cleaning equipment 
are not yet adequately effective and need further improve- 
ment. 2 figs, 1 table. 

2333. Rardin RL and Mitzner M 

DETERMINANTS OF INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES 
IN REPORTED FIRE LOSS: PRELIMINARY IN- 
VESTIGATION — INTERIM REPORT. Georgia Inst 
Technol, School Ind Syst Eng, School Social Sci, 79 pages, 
1 1 tables, 350 refs, Dec 1976 
Availability: NFPCA 

As a first effort at obtaining some understanding of 
international fire losses, the National Fire Prevention and 
Control Administration has sponsored a study of the deter- 
minants of international differences in reported fire loss 



(DDFire). DDFire is an inter-disciplinary, exploratory in- 
vestigation of the causes of reported international dif- 
ferences in fire loss. Its principal objective is to develop 
hypotheses that might explain the differences and, when- 
ever possible, to scan the hypotheses with readily availa- 
ble information. This interim report summarizes progress 
through November 1976. Detailed analyses are presented 
of two classes of hypotheses, those dealing with the com- 
pilation of fire statistics and those dealing with the relation 
between sociological phenomena and fire loss. The results 
should be considered tentative and subject to change in 
the final report. 

c. RESTORATION 

2334. Ruffert G 

FIRE DAMAGE IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES - IN- 
VESTIGATIONS, ASSESSMENT, AND REPAIR 

Beton Herstellung Verwend; 26(7):239-243, 1976 (German) 

Considered in this article are investigations into the fac- 
tors that determine fire damage, such as the intensity 
and extent of the fire as well as the type and dimensions 
of the construction. Well-proved repair methods are 
discussed, as are shotcreting and injection with resin. 
(Author) 

2335. Ruffert G 

THE USE OF THE CONCRETE INJECTION 
TECHNIQUE (GERMAN STANDARD DIN 18 551 — IN- 
JECTED CONCRETE, MANUFACTURE AND TESTING) 
TO REPAIR FIRE-DAMAGED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURES 
Schadenprisma; 6(1):11-15, 1977 (German) 

To supplement the standard DIN 18 551, "Injected 
Concrete," guidelines will soon be promulgated for the 
repair and reinforcement of concrete structures. This 
technique will make it possible to completely restore 
fire-damaged concrete structures that would otherwise 
have to be demolished. The types of damages to concrete 
and steel exposed to heat and HC1, resp, are described. 
The guidelines require the following points to be fulfilled 
before employing this new standard: 1) adequate quality 
of the concrete, that is, it must be at least as strong 
as the concrete to be restored; 2) adequate adhesion bond 
to take up all the forces occurring in the joint; and 3) 
participation of the new concrete in absorbing stresses, 
that is, adequate deformability of the old concrete so 
that the new concrete can take on stress. 6 figs. (Fachdok 
13/0386) 

d. RISK MANAGEMENT 

2336. Rasbash DJ 

THE DEFINITION AND EVALUATION OF FIRE 
SAFETY 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (16):17-22, 1977 

In recent years analytical and mathematical methods of 
evaluating fire safety, "systems" approaches, "cost effec- 
tiveness" approaches, and the use of hazard analyses and 
fault tree analyses have appeared in fire safety literature. 
In order to test the validity of these new methods and 
to incorporate them into the traditional methods of con- 
sidering fire safety, it is necessary to define the steps 



427 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 
d. Risk Management — Continued 



that need to be covered in producing fire precautions. 
Initially it is necessary to define the nature of the hazard 
and thus the probability of a fire being caused. Then 
the course of the fire, the production of harmful agents, 
and the total expectation of loss and harm by fire can 
be considered. These studies enable reasonable require- 
ments for fire precautions in the hazardous area to be 
formulated. This procedure can be broken down into at 
least the 20 steps described in this article. 1 fig, 8 refs. 
(Author) 

2337. Lorenzen H and Werner K-W 

FIRE DAMAGES AT BUILDING SITES — RESULT OF 

AN INQUIRY OF LEGAL PUBLIC UNDERWRITERS 

Schadenprisma; 6(1): 15- 18, 1977 (German) 

An investigation of 170 cases of damages, selected to 
be representative, revealed that of a total damage value 
of 37 million marks, damages from machinery, processing 
of fire-hazardous materials, and damages from other 
sources, such as fire, light, and heat, amounted to 26.4 
million marks, or 71%. A further breakdown of the cases 
showed that disproportionately high damages result from 
handling of combustible building materials, welding and 
soldering work. It is urgently required that fire-protection 
regulations and protective measures derived from these 
regulations be followed at construction sites. 4 figs, 3 
tables, 7 refs. (Fachdok 13/0410) 

e. SALVAGE 



13. STATISTICS 

2339. Anon 

FIREWORKS INCIDENTS, 1976 

Fire J; 70(6): 74-77, 82, 1976 

A brief report is made of the 1976 fireworks statistics, 
covering 768 fireworks-related incidents that caused 5 
deaths, 72 serious injuries, and 691 minor injuries. In 
addition, 846 fires were attributed to the indiscriminate 
use of fireworks. Two tables summarize the number of 
incidents by type of fireworks and a sample of 1976 fire- 
works injuries. Brief accounts of fatalities and serious 
injuries are given. 2 photos, 2 tables. 

2340. NFPA Fire Anal Dept 
MULTIPLE-DEATH FIRES, 1975 

Fire J; 70(4):27-29, 51, 1976 

In 1975 there were 250 multiple death fires with 1091 
deaths more than in the previous four years. However, 
there was no multiple death fire reported in a nursing 
home in 1975. There were seven fires, causing from 10 
to 108 deaths, ranging from a jail fire to a plane crash 
and fire with 108 deaths (15 caused by the fire). There 
were 29 killed in a tanker explosion and fire when a 
cargo ship collided with a docked tanker. Over 75% of 
the deaths in multiple death fires occurred in residential 
occupancies. Again, one- and two-family dwellings ac- 
counted for most of the deaths - 55%. 2 figs, 4 photos, 
3 tables, 4 refs. (NFPA) 

2341 . NFPA Fire Anal Dept 

1975 LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Fire J, 70(5):37-42, 1976 



Although there were 9% fewer large-loss fires in 1975 
than in 1974, there was a 2% increase in dollar losses, 
caused primarily by the $70 million loss in the New York 
central telephone exchange, which was one of the largest 
fire losses in modern history. If this loss had been ex- 
cluded, the average dollar loss would have decreased by 
1.2%. There were 25 losses more than $3 million, which 
totaled $259.7 million. There were 4 aircraft fires that 
involved $50 million in losses. A fire in a foam rubber 
manufacturing plant attributed to arson resulted in a $24 
million loss. A fire in a trolley car storage warehouse 
in Philadelphia involved a $25 million loss. 4 photos, 6 
tables. (NFPA) 

2342. NFPA Fire Anal Dept 

FIRES AND FIRE LOSSES CLASSIFIED, 1975 
Fire J; 70(6): 17-19, 1976 

US fire deaths increased from 11,600 to 11,800 in 1975, 
including 165 firefighters. Fire injuries increased to 
131,000 in 1975, with more than half involving firefighters. 
Most of the fire deaths, 72% of the building fires, and 
40% of the property loss from fires occurred in re- 
sidences. Fire losses increased by 9.5% to exceed 54 bil- 
lion for the first time. Incendiary and suspicious fires 
increased by 25.5%, with an increase in property loss 
of 12.5%. Large loss fires, which comprised only 0.02% 
of all fires, caused 14.1% of all damage. 4 tables, 1 ref. 
(NFPA) 

2343. Anon 

FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT THE 20,000 PLUS 
POUNDS FIRES IN 1975 

Fire Prev; (118):11-15, 1977 

The 1,152 fires in Great Britain that caused damage 
of 20,000 or more pounds in 1975 are analyzed in 8 charts 
and tables. These fires accounted for 128,221,000 of the 
213 million pounds annual total estimated loss for Great 
Britain. The charts and tables are: 1) Breakdown of Fires 
by Occupancy; 2) Grading of Losses; 3) Fire Costs Re- 
lated to Production; 4) Industries in Which Fires Most 
FrequenUy Grew Into 20,000-Plus Pounds Fires; 5) How 
the Fires Started; 6) Where the Fires Started; 7) When 
the Fires Started; and 8) Age of Premises Involved. The 
average cost of the 1,152 fires analyzed in this survey 
was about 111,000 pounds. Sixteen of the fires cost over 
1,000,000 pounds each. 3 photos, 8 tables. 

2344. Anon 

FPA CASEBOOK OF SOME RECENT MAJOR FIRES 

Fire Prev; (118):27-44, 1977 

The FPA casebook contains a statistical compilation of 
major fire damage in the UK for October-November- 
December, 1976, and a brief description of some notable 
non-UK fires for the same period. Seven major fires are 
discussed in terms of main features, including estimated 
damage, description of premises, cause of fire, and narra- 
tive of the fire. Other notable fires in industrial, commer- 
cial, public-access, marine, residential and institutional 
premises are described in brief. Illustrations, diagrams and 
photographs accompany the various incidents. 

2345. Redzic D 

FIRES AND DAMAGES IN 1975 

Protivpozarna Zastita; 16(9):15-24, 1976 (Serbocroation) 



428 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



13. STATISTICS 

e. Salvage — Continued 

Yugoslavian fire statistics for 1975 reveal an increase 
in the number of fires by 10%, in the number of fatalities 
by 50% , and in property damage by 60% . The report 
gives data on the causes of the fires, the value of 
damages, the branches of industry hit by fire, and 
damaged private property. The most frequent cause of 
fire was negligence. Ship construction was hit with the 
greatest damages. Also reported are successful fire depart- 
ment responses and assistance by the population. In 74% 
of the cases the fire department was at the fireground 
within 10 minutes. 7 figs, 9 tables. (Fachdok 13/0397) 

2346. Powers WR 

ELECTRICAL FIRES IN NEW YORK CITY — 1976. 

Soc Fire Prot Engrs, Boston, MA; SFPE TR-77-3, 5 pages, 

1977 

Availability: SFPE 

The Fire Patrol of the New York Board of Fire Un- 
derwriters issues a bulletin every day giving some details 
on all fires in New York City. This survey, based on 
such information obtained on the 2867 fires identified in 
1976 as being electrical in origin, discusses not only the 
cause of electrical fires but their prevention. Surprisingly 
enough, 38%, or 1079, of the electrical fires occurred 
at light fixtures, switches, and outlets. These are the 
points of most frequent interruption of current, arcing 
and mechanical abuse. Motors were responsible for 530 
fires, or 19% of the electrical fires, with elevators respon- 
sible for 142 of these, or 5% of the total electrical fires. 
Old age, which resulted in dried out, cracked insulation, 
distorted windings and worn bearings, was the most com- 
mon cause of motor fires. In addition to a discussion 
of electrical fire causes, there is a list of practical precau- 
tions to be followed to prevent electrical fires. (Author) 



429 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Dzura M...2178 



Abeles PW...2019 
Abramov M...2226 
Abrams MS... 2037 
Alarie Y...2310 
Al'perovich VYa...2046 
Alpert RL...1967, 1968 
Ammosov F...2109 
Anderson ME... 2303 
Ardis AJ...2240 
Axmark RE... 2056 



B 

Baldwin TF... 2289 
Bare WK...1939 
Bardhan-Roy BK...2019 
Barrow SC...2310 
Barry TJ...1987 
Becker W... 1999 
Bellet H...1947, 1966 
Berman GA...1938 
Berns C...2063 
Bernstein JL...2221 
Benin ER...2229 
Beyreis JR... 1972, 2029 
Bezuglov M...2228 
Bezukh VF...2127 
Blair J A... 1948 
Block I. ..1988 
Bodrov AI...2145 
Bolbat IE... 2192 
Bonsignore PV...2016 
Booth F...2279 
Borg N...2296 
Boris PN...2203 
Bower JC... 2148 
Brands F...1925 
Braun E...2329 
Bresle A... 2332 
Breu R...2015 
Broell R...2254, 2261 
Brown LE...2034 
Bruemmer D...1929 
Brushlinskiy N...2135 
Bubir I...2135 
Buchanan P...2230 
Buecher fnu...2186 
Buerger A... 2040 
Buglaev AI...2313 
Bullen ML. ..2102 
Burgess WA...2230 
Burmistrov VM...2313 
Bushuev VV...2045 
But P.. .2136 



CaldoC.1937 
CampbeU WM...2280 
Carl W...1976 
Carpenter RE... 21 12 
Castino GT...1972 
Chaiken RF...1964, 1983 
Charkov VP...2126 
Chernikov AB...2125 
Chianta MA... 2232 
ChicareUo PJ...2274 
Chi DNH... 1964 
Chinnock JHJ...2170 
Christensen BC...2150 
Christian W J... 1972 
Cinzori RJ...2064 
Clark RC...1998 
Clayton WH...2314 
Cleary MJ...2269 
Clougherty E...2230 
Cobble VB...2329 
Colombies fnu...2091 
Conforti F J... 2065 
Corman H...2290 
Corrie JG...2262 
Cotabish HN...2241 
Cowie G...2077 
Crane CR...2300 



Dalhoff W...2277 
Dallman BE... 2209 
Damant GH...1971 
Darnel R...2183 
Dardis R...2328 
David L...2296 
Davidson E J... 1988 
Davies JS...2066 
Davison EL... 2241 
Dean JO. ..21 13 
DeCicco PR... 2092 
DeLeoPJ...2209 
Dierk L...2154 
Dobrzanski J... 2067 
Dolinin VA...2313 
Doria ML... 2035 
Dorst HO. .2115 
Drax H...2042 
Dry H... 2114 
Dubetskiy VI... 2075 
DubinGM...2045 
Dubovik VI. ..2101, 2109 
Durbetaki P...2007 
Dyagleva LK...2256 



Edwards A. ..21 10 
EfremovaT...1993 
Egorchenkov Yu...2002 
EickerH...2044 
Einhorn IN. ..2010 
Elifani G...2195 
Ellingwood B...2087 
Eisner J A... 1934 
Emmes RC...2150 
Emmons HW...1955 
Eriksson L...2134 
Esser R...2061 
Etienne fnu...2270 
Eulenburg PR... 1977 



Farenden P J... 2028 
Feklov AI...2089 
Ferguson WJ... 2151 
Fernandez- PeUo AC... 1956 
Fewell LL...2299 
Franceschi PA... 2265 
Frey CF...2311 
FriedagH...2272 
Friedman A... 2068 
FrohweinGE.2071 
FukudaT...2111 
Furst H...2299 



Gagliardo JP...2222 
Gaignou A... 23 16 
Garris C A... 1984 
Gayduk A... 2002 
Gehrmann W...2238 
Geisler K...2272 
Goldsmith A... 22 12 
Gorkunenko VM...2256 
Graham CH... 2207 
Green RJS...1978 
Greenspan M...2068 
Griggs E A... 2069 
Grushecky A... 201 2 
Gudmundson G...2140 
GuentherDA...2227 
Guenther K...2164 



I-l 



AUTHOR INDEX 



H 



HadiH...2076 

Hadvig S...2011 

Hagglund B...1982 

Hall E...2210 

Hander EW...2314 

Hardy JC...2149 

Harmathy TZ...2039, 2088 

Hart EV...2067 

Harwood FS...2115 

HayashiT...2108 

HertzogG.1986 

Heskestad G...2048 

Hilado CJ...1975, 2298, 2299, 2300, 

2301, 2302, 2308 
Hildebrand FC...2211 
Hill R... 2203 
Hirst R...2028 
Honda M...2121 
Hormuti S...2099 
Hoshiya S...2060 
Hudson T...2223 
Huebner R...1930 
Humphrey R...2057 
Hunt WR... 2199 
Hushiya S...2022 
Husset M-J...2172 
Hux FM...2223 
Hwang CC...1964 



I 



Ibach fnu...2062 
Igishev VG...2146 
IgnallEJ...2290 
Ishikawa M...2054, 2177 
ItoT...2055 
Ivanov A... 21 79 
Ivchenko AI...2125 
Izumi Y...2160 



Jach W...1990 
Jackson D...2294 
Jamison WB...2076 
Jecmen J... 21 16 
Jecmen JM...2116 
JelenkoC, III... 23 11 
Jenkins LJ, Jr.. 2303 
Jimenez R...2281 
Jin T... 2275 
John R...2276 
Johnson GR...2203 
Jones IP. .2018 
Jones RA...2303 
JunodTL...2009 



Kahut PM...2032 
Kalinin NV...2145 
Kanehara K...2108 



Karlsruhe Fire Prot Eng Res 

Center... 1962 
Karpekin VV...2237 
Karpov L...2109 
Karpov VI... 2256 
Kasmekat W...2288 
Kawaller SI...2093 
Kazakov MV...2256 
Kerner G...2327 
Kerr J W... 2285 
Kido S...2250 
King R...2169 
Kirk N...2152 
Kitagawa T...2180 
KitaH...2060, 2286 
KlingerGS...2242 
Knippertz HJ...2277 
KnoepflerNB...2326 
Koboyashi H...2202 
Konig A... 2204 
Konyuchenko VS... 2021 
Korol AA...2125 
Korzhov VT...2191 
Koshovskiy B I... 2046 
Kotov A... 221 8 

Kourtides DA... 1975, 2299, 2301 
Kousaka H...2111 
Kovach PE...2221 
Koval'chuk VI... 2045 
Kozlyuk AI...2126 
Krasnoperov V...2137 
Krasny JF...2329 
Kravontka SJ...2252, 2283 
Kravtsov AG... 21 46 
Krishtal'skiy B...2138 
Ku AC... 2035 
Kugelman M...2213 
Kurimoto I... 2173 
Kushnarev AM... 2191 



Lapin KI...2127, 2191 
Lauriente M...2198 
Lebedev VI... 2192 
LeBotlan Y...1966 
Leconte R...2239 
Lee CK...1983 
LeMar R...2175 
Lemke E...2185 
Leonard JT...1998 
Lesse PF...2027 
Levendusky TL...2016 
Li CC... 1989 
Lie TT... 2020 
Linden G... 21 54 
Linetskiy VA...2166 
Lin Y-N... 2328 
Lloyd JR. .2035 
Lloyd LR...2007 
Loeb DL...2215, 2216 
Longcroft T...2214 
Lopez MT... 2298, 2308 
Lorenzen H...2337 
Lowery RP...2007 
Lugovskoy V...2002 
Luich RJ...2151 
Lynch JJ... 2230 



M 

Mac Arthur CD... 2030 
MacCleary RC...2227 
Maguire HM...2294 
Malaval B...2317 
Malinowski W J... 2070 
Malitskiy V...2003 
Maltete L...2318 
Marcussen WH...2299 
Martinsen WE... 2034 
Matsui T...2159 
Matsuyama T...2224 
Matyukkin K A... 2145 
Mazur W...2004 
McCartan DA. ..2018 
McGarry DL...2227 
Mclain L...2013 
McMillian LS...2071 
McRae M...2273 
Meckel L...2000 
Meih E...2058 
Mensing CE...2065 
Meyer E...2188 
Meyer EC. .2233 
Miller DE... 23 15 
Miller DM... 2267 
Mills JW, Jr... 2243 
Mishin V...2136 
MitsudaT...2111 
Mitsue F...1960 
Mitzner M...2333 
MiyakiH...2055 
Modak AT...1%8 
Moore JB...1989 
Morgan HP... 2 102 
Morikawa T...2260 
Motoe T...2128, 2129 
Motoyama T...2090 
Motteu H...2319 
Moussa N A... 1984 
Muhlenkamp SP...2034 
MullerFA...2033 
Munck J... 2080 
Munroe LR...2232 
Murakami M...2099 
Murukurthy RK...2282 
MyrickCR...2263 



N 



Nagayama K...2128, 2129 

Nakada Y...2159 

Nakagawa S...2225 

NakaiT...2117 

Nakakuki A. ..2128, 2129 

Nakamura K...2121 

Nakayama I... 21 17 

Nash P.. .2123, 2157, 2158, 2284 

NaylorD...2287 

Newington TJ...2072 

Newman B...1987 

NFPA Fire Anal Dept...l931. 1932. 

2340, 2341, 2342 
NFPA Fire Record Dept...l933 
Nielsen R...2266 
NishidaT...2224 
Nishikawa K...2181 



1-2 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Nishino S...2073 
Niwa K...2100 
Nuger L...2139 



Odinets MV...2256 
O'Hagan JT...2197 
Orals DL...2024 
Orloff L...1968 
Ostrowski T...2178 
Ozawa J... 2 160 



Pabst S...2272 
Pagni PJ...1985 
Paleev DYu...2089 
Parker J A... 1975, 2299, 2301 
Payne SS...2248, 2249 
Peabody HD...2304 
Peacock R...2329 
Persson L-E...1982 
Petroff PA... 23 14 
Petrov I... 21 36 
Pieper H...2189, 2278 
Piergallini JR... 2232 
Podany VO...2063 
Pogorzelski J A... 201 7 
Polovinko ID... 2 127 
Powers WR...2346 
Prager DI...1979, 1980 
Prokhorov A... 2247 
Provencher RG...2295 
Pruitt BA, Jr.. .2314 
Pryanikov VI. .2166 
Przybilla L...2190 
Pucill PM...2141 
Puckett GL...2034 



Quenzel K-H...2104 
Quigg PS... 2024 



Raes H...2038 

Raffalsky K...2255 

Rardin RL...2333 

Rasbash DJ...1940, 2271, 2336 

Redzic D...2345 

Reeves JB...2030, 2031 

Richard C J... 1978 

Richards DR.. 2208 

Richards RC...2023 

Rider KL... 2290 

RieberM.1935 

Rieger JL...1965 

Rines J... 2079 

Roach SV...2148 

Robertson AF...2325 

Robertson WD... 2206 

Roby MA. .2156 



Rocheler E...2147 
Rohrer JF...2118 
Rook A... 2000 
Roux J-C...2330 
Ruffert G...2334, 2335 
Rush DJ...2119 



Saito F...2305 
Saito N...1994 
Sakurai H...2108 
Sanderson IS. ..2149 
San Miguel A... 1965, 2026 
Sato K...1961 
Sawaki Y...2181 
Sawyer RG...1934 
Schaffernak AF...2043 
Schlobohm J. .2234 
Schmalor G...2059 
Schneider JE...2302 
Schulman S...2014 
Scott K AC... 1969 
Seader JD...2010 
Sega S...1991, 1992 
Sekijawa A... 2099 
Seki K...2121 
Sekine T...1953 
Selle K...1943 
Semenov VP...2131, 2259 
Sergienko VI. ..2127, 2191 
Sharovarnikov AF...2256 
Shaver JR... 2087 
Shearer RP...2227 
Shebeko V...2082 
Sheen PAD... 1941 
Shetser GM...2126 
Shibanov VS. ..2125 
Shibata M...2108 
Shigenobu S...1960 
ShihTM...1985 
Shimonomura I. ..2117 
ShpilbergDC.2274 
SidorR...2230 
Silverman M...2328 
Simmons RF...2028 
Simon FN... 2056 
Singer JM... 1964, 1983 
Singleton DW...2081 
Sirako N...2286 
Skjordahl J W... 2029 
Slattengren CL...2301 
Sluga W...2293 
Smith BF...2328 
Smith DA... 1978 
Smith EE...2085 
Smith JRG... 2200 
Smith P...1997 
Smith RB...1942 
Sokolov V...2219 
Solov'ev VA...2145 
Specht GE...2155 
Spiegelhalter F...2041 
Stanzak WW... 2020 
Starokozhev II... 21 31, 2259 
Starrett PS... 1973 
Steinbauer E...2194 
Stephenson FJ...2119 



Stetsovskiy M...2109 
Stevenson A... 2290 
Stoll AM... 2232 
Stoppa J... 2323 
Suchy JT...2292 
SukkanovGV...2146 
Sviridov B...2139 
Swanepoel LP... 2072 



Tada R...2162 
Takita M...2022, 2286 
Tamanini F...1958, 1959 
Tamura S...2090 
TanakaT...2103 
Tansley HW...2120 
Tato H...2049, 2132, 2174 
Taylor W... 1969 
Tenney KS...2156 
Terayama F...2225 
Tewarson A... 1974 
Thomas CL...2184 
Thompson WJ...2264 
Tiedtke K...2154 
Tiezzi I... 21 65 
Timmerberg CH...2277 
Tincher WC...2007 
Tingle W J... 2007 
ToongTY.,1984 
Torregas C...2210 
Tourrette J -C... 1952 
Tovey H...2001 
Townley JP...2205 
Toyer M...1952 
Toyoshima S...2121 
Tsuchiya Y...2306 
Turner FH... 201 9 
Tuve RL...1927 
Tyler ME. ..2153 



u 



Umeda K...2159 
Umehara T...2182 
UrayaT...2224 



Varnedoe WW, Jr... 2236 

Vasilenko VV...2126 

Vasil'ev A.. .2136 

Vaskin S...1993 

Vasquez T. . .2074 

Veit HF...2244 

Vervalin CH...2094, 2095, 2096, 2097, 

2098 
Vishnevskiy LD...2126 
Vogel BM...1951 
Voirol A... 2084 
Voloshanenko A... 21 35 
Voropaev A... 2251 
Vorthman RG...2023 



1-3 



AUTHOR INDEX 



W 

Wagner JP... 2008 

Wakabayashi K...1995, 1996, 2006, 

2176 
Wakamatsu T...2103 
Walsh CV... 2291 
Wang W W-Y...1963 
Warncke E...2235 
Warnow D...2245 
Waters JM...2217 
Wegemann H...2122 
Weinberg FJ...1963 
Welker RW...2008 
Werner K-W...2337 
Westhoff W...2106 
Westphal H...2163 
West PT...2187 
Whippen JA...2269 
Wiggins JH...2198 
Williams FA... 1957 
Williamson RB...2036 
WirthM0...2289 
Wise MK. .2294 
Wolfe VL, Jr... 2007 
Wood WS... 2324 
Wright C J... 2321 



Yadon RE ...2289 
Yamada A.. .2130 
Yamaguchi H...2108 
Yamamamoto K...2307 
Yanai E...1994 
Yoshii Y...2117 
Young MA. .1971 
Yushnikov G...2139 



Zaborskaya AN... 2046 
Zaccaria DE...2232 
Zasevskiy VV...2126 
ZhukovaNE...2021 
Ziebrecht H-J. .2245 



1-4 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ABS PLASTICS 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

ACCIDENT PREVENTION 

chemical plants 
control center... 2178 

ACCIDENTS 

(also see: aircraft accidents; 

explosions; ship accidents; traffic 
accidents) 

ACETYLENE 

chromatograph y 
mine fires... 2046 

ACTIVATION ENERGIES 

synthetic materials 
comparisons ... 1 986 

ACTUATORS 

extinguishers 
patents... 2 147 

ADDITIVES SEE: SLIPPERY 
WATER; SURFACTANTS; 
WETTING AGENTS 

AERIAL LADDERS 

nozzle mountings 
patents... 222 3 
remote controlled... 2223 

AERIAL PLATFORMS SEE: 
ELEVATING PLATFORMS 

AIRCRAFT 

compartmentation 
postcrash fire safety... 2203 

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 



AIRCRAFT CARRIERS 

deck fires 
aircraft compartment safety.. 



2026 



AIRCRAFT COMPARTMENTS 

breathing apparatus 

patents... 2244 
carrier deck fires 

smoke measurement... 1965 
fire gases 

mathematical models... 2030, 2031, 
2032 

testing program... 2031 

user's guide... 2032 



fire safety 
aircraft carriers... 2026 

AIRCRAFT CRASHES SEE: 
AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS 

AIRCRAFT CRASH FIRES 

(also see: aircraft fires; aircraft ground 

fires) 
smoke abatement 
training simulation... 2209 

AIRCRAFT ENGINES 

fire suppression 
simulation... 2028 

AIRCRAFT FIRES 

(also see: aircraft crash fires; aircraft 

ground fires) 
extinguishants 

developments . . .2284 
firefighting operations 

colloquia...2268 
rescue operations 

colloquia...2268 
rescue techniques 

developments. . .2284 
smoke abatement 

training devices... 221 2 

AIRCRAFT FUEL FIRES 

(also see: fuel fires) 

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS 

materials 
standards... 1926 

thermoplastic materials 
flammability characteristics... 1975 
thermochemical characteristics... 1975 

AIRCRAFT UPHOLSTERY 

pyrolysis products 
toxicity screening... 2299 

AIR CYLINDERS SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

AIR DUCTS 

(also see: ventilation systems) 

AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS 

fire protection 
design parameters... 2108 

AIR SAMPLERS 

firefighters 
exposure data... 2230 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURES 

fire resistance 



overestimation...2083 

ALARM SYSTEMS 

detector arrays 

patents... 2074 
smoke detectors 

ionization... 2067 

ALCOHOL DISTILLERIES 

accidents 

Japan... 1936 
Japan 

fire safety legislation... 1936 

ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE 

flame retardants 

polyurethane foams. ..2016 
smoke suppressants 

polyurethane foams... 20 16 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS 

combustion toxicology 

cyanide/carbon monoxide... 2307 
survival time analysis 

fire atmospheres... 2303 
toxicity screening 

pyrolysis products... 2 300 
toxicity studies 

polymers. ..2310 

pulmonary effects...2310 

APARTMENT HOUSES 

fire detectors 
integrated systems... 2048 

APPAREL SEE: CLOTHING 

APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 
FIRE APPARATUS 

APPROVAL TESTS 

fire detectors 
results... 2077 

ARSON 

(also see: firesetting; incendiarism; 

pyromania) 
control programs 

seminars... 2292 
detection 

National Fire Academy course... 2292 
firesetters 

psychology... 2293 
investigation 

status (1976)... 2295 
investigations 

National Fire Academy course... 2292 

photography . . .2229 
legal environment 



[-5 



SUBJECT INDEX 



constraints. . .2296 
preventive measures 
legal constraints... 2296 

ARSON SQUADS 

investigation programs 

Calgary, Canada... 2294 

Denver, CO... 2294 
prevention programs 

Seattle, WA...2294 

ASBESTOS 

health hazards 
alternatives. . .201 3 

ASTRAGALS 

elevators 
fire prevention. ..21 16 

AUSTRIA 

fire research laboratories 
Mennedorf ... 1 949 

AUTOIGNITION 

phthalic anhydrides 

production safety... 2002 
resinous materials 

production safety... 2002 

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURES 

wood 

fire hazards... 2006 
wood boards 

fire hazards... 2006 

AVIATION FUEL FIRES 

extinguishment areas 
occupant escape... 2274 

AVIATION FUELS 

extinguishment 
foam concentrates... 2254 



B 

BACTERICIDES 

handling safety 
fire protection... 2323 

BASIC SKILLS 

reading 
employment criteria... 2249 

BEAM MASTER 

fire detectors 
laser... 2057 

BEDDING 

(also see: blankets; mattresses) 

BEHAVIOR SEE: HUMAN 

BEHAVIOR; FIRE BEHAVIOR 

BELGIUM 

building codes 
fire safety... 23 19 

BEVERAGE PLANTS 

alcoholic 
fire incidents... 1936 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

fire research 



Building Research Establishment 
(UK)... 1946 

BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors ... 1 975 

BLANKETS 

(also see: asbestos blankets; bedding) 

BLAST CLEANING 

steel 
flammable atmospheres . . . 208 1 

BLOOD GASES 

smoke inhalation 
pulmonary function... 23 14 

BOMBS 

extinguishing 
patents... 21 52 

BORIC ACID 

fire-retardant treatment 
cotton batting... 2326 

BREATHING APPARATUS 

aircraft compartments 

patents... 2244 
(also see: respirators) 
breathing physiology 

medical testing... 2233 
check valves 

patents... 2242 
compressed-air 

positive-pressure systems... 2235 
demand regulators 

patents... 2243 
firefighter exposure 

minimum protection... 2230 
lung simulators 

medical testing... 2234 

medical tests... 2234 
pneumatic control 

patents... 2245 
self -rescue 

patents... 2241 

BREATHING PHYSIOLOGY 

breathing apparatus 
medical testing... 2233 

BRIDGES 

fire damage 
thermal effects... 2090 

BRIDGE TRUSSES 

fire damage 
thermal effects... 2090 

BROWNS FERRY 

nuclear power plant 
cable tray fires... 1934 

BUDGETING 

prefire planning 
cost analyses... 2289 

BUILDING CODES 

fire safety 

Belgium... 23 19 

critique... 23 20 

nursing homes... 2320 
residential 



plastics... 1926 

smoke removal 

France... 23 16 

BUILDING COMPONENTS 

plastics 

fire behavior. . . 1 979 

fire testing... 1980 
wooden 

standards (GDR)... 2327 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 

fire codes 

France... 23 17 
fire prevention 

regulations (FRG)...2040 

BUILDING DESIGN 

compartment dimensions 

fire protection... 2039 
concealed spaces 

firestops...2041 
fire loads 

fire intensity... 2038 
fire prevention 

regulations ( FRG) . . . 2040 
fire protection 

isolation methods... 2039 

BUILDING FIRES SEE: 
STRUCTURAL FIRES 

BUILDING INSPECTION 

building permits 
fire departments... 2266 

BUILDING MATERIALS 

fire hazards 

predictions . . . 2007 
flame resistant 

patents... 201 8 
plastics 

fire behavior... 1979 
polyester resins 

glass-fiber reinforced... 1999 

BUILDING PERMITS 

building inspection 
fire departments... 2266 

BUILDINGS 

fire-fighting equipment 

first aid... 21 57 
fire protection 

equipment...2110 
fire spread 

causes... 1951 

remedies... 1951 
smoke movement 

calculation methods... 1961 

BUILDING STRUCTURES 

closures 

guidelines... 2 106 
fire endurance 

fire-fighting operations . . . 2091 

insurance rates... 2331 
post-tensioned 

fire resistance... 2086 

manual... 2086 
smoke movement 

full-scale tests... 2 109 



1-6 



i 



SUBJECT INDEX 



BULKHEADS 

foamed plastic 
heat degradation... 2089 

BUOYANT FLOWS 

corridor fires 
mathematical modeling... 2035 

BURNS 

flame radiation 
protective clothing... 2232 

BUS ACCIDENTS SEE: TRAFFIC 
ACCIDENTS 

BUTADIENE STYRENE RUBBER 

pyrolysis products 
carbon monoxide... 2298 



CABARETS SEE: NIGHTCLUBS 

CABLE DRUMS 

escape devices 
patents... 2282 

CABLE DUCTS 

(also see: electrical ducts; utility ducts; 
utility shafts) 

CABLES SEE: ELECTRICAL 
CABLES 

CABLE TRAYS 

nuclear power plants 
fire incidents... 1934 

CAPROLACTAM REACTORS 

fire detectors 

design parameters...2181 
fire protection 

extinguishing systems... 21 81 

CARBON DIOXIDE 

inerting properties 
extinguishing systems... 2 123 

CARBON MONOXIDE 

cyanide 

combined toxicities... 2307 
measuring instruments 

new products... 2044 

CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION 

public buildings 
fire testing. ..21% 

CARDBOARD 

smoldering 
experimental studies... 1991 
theoretical studies... 1992 

CAREER ADVANCEMENT 

fire service 
promotion tests... 2248 

CARGO HOLDS 

ships 
extinguishing systems... 21 41 



CARPETS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 

CARRIER DECK FIRES 

aircraft compartments 
smoke measurement... 1965 

CEILINGS 

fire resistant 

patents...2119 
space grid structure 

fire resistant... 21 19 

CELLULOSE 

mass loss rates 
pyrolysis... 1994 

CELLULOSIC MATERIALS 

flame spread 

modeling... 1973 
smoldering mechanisms 

experimental studies... 1984 

theoretical studies ... 1 984 

CERAMIC FIBERS 

insulating materials 
asbestos substitutes... 201 3 

CHARRING PYROLYSIS 

wood fires 
laser simulation... 1983 

CHECK VALVES 

breathing apparatus 
patents... 2242 

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

fire prevention 

book... 2166 
hazardous machinery 

explosion safety... 2 180 

fire safety... 2 180 
safety engineering 

book. ..2166, 2168 

CHEMICAL PLANTS 

accident prevention 
control center... 2 178 

CHEMISTRY 

fire protection 
textbooks... 1927 

CHILDREN'S CLOTHING 

flammability standards 
cost-benefit analysis... 2328 

CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR 

flammability standards 
cost-benefit analysis... 2328 

CHUTE ESCAPES 

evacuation means 

lowrise buildings... 2278 
helical 

patent... 2280 

CLASS-B FIRES 

thermal radiation 
extinguisher range ... 1 966 

CLOSURES 

compartmentation 
guidelines... 2 106 



CLOTHING 

(also see: protective clothing; 

sleepwear) 
children's 
flammability standards... 2328 

CLOTHING FABRICS 

burning behavior 
flammability testing... 1988 

COAL MINING 

hydraulic pumps 
fire-resistant fluids. ..2012 

CODES 

(also see: building codes; fire codes) 
fire safety 

computing centers... 2161 

reference books... 23 15 

ships... 2200 

COLLOQUIA 

Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting 
Annual, 1976... 2268 

COMBUSTIBILITY 

building construction 

symposia papers ... 1 926 
furnishings 

symposia papers... 1926 
furniture 

symposia papers... 1926 
transportation 

symposia papers... 1926 

COMBUSTIBLE GASES 

excess pyrolyzate 
polymeric materials... 1985 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

textiles 
classification. . . 1 990 

COMBUSTION GASES 

toxicity tests 
standards (Japan)... 2306 

COMBUSTION MECHANISMS 

flammable gases 
laboratory studies... 1995 

COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

flow 

compartment fires... 1962 

highrise buildings...2101 
insulating materials 

synthetic... 1970 
mine fires 

ventilation systems. ..2192 
physiological aspects 

book... 2297 
plastics 

toxicity... 2009 
polymers 

toxicity. ..2310 

toxicity screening. . .2309 
toxicity screening 

smoke prevention... 2305 
toxicological aspects 

book... 2297 

COMBUSTION RATES 

heat removal systems 



I- 7 



SUBJECT INDEX 



design parameters... 2 104 
smoke removal systems 
design parameters... 2104 

COMBUSTION STATES 

development 
aircraft mate rials... 2030 

COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

(also see: toxicity) 
cyanide/carbon monoxide 

combined toxicities... 2307 
pulmonary function 

firefighters. . .2304 

COMMUNICATION CABLES 

flame spread 

tunnel testing... 2029 
smoke production 

tunnel testing... 2029 

COMMUNICATIONS 

evacuation 
fire operations... 2252 

COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

fire service 
Japan... 2250 

COMPARTMENT ATION 

aircraft 

postcrash fire safety... 2203 
closures 

guidelines... 2 106 

COMPARTMENT FIRES 

combustion products 

flow studies... 1962 
depressurizati on 

smoke removal... 2039 
development 

mathematical models... 2027 
fatalities 

clinical studies... 23 13 
histories 

computer codes... 1955 
injuries 

clinical studies... 23 13 
rate of development 

floor coverings... 1952 

wall coverings... 1952 

COMPARTMENT WALLS 

concrete-steel structures 
fire resistance... 2088 

COMPENSATION CIRCUITS 

detectors 
patents... 2065 

COMPOSITE MATERIALS 

activation energies 
comparisons ... 1 986 

COMPRESSORS 

explosion hazards 

preventive measures... 2080 
fire hazards 

preventive measures... 2080 

COMPUTER ALGORITHMS 

ventilation systems 
smoke removal... 2103 



COMPUTER CODES 

fire histories 
compartment fires... 1955 

COMPUTER MODELS 

firehouse siting 
location criteria... 2210 

COMPUTING CENTERS 

electronic equipment 
fire protection...2161, 2186 

CONCEALED SPACES 

fire stops 
design guides... 2041 
fire extension... 2092 
row houses... 2092 

CONCRETE 

precast 

fire resistance... 2019 
structural elements 

fire testing... 2025 

CONCRETE BEAMS 

reinforced 
fire resistance... 2087 

CONCRETE INJECTION 

restoration techniques 
concrete structures... 2335 

CONCRETE-STEEL STRUCTURES 

compartment walls 
fire resistance... 2088 

CONCRETE STRUCTURES 

fire damage 

restoration. . .2334 
restoration 

injection technique... 2335 

CONFERENCES 

Chemical Fiber, Internat 

14th, 1975... 1935, 1976, 1977, 1990, 
2000, 2001, 2238 
Institution of Fire Engineers (UK) 

Annual, 1976... 1940, 1941, 2170, 
2207, 2208 
Textile Industry Technical 

Annual, 1976.. .2184 
Transportation, Intersociety 

4th, 1976... 2198 
World Airports 

5th, 1976... 2284 

CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DU 
BATIMENT SEE: CIB 

CONSTRUCTION SITES 

fire damages 

statistics (FRG)... 2337 
fire incidents 

safety regulations... 2337 

CONTAINERS 

closed 

fire effects... 2287 
fire effects 

extinguishing tactics... 2287 
fire-resistant 

liquid sulfur transportation... 2004 



CONVEYOR BELTS 

mine fires 
fogging systems... 2 127 

CORRIDOR FIRES 

buoyant flows 
mathematical modeling... 2035 

CORROSION DAMAGES 

machinery 
plastics fires... 2332 

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES 

efficiency studies 
fire departments... 2288 

COTTON BALES 

fire extinguishants 
water... 21 31 
wetting agents...2131 

COTTON BATTING 

baled 

fire extinguishing. ..2131 
extinguishment 

wetting agents... 2259 
fire-retardant treatment 

boric acid... 2326 

CRIB FIRES 

extinguishment 
water sprays... 1959 

CURTAINS SEE: SMOKE CURTAINS; 
WATER CURTAINS 

CUTOFF CIRCUITS 

temperature actuated 
patents... 2075 

CYANIDE 

carbon monoxide 
combined toxicities... 2307 

CYCLOHEXANE 

production machinery 
explosion safety... 2 180 
fire safety... 2 180 

CYLPNDERS SEE: GAS CYLINDERS 



DAMPERS 

ventilation systems 
design parameters... 2108 

DANCE HALLS 

(also see: nightclubs) 

DECISION MAKING 

fireground command 
systems approach... 2269 

DEGASSING PIPES 

mines 
asbestos sealants... 2021 

DEMAND REGULATORS 

breathing apparatus 
patents... 2243 



I- 



SUBJECT INDEX 



DESCENT MECHANISM 

cable control 
windo w-attac hed . . . 228 1 

DETECTOR ARRAYS 

alarm systems 
patents... 2074 

DETECTORS 

compensation circuits 

patents... 2065 
electrical leakage 

fire prevention... 2054 
ionization 

particulates. . .2056 

space charge effects... 2056 
thermal 

patents... 2075 

DETECTORS SEE: FIRE 
DETECTORS; FLAME 
DETECTORS; INFRARED 
DETECTORS; IONIZATION 
DETECTORS; SMOKE 
DETECTORS; ULTRAVIOLET 
DETECTORS 

DIRECTORIES 

fire organizations 
UK... 1924 

DISASTERS 

communications systems 
Japan... 2250 

DISCOTHEQUES SEE: DANCE 
HALLS 

DOOR CLOSERS 

electromagnetic 
patents... 2 120 

DOOR OPENERS 

emergency exits 
operating pri nciples ... 2 1 05 

DOORS 

security pins 
patents...2113 

DRAPES SEE: WINDOW 
COVERINGS 

DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHANTS 

extinguishing systems 
tanker ships... 2140 

DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHANTS 

pressurized extinguishers 

parameters ... 2 1 25 

selection factors. ..2143 
properties 

effectiveness . . .2255 



DUCT FIRES 

gas flows 
mathematical modeling.. 



1964 



DUCTS SEE: AIR DUCTS; 

ELECTRICAL DUCTS; UTILITY 



DUCTS; VENTILATION 
SYSTEMS 

DUST ATOMIZERS 

explosion chambers 
testing... 1993 

DUSTS 

explosion hazards 

testing (FRG)... 2005 
explosivity 

testing... 1993 
fire hazards 

characteristics . . .2005 

DUTY SCHEDULES 

firefighters 
legal controversies . . . 2246 



ECONOMIC ANALYSES 

efficiency studies 
fire departments... 2288 

EDUCATION 

(also see: correspondence courses; fire 
safety education; fire safety 
training; fire science education; 
fire service instructors; National 
Fire Academy; public education; 
training) 

fire engineers 
UK... 1940, 1941 

ELASTOMERS 

pyrolysis products 
toxicity screening... 2298 

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 

domestic 

fire hazards... 2 163 
fire hazards 

causes... 2 163 

ELECTRICAL CABLES 

(also see: electrical circuits; electrical 

wiring) 
fire response 

toxic effects... 1929 
fires 

Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant... 1934 

ELECTRICAL CAPACITORS 

metallized paper 
ignition mechanisms ... 1 960 

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 

(also see: electrical cables; electrical 
wiring) 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

electrical leakage 

detectors... 2054 
fire incidents 

causes... 1930 
fire safety 

industrial organization ... 2 1 64 
industrial occupancies 

explosion protection... 2 162 

fire protection... 2 162 



ELECTRICAL FIRES 

statistics 
New York City (1976)... 2346 

ELECTRICAL LEAKAGE 

high-voltage equipment 
fire prevention... 2054 

ELECTRICAL WIRING 

(also see: electrical cables; electrical 
circuits) 

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 

computing centers 
fire protection... 2161, 2186 
fire safety codes (FRG). ..2161 

ELEVATORS 

astragals 

patents... 21 16 
fire operations 

manual... 2273 
highrise buildings 

fire emergencies... 2283 

EMERGENCY EXITS 

door openers 
operating principles . . . 2 1 05 

EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES 

programs 
books... 2311 
survey... 23 11 

EMPLOYMENT CRITERIA 

basic skills 

reading... 2249 
educational qualifications 

psychology. . .2293 

EMULSION TREATMENT 

oil tanks 
fire prevention... 21 87 

ENCLOSURE FIRES SEE: 
COMPARTMENT FIRES 

ESCAPE DEVICES 

cable drums 

patents... 2282 
rappeling 

descent control... 2236 
security pins 

doors. ..21 13 
windo w-attac hed 

cable descent mechanism... 2281 

patents... 2281 

portable... 2281 

ESCAPE MEANS 

(also see: evacuation devices) 

ESCAPE ROUTES 

(also see: evacuation methods) 
evacuation times 

calculations . . .2276 
smoke densities 

limit values... 1962, 2275 

ESCAPE TIMES 

aviation fuel fires 
extinguishment areas... 2274 



1-9 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ETHYLENE 

chromatography 
mine fires... 2046 

EVACUATION 

communicatio ns 

fire operations... 2252 
structural fires 
guidance systems... 2277 

smoke density... 2275 

EVACUATION DEVICES 

(also see: escape means) 

EVACUATION MEANS 

chute escapes 
lowrise buildings... 2278 

EVACUATION METHODS 

(also see: escape routes) 

EVACUATION SIGNS 

fire alarms 
patents... 207 3 

EVACUATION THEORY 

escape routes 
building design... 2276 

EVACUATION TIMES 

escape routes 
calculations. . .2276 

EXCAVATING RIGS 

mines 
fire protection... 2191 

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 

flame arresters 
patents...2118 

EXPLOSION DETECTORS 

infrared 
patents... 2064 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

compressors 

preventive measures... 2080 
dusts 

testing (FRG)... 2005 

EXPLOSION LIMITS 

dusts 
testing... 1993 

EXPLOSION MECHANISM 

flammable gases 
laboratory studies... 1995 

EXPLOSION PARAMETERS 

combustible gases 
measurement... 1996 

EXTINGUISHANTS 

aircraft fires 

development s . . . 2284 
(also see: dry chemical extinguishants; 
dry powder extinguishants; foam 
extinguishants; halons) 
dry powders 

properties... 2255 
Halon 1211 

deficiencies ... 2 1 22 

effectiveness . . .2253 



halons 

properties... 2255 
ships 

survey... 2258 

EXTINGUISHERS 

actuators 

patents... 2147 
dry powder 

parameters... 2 125 

selection factors... 2 143 
hydrostatic testers 

patents. ..2148 
quick-opening valves 

patents. ..2153 
selection factors 

information services... 2 144 
waste receptacles 

patents... 2 156 

EXTINGUISHING BOMBS 

chemical extinguishants 
patents. ..2152 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

automatic 

reliability... 2 137 
caprolactam reactors 

design parameters...2181 
cyclic discharge 

patents... 2 154 
design features 

Japan... 21 32 
design guidelines 

oil storage areas... 2 136 
dry powder 

reviews... 21 23 
fixed 

cargo ships... 2141 
highway tunnels 

Japan... 21 30 
industrial plants 

France... 21 72 
inerting gases 

re views... 2 123 
inhibiting gases 

re views... 2 123 
proportions 

patents... 2 149 
ships 

future trends... 2134 

machinery compartments... 2142 
sprinklers 

design... 2 129 
technical parameters 

developmental history... 2 128 
time-delay valves 

patents.. .2150 

EXTINGUISHMENT TIME 

sprinkler systems 
statistical analysis. ..2135 



FABRICS 

fire hazards 

predictions . . . 2007 
furniture coverings 



smoldering characteristics ... 1 97 1 

FACE MASKS 

firefighters 
design characteristics... 2231 

FACTORY EQUIPMENT 

fire control protection 
man-machine interaction... 2173 

FALSE ALARMS 

accidental 

fire detectors... 2058 
fire alarm systems 

analysis... 2042 
malfunctions 

fire detectors... 2058 
malicious 

remedies... 2270 
telephone calls 

tracing... 2270 

FARM BUILDINGS 

fire hazards 
identification. . .2079 

FATALITIES SEE: FATAL FIRES; 
FIRE FATALITIES 

FAULT TREES 

fire safety analysis 

definition... 2336 
reliability analysis 

fire protection systems. ..2176 

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY 

fire codes 
hospitals. ..2190 

FILTER PAPER 

vertical sheets 
flame spread... 1956 

FIRE ALARMS 

evacuation signs 

patents... 2073 
reliability 

analysis... 2042 
temperature sensors 

patents... 2069 
testing organizations 

FRG... 2059 
transmitters 

patents... 2068 

self-sustaining. . .2068 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

central stations 

modular... 2043 
control stations 

ships... 2052 
detectors 

reliability... 2042 
ships 

modular design... 2053 

FIRE ANALYSES 

metals 
tensile properties... 2227 

FIRE APPARATUS 

aerial ladders 
nozzle mountings... 2223 



1-10 



SUBJECT INDEX 



engine design 

prospects... 2214 
jet-engine discharge 

water-gas jets... 2145 
modular 

standard chassis... 22 14 
refitting 

cost benefits... 22 17 
service life 

extension. ..2217 
tank chassis 

USSR... 2219 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCIDENTS 

traffic violations 
statistics (USSR)... 2247 

FIRE AREAS 

mine gases 
remote sampling... 2045 

FIRE ATMOSPHERES 

comparative toxicity 
personnel survival... 2303 

FIRE BARRIERS 

concealed spaces 

design guides... 2041 
sodium silicate sheets 

applications ... 20 1 5 

FIRE BEHAVIOR 

air-supported structures 
overestimation. . .2083 

interior finishes 
full-scale testing... 1972 
laboratory te sting ... 1 972 

plastics 
building components... 1979 
investigation methods... 1981 

FIREBOATS 

tugs 
equipment... 2220 

FIRE BRIGADES 

equipment 

France... 192 5 
organization 

France... 192 5 

shipbuilding industry... 2 199 

FIRE CASUALTIES 

incidence 

analyses... 2290 

resource allocation... 2290 
smoke particles 

toxicological aspects ... 20 1 

FIRE CAUSES 

Italy 
analyses... 1937 

FIRE CODES 

(also see: building codes) 
building construction 

France... 23 17 
building materials 

France... 23 18 
highrise buildings 

France... 23 18 
hospitals 

FRG...2190 



residential buildings 
plastics... 1926 

FIRE CONTROL 

government policies 
legislation... 1944, 1945 

FIRE CONTROL CENTERS 

electrified maps 

fire operations... 2226 
functions 

modular technology... 2043 
modular 

alarm systems... 2043 
USSR 

operations maps... 2226 

FIRE DAMAGE 

bridge trusses 

thermal effects... 2090 
concrete structures 

restoration. . .2334 
construction sites 

statistics (FRG)...2337 
highway bridges 

thermal effects... 2090 

FIRE DAMPERS 

control system 

patents...2121 
ducts 

patents. ..21 17 

FIRE DEATHS SEE: FIRE 
FATALITIES 

FIRE DEPARTMENTS 

analysts 

qualifications. . .2204 
cost-benefit analyses 

FRG...2288 
efficiency studies 

cost-benefit analysis . . . 2288 
employment criteria 

reading tests... 2249 
inspection functions 

building permits... 2266 
management problems 

firefighter productivity... 2205 
nuclear incidents 

planning... 2285 
personnel administration 

promotion tests... 2248 

FIRE DETECTION 

automatic systems 
microprocessors. . .2058 

systems design 
production programs... 2 107 

FIRE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
apartment houses 

integrated systems... 2048 
approval tests 

results... 2077 
automatic systems 

reliability... 2042 
door openers 

emergency exits... 2 105 
dual sensors 

patents... 21 54 



electrical 

multiswitch. . .2066 

patents... 2066 
false alarms 

accidental... 2058 

malfunctions... 2058 
industrial plants 

France. ..2172 
infrared 

dual-spectrum. . .2064 

patents... 2064 
ionization 

hospitals... 2 189 

patents... 2071 
laser 

Beam Master... 2057 
mines 

demonstration. . .2078 

design... 2078 

spark ignition... 2076 
mobile 

industrial occupancies... 2061 
photoelectric 

design... 2050 

patents... 2070 
rate-of-rise 

hospitals... 2 189 

railroad use... 2060 
selectivity 

fire signatures... 2062 
ships 

requirements. . .2057 
smoke chambers 

patents... 2072 
technical parameters 

new products (Japan)... 2049 
temperature measurement 

railroad use... 2060 
thermostatic 

new products (Japan)... 2049 

FIRE DISASTERS 

case histories 
public education... 2271 

FIRE DOORS 

electromagnetic retainers 

patents... 2 120 
warp resistant 

patents... 21 15 

FIRE DURATION 

building design 
fire loads... 2038 

FIRE DYNAMICS 

research 
France... 1947 

FIRE EDUCATION 

prevention 
textbooks... 1939 

FIRE EFFECTS 

Italy 
analyses... 1937 

FIRE EMERGENCIES 

elevators 
highrise buildings... 2283 



1-11 



FIRE ENDURANCE 

(also see: fire resistance) 
building structures 

fire-fighting operations... 2091 

insurance rates... 2331 
metal structures 

protective materials... 20 17 
structural elements 

steel... 2020 

FIRE ENGINEERING STATIONS 

USSR 
fire research... 1950 

FIRE ENGINEERS 

education 
UK... 1940 

training 
course objectives (UK)... 1941 
graduation examinations (UK)... 1941 

FIRE ENVIRONMENTS 

nuclear warheads 
mathematical models... 203 3 
thermal behavior... 2033 

FIRE ESCAPES 

enclosed stairways 

helical... 2280 

patents... 2280 
ladder-type 

balcony-mounted. . .2279 

patent... 2279 

FIRE EXTINGUISHANTS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHANTS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

carbon dioxide 

vapor ignition... 1998 
operating range 

class-B fires... 1966 
pressure gages 

patents... 21 51 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHERS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT 

principles 
barrier layer... 2255 
inhibition... 2255 
recombination. . .2255 

FIRE FATALITIES 

compartment fires 

clinical studies... 23 13 
nursing homes 

preventive measures... 231 2 
statistics 

Italy (1968- 1972)... 1937 

US (1975)... 2340, 2342 

FIREFIGHTERS 

air samplers 

exposure data... 2230 
duty schedules 

legal controversies... 2246 
face masks 

design characteristics... 2231 
hazardous atmospheres 

pulmonary function... 2304 
productivity 

1-12 



SUBJECT INDEX 

management. . .2205 
promotion tests 

career advancement... 2248 
reading tests 

performance standards... 2249 
recruit training 

programs... 2206 
retraining schedules 

proficiency levels... 2206 
safety training 

UK... 2207 
work safety 

risk reduction... 2208 

FIREFIGHTER TOOLS 

multipurpose 
patents... 2240 

FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

aircraft crash fires 

smoke abatement... 2212 
airports 

readiness... 2206 
(also see: physical training) 
firehouse safety 

safe-place approach... 2207 
smoke generators 

abatement systems... 22 11 

pollution control. . .221 1 
smoke simulators 

aircraft crash fires... 2209 

FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

first aid 
buildings... 2 157 

FIRE-FIGHTING OPERATIONS 

aircraft fires 

colloquia...2268 
building structures 

fire endurance... 2091 

FIRE-FIGHTING SHIPS 

offshore platforms 
oil fields... 2 171 

FIRE-FIGHTING VEHICLES 

(also see: fire apparatus; auxiliary 
vehicles) 

FIRE FLOWS 

(also see: water supplies) 

FIRE GASES 

aircraft compartments 
mathematical models... 2030, 2031, 

2032 
testing program... 2031 
user's guide... 2032 

FIREGROUND COMMAND 

decision making 
systems approach... 2269 

FIRE HAZARD ANALYSES 

fire signatures 
selective detection... 2062 

FIRE HAZARDS 

building materials 

predictions . . . 2007 
compressors 

preventive measures... 2080 



dusts 

testing (FRG)... 2005 
electrical appliances 

domestic... 2 163 
fabrics 

predictions . . . 2007 
farm buildings 

identification. . .2079 
foundries 

elimination. . .2082 
heating plants 

heat-transfer fluids. ..2188 
industrial occupancies 

preventive measures... 2 183 
insulating materials 

synthetic... 1970 
liquefied natural gas 

control methods... 2034 

testing... 2034 
liquid sulfur 

fire-resistant containers... 2004 
natural gas 

safety factors... 2099 
plastics 

restrictive standards... 2 195 
plastics industry 

research programs... 1948 
polyurethane foams 

research results... 1997 
resinous materials 

autoignition. . .2002 
row houses 

life safety... 2092 
television receivers 

color... 1938 
textiles 

evaluation. . .2000 

statistical study... 2001 
wood 

autoignition temperatures . . . 2006 
wool fibers 

characteristics . . . 2003 

FIRE HISTORIES 

compartment fires 
computer codes... 1955 

FIRE HOSES 

large diameter 

re view... 221 6 

re views... 22 15 
nozzle couplers 

electrical switches... 2221 
portable 

patents... 22 24 
pressurized 

safety precautions... 22 13 

FIREHOUSES 

siting 
computer model... 22 10 

FIRE INCIDENTS 

alcohol distilleries 

Japan... 1936 
analyses 

UK (Oct-Nov-Dec 1976)... 2344 
bimonthly record 

(1975-1976). ..1931, 1932 

(1976). ..1933 
construction sites 



E 



SUBJECT INDEX 



safety regulations... 2337 
electrical cables 

smoke gases ... 1 929 
electrical equipment 

causes... 1930 
investigations 

photography . . .2229 
large-loss 

statistics (1975). ..2341 
nursing homes 

case histories... 23 12 
statistics 

UK (1975)... 2343 

Yugoslavia (1975)... 2345 
television receivers 

color... 1938 
textile industry 

case histories... 1928 
textiles 

significance ... 1 935 

FIRE INJURIES 

statistics 
US (1975).. .2342 

FIRE INSPECTIONS 

scheduling 
computerized . . .2267 

FIRE INSURANCE 

rate calculation 

building design... 2330 

buildings... 23 30 

France... 23 30 

industry... 23 30 
structures 

rates. ..2331 

FIRE INTENSITY 

building design 
fire loads... 2038 

FIRE INVESTIGATION 

expert assistance 

USSR... 2228 
procedures 

USSR... 2228 

FIRE INVESTIGATIONS 

analyses methods 

metal properties... 2227 
arson 

status (1976)... 2295 

FIRE LOADS 

building design 

fire intensity... 2038 
buildings 

calculation methods... 2084 
heat removal systems 

design parameters... 2 104 
industry 

calculation methods... 2084 
smoke removal systems 

design parameters... 2 104 
transit vehicles 

release rates... 2085 

systems behavior... 2085 
wood boards 

autoignition temperatures... 2006 



FIRE LOSSES 

(also see: large loss fires; property 

losses) 
reporting 

international differences... 2333 
statistics 

US (1975). ..2341, 2342 

Yugoslavia (1975)... 2345 

FIRE MATERIALS 

fire codes 
France... 23 18 

FIREMEN SEE: FIREFIGHTERS 

FIRE OPERATIONS 

control centers 

electrified maps... 2226 
elevators 

manual... 227 3 
evacuation 

communications . . . 2252 
false alarms 

remedies... 2270 
fireground command 

systems approach... 2269 
radio communications 

USSR... 2251 
smoke abatement 

training devices... 22 12 

FIRE PERFORMANCE 

bulkheads 

foamed plastic... 2089 
plastics 

testing... 1969 
state transition models 

full-scale... 2036 

FIRE PLUMES 

pool fires 
optical detectors... 1963 

FIRE PREVENTION 

alarms 

electrical leakage . . .2054 
architectural aspects 

regulations (FRG)...2040 
chemical industry 

book... 21 66 
elevator astragals 

patents. ..2116 
firefighter aspects 

regulations (FRG)...2040 
fundamentals 

textbooks... 1939 
government policies 

legislation... 1944, 1945 
hospitals 

regulations (FRG)...2190 
inspection routines 

computer scheduling... 2267 
shipbuilding 

special problems... 2 199 
weeds 

patents... 2 159 

FIRE PROTECTION 

chemistry 

textbooks... 1927 
electronic equipment 

computing centers... 2161 



occupational safety 

legislation (FRG)... 1943 
organization 

yearbook (UK). ..1924 
systems design 

production programs... 2 107 
textile plants 

extinguishants...2184 

fire detectors... 2 184 
water supplies 

cost allocations . . .2263 

FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT 

alarm systems 
commercial buildings... 21 10 

FIRE^PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

industrial 

characteristics... 21 74 

FIRE RESEARCH 

Building Research Establishment (UK) 

bibliographies ... 1 946 
dynamics 

France... 1947 
Fire Engineering Stations 

USSR... 1950 
testing facilities 

laboratories (Austria)... 1949 

FIRE RESISTANCE 

(also see: fire endurance) 
building structures 

post-tensioned. . .2086 
compartment walls 

concrete-steel structures... 2088 
concrete 

precast... 20 19 
concrete beams 

reinforced . . . 2087 

FIRE-RESISTANT FLUIDS 

hydraulic systems 

steam turbines... 2 193 
lubrication systems 

steam turbines... 21 93 

FIRE RETARDANTS 

licensing 

standards (GDR)... 2327 
magnesium ammonium phosphate 

wildlands...2159 
testing 

standards (GDR)... 2327 

FIRE RISKS 

(also see: risk management) 

FIRE SAFETY 

aircraft 

compartmentation. . .2203 
chemical plants 

control center... 2 178 
codes 

Belgium... 23 19 

reference books... 23 15 
electrical equipment 

industrial organization. ..2164 

selection criteria... 2162 
highrise buildings 

firefighting...2197 
industrial occupancies 



1-13 



SUBJECT INDEX 



heat sensors... 2055 

preplanning ... 2 1 70 
nursing homes 

building codes... 2320 
petrochemical industry 

five-year plan (Japan)... 2 182 
polyester resins 

glass-fiber reinforced... 1999 
ships 

crew training... 2201 
standards 

ASTM...2325 

reference books... 23 15 
structures 

evaluation methods... 2336 
transportation 

methodology... 2 198 

FIRE SAFETY SYSTEM 

office buildings 
description. . .2160 

FIRE SAFETY TEAMS 

industrial occupancies 
USSR.. .2179 

FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

fire engineers 
UK... 1940 

FIRE SCIENCES 

prevention 
textbooks... 1939 

FIRE SERVICE 

communications systems 

Japan... 2250 
employment criteria 

educational qualifications... 2293 
public relations 

FRG...2272 
safety 

firefighter training... 2207 

FIRE SERVICE TRAINING SEE: 
FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

FI RESETTERS 

psychology 
fire investigation... 2293 

FIRESETTING 

(also see: arson; incendiarism; 
pyromania) 

FIRE SIGNATURES 

flicker frequencies 

optical studies... 1963 
selective detection 

hazard analyses... 2062 

FIRE SIMULATION 

aircraft engines 
methyl bromide extinguishants...2028 

FIRE SPREAD 

excess pyrolyzate 

polymeric materials... 1985 
mechanisms 

reviews... 1957 
multifamily dwellings 

causes... 1951 

remedies... 1951 

1-14 



structural fires 

characteristics ... 1 954 
urban fires 

modeling... 1953 

FIRE STATIONS SEE: FIREHOUSES 

FIRESTOPS 

concealed spaces 
design guides... 2041 

FIRE SUPPRESSION 

mines 
ultraviolet detectors... 2076 

FIRE TESTING 

building components 

plastics... 1980 
concrete beams 

reinforced. . .2087 
floor assemblies 

reinforced concrete... 2037 
floor penetrations 

sealing methods... 2024 
fuel fires 

ships... 2023 
full-scale 

modeling... 2027 
home materials 

toxicity screening... 2308 
liquefied natural gas 

control methods... 2034 
plastics 

fire performance... 1969 
polymers 

test parameters... 1978 
public buildings 

carbon monoxide detection... 2 196 
railroad trains 

instrumentation. . .2022 
roof assemblies 

reinforced concrete... 2037 
wall penetrations 

sealing methods... 2024 

FIRE TESTS 

(also see: testing; testing facilities) 

FIREWORKS 

incidents 
statistics (1976)... 2339 

FIRE ZONES 

proximity clothing 
requirements . . .2239 

FLAME ARRESTERS 

exhaust systems 
patents...2118 

FLAME DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

FLAME RADIATION 

burns 
protective clothing... 2232 

FLAME RETARDANTS 

polyurethane foams 
toxicity... 2302 

FLAME SPREAD 

cellulosic materials 



modeling... 1973 
communication cables 

tunnel testing... 2029 
fuel surfaces 

vertical... 1956 

FLAMMABILITY 

furniture 

symposia papers... 1926 
mattresses 

standards... 2326 
organic compounds 

flash points... 1989 
plastics 

heat-release rates . . . 1 974 
protective clothing 

requirements... 2238 
textiles 

standards... 2001 

FLAMMABILITY CLASSIFICATION 

polymers 
toxicity analysis ... 1 987 

FLAMMABILITY STANDARDS 

children's clothing 

cost-benefit analysis... 2328 
children's sleepwear 

cost-benefit analysis... 2328 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING 

clothing fabrics 
burning behavior. . . 1 988 

FLAMMABLE FABRICS 

classification 
flammability testing... 1988 

FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACCIDENT 
CASE AND TESTING SYSTEM 
SEE: FFACTS 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRES 

foam extinguishants 
performance ... 2262 

FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS 

safe handling 
fire prevention... 2322 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS 

ignitability 
carbon dioxide extinguishers... 1998 

FLASH POINTS 

organic compounds 
empirical estimation... 1989 

FLICKER FREQUENCIES 

optical detectors 
fire plumes... 1963 

FLIGHT ATTENDANTS 

uniforms 
flammability standards... 2329 

FLOOR ASSEMBLIES 

gypsum board 

fire testing... 2037 
reinforced concrete 

fire testing... 2037 

FLOOR COVERINGS 

compartment fires 



y 



SUBJECT INDEX 



rate of development... 1952 

FLOOR PENETRATIONS 

sealing methods 
fire testing... 2024 

FLUOROPROTEINS 

foam concentrates 
Tutogen FP...2254 

FOAM CONCENTRATES 

fire extinguishment 

aviation fuels... 2254 
fluoroproteins 

Tutogen FP...2254 
surfactants 

fire extinguishment... 2256 

FOAMED MATERIALS 

(also see: polyurethane foams) 

FOAMED PLASTIC 

heat distribution 
mathematical models... 2089 

FOAMED PLASTICS 

flame spread ratings 
thermal barriers... 2093 

FOAM EXTINGU1SHANTS 

flammable liquid fires 

performance . . .2262 
mechanical 

generation mechanisms... 2257 

production problems... 225 7 

properties... 2257 
oU storage 

system design... 21 36 
properties 

re views... 2261 

FOAM EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

paint shops 
fire protection... 2 139 

FOAM GENERATORS 

high-expansion 

trailer-mounted. . .221 8 

truck-mounted... 221 8 

USSR.. .2218 
high performance 

mobile... 2 126 

FOAM TOWERS 

tank fires 
surface cooling... 21 38 

FOGGING SYSTEMS 

mine fires 
conveyor belts. ..2127 

FOUNDRIES 

fire hazards 
protective measures... 2082 

FRANCE 

building codes 

smoke removal... 23 16 
fire brigades 

equipment ... 1 925 

organization ... 1 925 
fire codes 

building materials. ..2318 

development . . .23 1 7 



highrise buildings... 23 18 
fire insurance 
rates... 2330, 2331 

FUEL FIRES 

(also see: aircraft fuel fires) 
thermal radiation 
measurements ... 1 982 

FUELS 

(also see: aviation fuels) 

FUEL SPILLS 

(also see: spills) 

FUEL STORAGE TANKS 

(also see: tank fires; fuel tanks) 

FUEL TANKS 

(also see: fuel storage tanks; tank 
fires) 

FUEL VAPORS 

ignitability 
carbon dioxide extinguishers... 1998 

FURNITURE 

combustibility 

symposia papers... 1926 
flammability 

symposia papers... 1926 

FURNITURE COVERINGS 

fabrics 
smoldering characteristics. ..1971 



GARMENTS SEE: CLOTHING 

GAS ANALYZERS 

fire safety 
cyclohexane piping... 2180 
transformers ... 2 1 77 

GAS BOTTLES SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

GAS DETECTORS 

carbon monoxide 
metal-oxide type... 2044 

ionization 
patents... 2071 

methane 
portable... 2044 

GASES 

combustion mechanisms 
laboratory studies... 1995 

explosion mechanisms 
laboratory studies... 1995 

explosion parameters 
measurement ... 1 9% 

GAS FLOWS 

duct fires 
mathematical modeling... 1964 

GAS LEAKAGE 

refinery products 
safety valves... 2100 



GAS RANGES 

explosion protection 
control devices... 2099 

fire protection 
control devices... 2099 

GAS SAMPLING 

mines 
remote systems... 2045, 2047 

GENERATORS 

emergency power 
firefighting...21 11 

GERMANY (FRG) 

legislation 
occupational safety ... 1 943 

GUIDANCE SYSTEMS 

evacuation 
structural fires... 2277 



H 

HALON 1001 

aircraft engine fires 
simulation tests... 2028 

HALON 1211 

fire extinguishment 

effectiveness... 2253 
human response 

harmful effects... 2 122 
pyrolysis products 

corrosive effects. ..2122 

HALON 1301 

extinguishing systems 

ship machinery compartments... 2142 
fire-fighting systems 

ship machinery spaces...2133 

HALONS 

(also see: extinguishants) 

properties 
effectiveness. . .2255 
extinguishing systems... 2 123 

HANDLING SAFETY 

flammable liquids 

fire prevention... 2322 
hazardous materials 

motor vehicles... 2324 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

bactericides 

safe handling... 2323 
transportation 

safety practices... 2324 

HAZARDS ANALYSES 

fire safety 
definition... 23 36 

HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

placarding system 
transportation vehicles... 2321 

HEALTH HAZARDS 

asbestos 
alternatives... 20 13 



1-15 



SUBJECT INDEX 



HEATING PLANTS 

heat-transfer fluids 

fire hazards... 2 188 
turbines 

fire-resistant fluids... 2 193 

HEAT-RELEASE RATES 

plastics 
flammability apparatus ... 1 974 

HEAT SENSORS 

electrical 

fire detectors... 2066 

patents... 2066 
infrared monitors 

fire-hazard objects... 2055 

HEAT-TRANSFER FLUIDS 

heating plants 
fire hazards... 2188 

HEAT VENTILATION 

design parameters 
combustion rates... 2104 
fire losses... 2 104 

HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 

elevators 

fire emergencies... 2283 
escape routes 

evacuation times... 2276 
fire protection 

integrated systems... 2048 
fire safety 

firefighting...2197 
life safety 

firefighting...2197 
smoke control 

books. ..2101 
smoke removal 

codes (France)... 23 16 

HIGHWAY TUNNELS 

fire extinguishing systems 
Japan... 21 30 

HOME MATERIALS 

toxicity screening 
testing methods... 2308 

HOSE COUPLINGS 

large diameter 
usage... 221 5 

HOSE LOADS 

large diameter 
practice... 22 16 

HOSPITALS 

air-conditioning system 

fire detection... 2 189 
(also see: operating rooms) 
fire detectors 

ionization... 2 189 

rate-of-rise...2189 
fire prevention 

regulations (FRG)...2190 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

evacuation 

guidance systems... 2277 
structural fires 

guidance systems... 2277 

1-16 



HYDRANTS 

restricted use 

patents... 2264 
tamper-proof 

patents... 2265 

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS 

fire resistant 
maintenance practices. ..2175 
pumps... 201 2 

HYDROCARBON PROCESSING 
PLANTS 

loss prevention 
accident prediction... 2094 
furnace design... 2098 
furnace operation... 2098 
hazard control... 2095 
modification hazards... 2096 
process change hazards... 20% 
remedial procedures... 2097 
remedial technology... 2097 

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE 

electrical cable fires 
corrosion damage... 1929 

HYDROSTATIC TESTERS 

extinguishers 
patents... 2 148 



I 



IGNITION MECHANISMS 

metallized paper capacitors 
fire testing... 1960 

IGNITION MODELING 

building materials 

criteria... 2007 
fabrics 

criteria... 2007 

INCENDIARISM 

(also see: arson; pyromania) 

INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 

gas-fired 
fire protection... 2 174 

INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

electrical equipment 

explosion protection... 2 162 

fire protection... 2 162 
extinguishing systems 

France... 2 172 
fire detectors 

France... 2 172 

mobile... 2061 
fire hazards 

preventive measures... 2 183 
fire protection 

ionization detectors... 2047 
fire protection systems 

reliability analysis... 2 176 
fire safety 

preplanning ... 2 1 70 

transformers... 21 77 
fire safety teams 

functions... 2 179 

USSR. ..2179 



furnaces 
fire protection... 2174 

INFORMATION CENTERS 

arson 
National Fire Reference 

System... 2292 

INFRARED DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

INFRARED MONITORS 

heat sensors 
fire-hazard objects... 2055 

INJURIES 

compartment fires 
clinical studies... 23 13 

INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 

heating plants 
fire hazards... 2 188 

INSULATING MATERIALS 

asbestos 

health hazards... 201 3 
sodium silicate sheets 

applications ... 201 5 
synthetic 

combustion products... 1970 

fire hazards... 1970 

INSURANCE CLAIMS 

arson 
investigation... 2295, 22% 

INSURANCE RATES 

building structures 
fire endurance... 2331 

INTERIOR FINISHES 

fire behavior 
full-scale testing... 1972 
laboratory tests... 1972 

INVESTIGATION SEE: ARSON 
INVESTIGATION; FIRE 
INVESTIGATION 

IONIZATION DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
beta particle sources 

patents... 2071 
design 

operating principles... 2051 
fire protection 

rolling mills . . . 2047 
photoelectric 

design... 2050 
sensitivity 

plastic smokes... 2008 

ISFSI SEE: INTERNATIONAL 
SOCIETY OF FIRE SCIENCE 
INSTRUCTORS 



ITALY 

fire incidents 
statistical review.. 



1937 



t 



SUBJECT INDEX 



JAPAN 

petroleum plants 

fire safety... 2 182 
standards 

combustion gas toxicity... 2 306 

JET ENGINES 

exhaust extinguisher 
fire apparatus... 2 145 

JET FUELS SEE: AVIATION FUELS 



JP-4 FUELS 

pool fires 
thermal radiation. 



.1982 



LADDER OVERHANG 

retraction locks 
ladder trucks... 2225 

LADDERS 

balcony-mounted 
fire escapes... 2279 

LADDER TRUCKS 

ladder overhang 
retraction loc ks ... 2225 

LARGE-LOSS FIRES 

statistics 
UK (Oct-Nov-Dec 1976)... 2344 

LASERS 

fire detectors 
ships... 2057 

LASER SIMULATION 

charring pyrolysis 
wood fires... 1983 

LEGISLATION 

fire control 

government policies... 1944, 1945 
fire prevention 

government policies... 1944, 1945 
occupational safety 

FRG...1943 
smoke detectors 

residential occupancies... 1942 
textiles 

fire behavior... 1976 

LEISURE BUILDINGS SEE: 

RECREATION BUILDINGS 

LIFE HAZARDS 

textiles 
fire behavior ... 1 977 

LIFE-LOSS FIRES 

multiple-death 
statistics (1975)... 2340 

LIFE SAFETY 

building codes 

critique... 2320 
highrise buildings 

firefighting...2197 



residential buildings 
fire testing... 2196 

LIGHT DETECTORS 

photoelectric 
patents... 2070 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS 

fire hazards 
control methods... 2034 
testing... 2034 

LIQUID SULFUR 

fire hazards 
fire-resistant containers... 2004 

LOSS ECONOMICS 

(also see: fire losses) 

LOSSES SEE: FIRE LOSSES 

LOSS PREVENTION 

accident prediction 

hydrocarbon processing plants... 2094 
hydrocarbon processing plants 

furnace design... 2098 

furnace operation... 2098 

hazard control... 2095 
modification hazards... 20% 

process change hazards... 2096 

remedial procedures... 2097 

remedial technology . . . 2097 
safety engineers 

training (FRG)... 2 185 

LUNGS 

pulmonary function 
smoke inhalation... 23 14 



M 

MACHINERY 

corrosion damages 
plastics fires... 2332 

MACHINERY COMPARTMENTS 

ships 
extinguishing systems... 2141, 2142 
flooding systems... 21 33 

MAGNESIUM AMMONIUM 
PHOSPHATE 

fire retardant 
wildlands...2159 

MAGNESIUM OXYCHLORIDE 

thermal barriers 
foamed plastics... 2093 

MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS 

fire protection 
factory equipment... 2 173 

MARINE INSTALLATIONS 

spray systems 

international regulations... 2 158 
sprinkler systems 

international regulations... 2 158 

MASTER STREAMS 

turrets 
swivel joints... 2222 



MATHEMATICAL MODELING 

buoyant flows 

corridor fires... 203 5 
fire tests 

full-scale... 2027 
gas flows 

duct fires... 1964 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 

fire environments 

nuclear warheads... 2033 
fire gases 

aircraft compartments... 2030, 2031, 
2032 
fire loads 

transit vehicles... 2085 
heat distribution 

foamed plastic . . . 2089 

MATTRESSES 

(also see: bedding) 
cotton 
flammability standards . . .2326 

MECHANICAL FOAMS 

mine fires 
endogenous... 2 144, 2146 

METALLIZED PAPER CAPACITORS 

ignition mechanism 
fire testing... 1960 

METALS 

tensile properties 
fire analyses... 2227 

METAL STRUCTURES 

fire endurance 
protective materials. ..2017 

METHANE 

explosion parameters 

pipelines... 19% 
measuring instruments 

new products... 2044 

METHYL BROMIDE 

(also see: halons) 
extinguishant 
aircraft engine fires... 2028 

MINE FIRES 

combustion products 

ventilation systems... 2192 
conveyor belts 

fire protection... 2 127 
endogenous 

acetylene detection... 2046 

ethylene detection... 2046 

foam suppression... 2146 
spark ignition 

detection methods... 2076 

suppression systems... 2076 

MINE GASES 

fire areas 
remote sampling... 2045 

MINES 

excavating rigs 

fire protection...2191 
fire detectors 

demonstrati on . . . 2078 



1-17 



SUBJECT INDEX 



design... 2078 
foam generators 

mobile... 2 126 
gas detectors 

carbon monoxide... 2044 

methane... 2044 
smoke detectors 

demonstration. . .2078 

design... 2078 

MINE SAFETY 

self -rescuers 
patents... 2241 

MOBILE HOMES 

plastics 
survey... 1926 

MODELING 

fire testing 

full-scale... 2027 
flame spread 

cellulosic materials... 1973 
pre-flashover states 

fire performance... 2036 
urban fires 

fire spread... 195 3 

MOTOR VEHICLES 

hazardous materials 
handling safety... 2324 

MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS 

fire spread 
causes... 1951 



N 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

arson courses 
detection... 2 292 
investigation . . . 2292 

NATIONAL FIRE REFERENCE 
SYSTEM 

information centers 
arson... 2292 

NATURAL GAS 

explosion hazards 

safety factors... 2099 
fire hazards 

safety factors... 2099 

NBS SEE: NATIONAL BUREAU OF 
STANDARDS 

NFPA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 

PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 

NFPCA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
ADMINISTRATION 

NITRILE RUBBER 

pyrolysis products 
toxicity... 2298 

NONFLAMMABLE FIBERS 

protective clothing 
reviews... 201 4 



NOZZLE COUPLERS 

electrical switches 

fire hoses... 2221 
fire hoses 

patents... 2221 

NOZZLES 

aerial ladders 
remote controlled... 2223 

NUCLEAR INCIDENTS 

planning 
fire departments... 2285 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

cable tray fires 

Browns Ferry incident... 1934 
fire protection 

Browns ferry... 1934 

NUCLEAR REACTORS 

power plants 
cable tray fires... 1934 

NUCLEAR WARHEADS 

fire environments 
mathematical models . . .2033 
thermal behavior. . .2033 

fire hazards 
modification kits... 203 3 

NURSING HOMES 

fire incidents 

case histories. ..2312 
fire safety 

building codes... 2320 



OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 

bactericides 

safe handling... 2323 
safety engineers 

training (FRG)... 2 185 

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY 

chemical industry 

book. ..2166 
engineer training 

FRG. ..2185 
fire protection 

legislation (FRG)... 1943 
legislation 

FRG... 1943 

OFFICE BUILDINGS 

fire-safety system 
description. . .2160 
Japan... 2160 

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 

fire protection 

fire-fighting ships. ..2171 
oil rigs 

fire protection... 2169 

OIL FD2LDS 

offshore platforms 
fire-fighting ships. ..2171 

OIL INDUSTRY 

fire protection 



books. ..2165 

OIL LEAKAGE 

refinery products 
safety valves. ..2100 

OIL RIGS 

offshore platforms 
fire detection. ..2169 
fire protection... 2169 

OIL STORAGE 

fire protection 
extinguishing systems... 2 136 

OIL TANKS 

emulsion treatment 
fire prevention... 21 87 
wash separation... 2 187 

OLD AGE HOMES 

(also see: nursing homes) 

OLEIC ACID 

particle board 
autoignition . . .2006 

OPERATING ROOMS 

(also see: hospitals) 

OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

planning 
pref ire... 2291 

OPTICAL DETECTORS 

fire plumes 
pool fires... 1963 

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 

flammability 

flash points... 1989 
flash points 

empirical estimation... 1989 



PAINTS 

fire retardant 
stairwell protection... 20 11 

PAINT SHOPS 

fire protection 
foam extinguishing systems. ..2139 

PANELS SEE: CEILrNG PANELS; 
WALL PANELS 

PANIC SEE: HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

PARTICULATES 

detectors 
ionization. .. 2056 

PASSENGER SEATS 

(also see: seat cushions) 

PATENTS 

French. ..2147 

US. ..2018, 2063. 2064, 2065, 2066, 
2067, 2068, 2069, 2070, 2071, 2072. 
2073, 2074, 2112. 2113, 2114, 2115, 
2116, 2117, 2118, 2119. 2120. 2121. 



1-18 



SUBJECT INDEX 



2148, 2149, 2150, 2151, 2152, 2153, 

2154, 2155, 2156, 2159, 2221, 2222, 

2223, 2224, 2225, 2240, 2241, 2242, 

2243, 2244, 2245, 2264, 2265, 2279, 

2280, 2281, 2282 
USSR... 2075 
actuators 

extinguishers . . .2147 
ALARM SYSTEM... 2074 
ASTRAGAL... 21 16 
AUTOMATIC ACTUATOR FOR A 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER... 2147 
building materials 

flame resistant. ..2018 
DAMPERS...2114 
DEMAND REGULATOR... 2243 
DEVICE FOR DETECTION AND 

EMERGENCY 

DISCONNECTION OF A 

SYSTEM WHEN A CERTAIN 

TEMPERATURE IS 

EXCEEDED... 2075 
DEVICE FOR PREVENTING 

JUTTING-OUT OF LADDER 

TRUCK... 2225 
DOOR SECURITY PIN.. .2113 
DUAL SPECTRUM INFRARED 

FIRE DETECTOR... 2064 
ELECTRICALLY ENERGIZED 

FIRE AND/OR INTRUSION 

DETECTION SYSTEM 

INCLUDING SPRING-BIASED 

SWITCHING MEANS... 2066 
ELECTROMAGNETIC DOOR 

HOLDING DEVICE... 21 20 
EMERGENCY ALARM AND 

EVACUATION SYSTEM... 2073 
EMERGENCY BREATHING 

MEANS... 2244 
evacuation signs 

fire alarms... 2073 
fire alarms 
evacuation signs... 2073 
temperature sensors . . . 2069 
fire dampers 

control system... 21 21 
FIRE DETECTOR... 2072 
FIRE ESC APE... 2279, 2280 
FTRE EXTINGUISHER PACKAGE 

FOR WASTE 

RECEPTABLE...2156 
FTRE EXTINGUISHING BOMB FOR 

PUTTING OUT FIRES... 21 52 
FTRE FIGHTING 

APPARATUS... 2223 
FIREFIGHTING TURRET... 2222 
FIRE HOSE NOZZLE COUPLER 

SWITCH... 2221 
FIRE HYDRANT... 2264 
FIREMAN'S COMPOSITE 

TOOL... 2240 
fire prevention 
weeds. ..2159 
FTRE RESISTANT CEILING 

CONSTRUCTION... 21 19 
FIRE-RETARDANT PANEL 

CONSTRUCTION... 21 12 
FIRE SMOKE DAMPER... 21 17 
flame arresters 



exhaust systems. ..21 18 
FLAME RESISTANT BUILDING 

MATERIAL... 201 8 
FLAME RETARDING FILTER 

DEVICE... 21 18 
hydrants 

tamper-proof. . .2265 
HYDROSTATIC TESTER FOR FIRE 

EXTINGUISHER. . .21 48 
ionization detectors 

beta particle sources... 2071 
IONIZATION SMOKE DETECTOR 

AND ALARM SYSTEM... 2067 
LADDERLESS SAFETY ESCAPE 

DEVICE... 2282 
LIGHT DETECTOR WITH PULSED 

LIGHT SOURCE AND 

SYNCHRONOUS DATA 

GATING... 2070 
METHOD OF FIRE PREVENTION 

IN FIELDS.. .2159 
PNEUMATICALLY CONTROLLED 

RESPIRATION DEVICE... 2245 
PNEUMATIC TIME DELAY 

VALVE... 21 50 
PORTABLE FIRE HOSE... 2224 
PORTABLE WINDOW-ATTACHED 

EMERGENCY DESCENT 

MECHANISM... 2281 
PRESSURE CONTROL 

VALVE.. .2155 
pressure gages 

extinguishers .. .21 5 1 
PRESSURE GAUGE 

CONSTRUCTION. ..2151 
PROCESS FOR THE AUTOMATIC 

REPORTING AND 

EXTINGUISHING OF 

FIRES.. .2154 
PROPORTIONING 

APPARATUS. ..2149 
PROTECTIVE BREATHING 

APPARATUS AND VALVE 

THEREFOR... 2242 
QUICK-OPENING VALVE 

OPERATED BY EXPLOSIVE 

CHARGE. ..2153 
RATE-OF-CHANGE COMBUSTION 

AND CONTAMINATION 

DETECTION DEVICE... 2071 
SELF-RESCUE BREATHING 

APPARATUS... 2241 
SELF-SUSTAINING ALARM 

TRANSMITTER DEVICE... 2068 
SMOKE DETECTOR... 2063 
smoke vents 

control system... 2121 
SYSTEM FOR OPERATING FIRE 

PREVENTION DEVICES... 21 21 
TAMPER-PROOF LOCKING 

SYSTEM FOR FIRE 

HYDRANTS... 2265 
TEMPERATURE CHANGE 

SENSING DEVICE... 2069 
temperature sensors 

fire alarms... 2069 
valves 

risers. ..2155 
wall panels 



fire-resistant. ..21 12 
WARNING DEVICE... 2065 
WARP RESISTANT FIRE 
DOOR... 21 15 

PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

(also see: protective clothing) 

PERSONNEL SELECTION 

fire departments 

reading tests... 2249 
promotion tests 

firefighters... 2248 

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

fire protection 

books... 2 165 
fire safety 

five-year plan (Japan)... 2 182 

PETROLEUM STORAGE FACILITIES 

fire incidents 
statistics (Japan)... 2 182 

PHENOLIC FOAM 

burning behavior 
combustion products... 1970 

PHENOLPHTHALEIN-BISPHENOL A 
POLYCARBONATE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

PHENOLPHTHALEIN 
POLYCARBONATE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

PHOTOELECTRIC DETECTORS 

pulsed 

patent... 2070 
smoke 

design... 2050 

patents... 2063 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

fire incidents 
investigative techniques... 2229 

PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDES 

autoignition 
production safety... 2002 

PHYSIOLOGY 

toxicological aspects 
combustion products... 2297 

PIPELINES 

natural gases 
explosion parameters... 19% 

PLACARDING SYSTEM 

hazards identification 
transportation vehicles... 2321 

PLANNING 

prefire 
cost analyses... 2289 
dynamic factors... 2291 
static factors... 2291 

PLASTICS 

(also see: polymers; thermoplastics) 
building components 



1-19 



SUBJECT INDEX 



fire behavior... 1979 

fire testing... 1980 
combustion products 

reviews... 1980, 2009 
commercial buildings 

symposia papers... 1926 
fire behavior 

investigation methods... 1981 
fire hazards 

restrictive standards... 2 195 
fire performance 

testing... 1969 
heat-release rates 

flammability apparatus ... 1 974 
mobile homes 

survey... 1926 

PLASTICS FIRES 

corrosion damages 
machinery... 2332 

PLASTICS INDUSTRY 

research programs 
fire hazards ... 1 948 

PLASTIC SMOKES 

mass distribution 

ionization detector response... 2008 
particle size 

ionization detector response... 2008 

PLATFORMS 

(also see: elevating platforms; offshore 
platforms) 

POKETHROUGHS 

sealing methods 
fire testing... 2024 

POLLUTION CONTROL 

smoke abatement 
firefighter training... 2211 

POLY ACRYL AMIDE 

extinguishment 
cotton batting... 2259 

POLYACRYLONITRILE 

sodium carbonate 
extinguishants. . .2260 

POLYARYL SULFONE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

POLYCHLOROPRENE FOAMS 

pyrolysis products 
toxicity sere ening ... 230 1 

POLYESTER FIBERS 

mass loss rates 
pyrolysis... 1994 

POLYESTER RESINS 

glass-fiber reinforced 
building materials... 1999 

POLYETHER SULFONE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

POLYETHYLENES 

sodium carbonate 
extinguishants. . .2260 



POLYISOPRENE 

pyrolysis products 
carbon monoxide... 2298 

POLYMERIC MATERIALS 

excess pyrolyzate 
fire spread... 1985 

POLYMERS 

(also see: plastics; rubber; 

thermoplastics) 
combustion products 

toxicity... 23 10 

toxicity ranking... 1987 

toxicity screening... 2309 
fire testing 

test parameters... 1978 
flammability 

test methods... 1987 
mass loss rates 

pyrolysis... 1994 
pyrolysis products 

toxicity screening... 2309 
thermal stress 

toxicity analysis ... 1 987 

POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE 

pool fires 

pressure modeling... 1967 
vertical sheets 

flame spread... 1956 
vertical slab fires 

thermal radiation... 1968 

POLYPHENYLENE OXIDE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors ... 1 975 

POLYSTYRENE 

burning behavior 

combustion products ... 1 970 
sodium carbonate 

extinguishants. . .2260 

POLYURETHANE FOAMS 

burning behavior 

combustion products . . . 1 970 
fire hazards 

research results... 1997 
flame retardants 

alumina trihydrate...2016 

toxicity... 2302 
pyrolysis products 

toxicity screening... 2301 
smoke suppressants 

alumina trihydrate...2016 

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE 

burning behavior 

combustion products ... 1 970 
thermochemical characteristics 

aircraft interiors... 1975 

POLYVINYL FLUORIDE 

thermochemical characteristics 
aircraft interiors... 1975 

POLYVTNYLIDENE FLUORIDE 

thermochemical characteristics 



aircraft interiors... 1975 

POOL FIRES 

fire plumes 

optical detectors... 1963 
polymethyl methacrylate 

pressure modeling ... 1 967 

thermal radiation... 1967 

POSITIVE-PRESSURE SYSTEMS 

breathing apparatus 
compressed-air... 2235 

POWER PLANTS 

remote-controlled 
fire protection... 2 194 

POWER SOURCES 

emergency 
firefighting...2111 

PREFIRE PLANNING 

problem scope 
cost analyses... 2289 

PRESSURE GAGES 

extinguishers 
patents... 21 51 

PRESSURE MODELING 

pool fires 

polymethyl methacrylate ... 1 967 
wall fires 

pressure modeling... 1967 

PRESSURIZED EQUIPMENT 

safety 
guidelines... 22 13 

PRINTING INDUSTRY 

fire control 

planning program... 2167 
fire prevention 

planning program... 2 167 

PROPERTY LOSSES 

(also see: fire losses) 

PROPORTIONED 

extinguishing systems 
patents... 2 149 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 

(also see: clothing) 
effectiveness 

assessment method... 2237 
fire resistant 

test facility... 2232 
flammability 

requirements . . .2238 
nonflammable fibers 

re views... 20 14 

PROXIMITY CLOTHING 

requirements 
fire zones... 2239 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

carbon monoxide detection 

fire testing... 2 196 
plastics 

restrictive standards. ..2195 
smoke removal 

codes (France)... 23 16 



1-20 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PUBLIC EDUCATION 

(also see: education) 
fire disasters 
case histories... 2271 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

fire service 
FRG...2272 

PULMONARY FUNCTION 

firefighters 

hazardous atmospheres... 2 304 
smoke inhalation 

blood gases.. .2314 
toxicity studies 

polymers. ..2310 

PUMPER-LADDERS 

(also see: apparatus) 

PUMPS 

hydraulic fluids 
fire resistant... 201 2 

PYROLYSIS 

polymers 
mass loss rates... 1994 
toxicity screening... 2309 

PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS 

aircraft upholstery 

toxicity screening... 2299 
elastomers 

toxicity sere ening . . . 2298 
fire spread 

polymeric materials... 1985 
polychloropre ne 

toxicity screening... 2301 
polyurethane foams 

toxicity screening... 2301 
toxicity screening 

test methods... 2300 

PYROMANIA 

(also see: arson; incendiarism) 



QUICK-OPENING VALVES 

extinguishers 
patents... 21 5 3 



RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 

fire operations 
USSR.. .2251 

RAILROADS 

underground 
fire safety regulations... 2202 

RAILROAD TRAINS 

moving 

fire testing... 2022 
rate-of-rise detectors 

testing... 2060 
smoke detectors 

testing... 2060 
temperature detectors 



testing... 2060 

RAILROAD TUNNELS 

fire incidents 

statistics (Japan)... 2286 
fire safety 

regulations... 2202 
structural features 

fire hazards... 2286 

RANN SEE: RESEARCH APPLIED 
TO NATIONAL NEEDS 

RAPID TRANSIT 

(also see: elevated railways; subways) 

RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS 

vehicles 
fire resistance ... 1 926 

RAPPELING 

descent control 
friction device... 2236 

RAYON 

mass loss rates 
pyroly sis... 1994 

READING TESTS 

employment qualifications 
fire departments... 2249 

REFERENCE DATA 

fire loss reporting 
international differences... 2333 

REFINERY PRODUCTS 

gas leakage 

safety valves... 2100 
oil leakage 

safety valves. ..2100 

RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS 

extinguishing systems 
automatic... 2 137 

RESCUE OPERATIONS 

aircraft fires 
colloquia...2268 

RESCUE TECHNIQUES 

aircraft fires 
developments . . . 2284 

RESEARCH PROGRAMS 

fire hazards 
plastics industry ... 1 948 

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

fire-testing 

life safety... 21% 
row houses 

fire hazards... 2092 

RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

(also see: highrise buildings; hotels; 

mobile homes; motels) 
smoke detectors 
legislation... 1942 

RESINOUS MATERIALS 

autoignition 
production safety... 2002 



RESOURCE ALLOCATION 

response distance 
fire casualties... 2290 

RESPIRATION TESTING 

lung simulators 

breathing apparatus... 2234 
physiology 

breathing apparatus... 2233 

RESPIRATORS 

(also see: breathing apparatus) 

RESTORATION 

concrete structures 
injection technique... 2335 

RETIREMENT HOMES SEE: 

NURSING HOMES; OLD AGE 
HOMES 

REVIEWS 

fire codes 

ships... 2200 
fire hoses 

large diameter... 22 15 
fire spread 

mechanisms ... 1 957 
foam extinguishants 

properties... 2261 
nonflammable fibers 

protective clothing... 201 4 
plastics 

combustion products . . . 2009 

fire behavior... 1979 

fire testing... 1980 
sprinkler systems 

performance . . .21 24 

RISERS 

valves 
patents... 21 55 

RISK MANAGEMENT 

construction sites 

fire incidents... 2337 
fire safety 

fault tree analysis... 23 36 

hazard analysis... 2336 

mathematical methods... 2336 

RISK REDUCTION 

work safety 
firefighters... 2208 

ROLLING MILLS 

fire protection 
ionization detectors... 2047 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 

gypsum board 

fire testing. . .2037 
reinforced concrete 

fire testing... 2037 

ROW HOUSES 

fire hazards 
life safety... 2092 



1-21 



SUBJECT INDEX 



RUGS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 



SAFETY ENGINEERING 

chemical industry 
book... 21 66, 2168 

SAFETY ENGINEERS 

training courses 
FRG...2185 

SAFETY VALVES 

gas leakage 

refinery products... 2 100 
oil leakage 

refinery products... 2 100 

SANCTUARIES SEE: REFUGE 
AREAS 

SANDWICH PANELS 

fire resistant 

patents... 21 12 
wallboard 

fire resistant... 201 8 

SEALANTS 

asbestos 

combustibility. . .2021 

thermal stability... 2021 
asbestos-steel sheets 

combustibility. . .2021 

thermal stab ility... 2021 

SEAT CUSHIONS 

(also see: passenger seats) 

SECURITY PINS 

doors 
patents...2113 

SHIP ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY 

fire prevention 
special problems... 2199 

SHIP DECKS 

aircraft carriers 
fire simulation... 2026 

SHIP FIRES 

aircraft carriers 

aircraft compartment safety... 2026 
aviation fuels 

full-scale testing... 2023 

SHIP HULLS 

fire exposure 
full-scale testing... 2023 

SHIPS 

extinguishants 

survey... 2258 
extinguishing systems 

future trends... 21 34 
fire alarm systems 

control stations . . . 2052 

modular design... 2053 
fire codes 



re views... 2200 
fire detectors 

requirements... 2057 
fire safety 

crew training... 2201 
general cargo 

extinguishing systems... 2141 
machinery compartments 

fire protection... 2 133, 2142 

Halon 1301. ..2133, 2142 
spray 

international regulations... 21 58 
sprinkler systems 

international regulations... 2 158 

SHOPPING MALLS 

smoke removal 
water-air jet pumps... 2 102 

SHOPPING MALLS SEE: SHOPPING 
CENTERS 

SIGNALLING 

emergency 
audio... 2252 
visual... 2252 

SIRENS 

fire alarm systems 
commercial buildings...2110 

SLAB FIRES 

polymethyl methacrylate slabs 
vertical burning... 1968 

SLEEPWEAR 

children's 
flammability standards... 2328 

SMOKE ABATEMENT 

aircraft crash fires 

training simulation... 2209 
aircraft fires 

training devices... 2212 
combustion products 

toxicity screening... 2305 
firefighter training 

afterburning. . .221 1 

water spray... 22 11 

SMOKE CHAMBERS 

fire detectors 
patents... 2072 

SMOKE CONTROL 

highrise buildings 

books. ..2101 
stairwell pressurization 

full-scale tests. ..2109 
ventilation systems 

mathematical models... 2103, 2104 

SMOKE DAMPERS 

ducts 

patents... 21 17 
venting systems 

patents. ..21 14 

SMOKE DENSITY 

compartments 

measuring apparatus...2101 
measurement 

transducer... 1965 



visibility 
building evacuation... 2275 

SMOKE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
ionization 

alarm systems... 2067 

design... 2050, 2051 

operating principles... 2051 

patents... 2067 
mines 

demonstration. . .2078 

design... 2078 
photoelectric 

patents... 2063 
railroad use 

testing... 2060 
residential occupancies 

legislation... 1942 

SMOKE EXPLOSIONS 

(also see: backdraft) 

SMOKE GASES 

electrical cables 
fire incidents... 1929 

SMOKE GENERATION 

building materials 
full-scale tests... 21 01 

SMOKE GENERATORS 

firefighter training 
abatement systems... 2211 
pollution control . . .221 1 

SMOKE INHALATION 

pulmonary function 
blood gases... 23 14 

SMOKE MEASUREMENT 

transducers 
aircraft compartments . . . 1 965 

SMOKE MOVEMENT 

buildings 

calculation methods... 1961 
building structures 

full-scale tests... 2109 

SMOKE PARTICLES 

detectors 

patents... 2063 
mass distribution 

ionization detector response... 2008 
physical properties 

fire casualties. ..2010 
physiological aspects 

fire casualties. ..2010 
toxicological properties 

fire casualties... 2010 

SMOKE PRODUCTION 

communication cables 
tunnel testing... 2029 

SMOKE REMOVAL 

building codes 

France... 23 16 
highrise buildings 

full-scale test... 2101 
shopping malls 

water-air jet pumps... 2102 



1-22 



SUBJECT INDEX 



stairwell ventilation 

full-scale tests... 2109 
structural fires 

mechanical equipment... 21 04 
ventilation systems 

compartment fires... 1962 

computer algorithms... 21 03 

Japan... 21 32 

SMOKE SIMULATORS 

aircraft crash fires 
training devices... 2209 

SMOKE VENTILATION 

design parameters 
combustion rates... 2 104 
fire loads... 2 104 

SMOKE VENTS 

control system 
patents. ..2121 

SMOLDERING 

cardboard 
experimental studies... 1991 
theoretical studies... 1992 

cellulosic materials 
experimental studies... 1984 
theoretical studies... 1984 

fabrics 
furniture coverings. ..1971 

solid materials 
experimental studies... 1991 
theoretical studies... 1992 

SODIUM CARBONATE 

extinguishants 
sodium fires... 2260 

SODIUM FIRES 

extinguishants 
sodium carbonate... 2260 

SODIUM SILICATE SHEETS 

fire barriers 

applications . . .201 5 
insulating materials 

applications ... 20 1 5 

SOLID MATERIALS 

smoldering 
experimental studies... 1991 
theoretical studies... 1992 

SOUNDING SEE: ACOUSTIC 
SOUNDING 

SPACE CHARGES 

detectors 
ionization... 2056 

SPILL FIRES 

aviation 
occupant escape... 2274 

SPILLS 

(also see: fuel spills) 

SPRAY SYSTEMS 

maritime 

international regulations... 2 158 
mines 

fire protection... 2191 



SPRINKLER HEADS 

hydrodynamic features 

design... 21 29 
spray cones 

variable angles... 2 128 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

extinguishing time 

statistical analysis... 21 35 
maritime 

international regulations... 21 58 
performance 



reviews. 



!124 



spray cones 

variable configurations... 2 129 
technical parameters 

developmental history... 2 128 

STAIRWELL PRESSURIZATION 

smoke control 
full-scale tests... 2109 

STAIRWELLS 

fire protection 
fire retardant paints... 201 1 
real fire testing... 2011 

STANDARDS 

building components 

licensing (GDR)... 2327 

testing (GDR)... 2327 
fire retardants 

licensing (GDR)... 2327 

testing (GDR)... 2327 
fire safety 

ASTM...2325 

polyester resins... 1999 

reference books... 23 15 
flammability 

flight attendant uniforms... 2329 

mattresses... 2326 

textiles... 2001 
Japan 

toxicity tests... 2306 
plastics 

restrictions (Italy)... 2195 

STATE TRANSITION MODEL 

pre-flashover conditions 
fire performance... 2036 

STATIC ELECTRICITY 

fire extinguishers 
carbon dioxide... 1998 

STATISTICAL METHODS 

structural fires 
characteristics . . . 1 954 

STATISTICS 

electrical fires 

New York City (1976)... 2346 
fire apparatus accidents 

USSR... 2247 
fire fatalities 

US (1975)... 2340, 2342 
fire incidents 

Italy (1968- 1972)... 1937 

petroleum storage facilities... 2182 

textile industry... 1928 

UK (1975). ..2343 

Yugoslavia (1975)... 2345 



fire injuries 

US (1975)... 2342 
fire losses 

US (1975)... 2342 

Yugoslavia (1975)... 2345 
fire loss reporting 

international differences... 2333 
fireworks incidents 

US (1976)... 2339 
industrial fires 

France... 21 83 
large-loss fires 

US (1975). ..2341 
major fires 

UK (Oct-Nov-Dec 1976.. .2344 

STEAM TURBINES 

hydraulic systems 

fire-resistant fluids... 2 193 
lubrication systems 

fire-resistant fluids. ..2193 

STEEL 

abrasive blasting 

flammable atmospheres. ..2081 
shot blasting 

flammable atmospheres... 2081 
structural elements 

fire performance... 2020 

STORAGE BATTERIES 

emergency power 
firefighting...2111 

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES 

wall panels 
patents... 21 12 

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 

concrete beams 

reinforced... 2087 
precast concrete 

design handbook... 20 19 
prefabricated concrete 

fire testing... 2025 
steel 

fire performance... 2020 
wood 

fire retardants... 2327 

STRUCTURAL FIRES 

air sampling 

firefighter exposure... 2230 
casualties 

response distance... 2290 

temporal incidence... 2290 
characteristics 

statistical analysis... 1954 
evacuation problems 

guidance systems... 2277 
response distance 

resource allocation... 2290 
smoke density 

evacuation. . .2275 



SUBWAYS 

fire safety 
regulations.. 



2202 



1-23 



SUBJECT INDEX 



SUPPRESSION SEE: FIRE 
SUPPRESSION 

SURFACTANTS 

(also see: wetting agents) 
foam concentrates 
fire extinguishment... 2256 

SYMPOSIA 

Combustibility 

5th, 1976... 1926 
Combustion, Internat 

16th, 1976... 1957, 1963, 1964, 1967, 
1968, 1983, 1984, 1985, 2010, 2035, 
2036 
Fire Standards and Safety 

Annual, 1976. ..2325 
Loss Prevention 

Annual, 1976. ..2094, 2095, 20%, 
2097, 2098 
Reliability and Maintainability 

Annual, 1977. ..1938 
Wire and Cable, Intemat 

25th, 1976... 2029 

SYNTHETIC FABRICS 

pyrolysis products 
toxicity screening... 2300 

SYNTHETIC FIBERS 

production machinery 
explosion safety... 21 80 
fire safety... 2 180 

SYNTHETIC MATERIALS 

activation energies 
comparisons ... 1 986 

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 

fire departments 
analyst qualifications... 2204 



TANK CHASSIS 

fire apparatus 
USSR.. .2219 

TANKER SHIPS 

blast cleaning 

flammable atmospheres... 2081 
extinguishing systems 

dry chemical extinguishments... 2 140 
fire-fighting tugs 

equipment . . . 2220 
fire protection 

extinguishing systems... 21 34 

TANK FIRES 

(also see: fuel tanks; fuel storage 

tanks) 
foam towers 
surface cooling... 21 38 

TELEVISION RECEIVERS 

color 
fire incidents... 1938 

TEMPERATURE MONITORING 

industrial equipment 
infrared sensors... 2055 



TEMPERATURE SENSORS 

fire alarms 

patents... 2069 
industrial furnaces 

gas-fired. ..2174 

TESTING 

(also see: fire tests; flammability tests) 

TESTING FACILITIES 

laboratories 
fire research (Austria) ... 1 949 
instrumentation. . .1949 

TESTING ORGANIZATIONS 

fire alarms 
FRG...2059 

TEXTBOOKS 

fire protection 
chemistry... 1927 

TEXTILE FIRES 

significance 
evaluation... 1935 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY 

fire incidents 
case histories... 1928 

TEXTILE MACHINERY 

automated 
fire protection... 21 84 

TEXTILE PLANTS 

stock transfer ducts 
fire protection... 2 184 

TEXTILES 

(also see: fabrics) 
combustibility 

ranking... 1990 
fire behavior 

legislation... 1976 

life hazards ... 1 977 
fire hazards 

evaluation. . .2000 

statistical study... 2001 

THERMAL BARRIERS 

plaster 
foamed plastics . . . 2093 

THERMAL RADIATION 

class-B fires 

extinguisher range... 1966 
fuel fires 

measurements ... 1 982 
infrared sensors 

fire safety... 205 5 
polymethyl methacrylate 

thermal radiation... 1968 
pool fires 

polymethyl methacrylate ... 1 967 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS 

aircraft interiors 
flammability characteristics. ..1975 

THERMOPLASTICS 

(also see: plastics) 

TIME-DELAY VALVES 

extinguishing systems 



patents... 21 50 

TOXIC GASES 

electrical cables 

fire incidents... 1929 
plastics 

re views... 2009 

TOXICITY 

(also see: combustion toxicology) 
fire atmospheres 

personnel survival... 2303 
polyurethane foams 

flame retardants...2302 

TOXICITY SCREENING 

combustion products 

smoke prevention... 2305 

toxicity screening... 2309 
home materials 

testing methods... 2308 
polychloroprene 

pyrolysis products... 2301 
polyurethane 

pyrolysis products... 2301 
pyrolysis products 

aircraft upholstery... 2299 

elastomers... 2298 

polymers... 2309 

synthetic fabrics... 2300 

test methods... 2300 

TOXICITY TESTS 

combustion gases 
standards (Japan)... 2306 

TOXICOLOGY 

combustion products 
physiology. . .2297 

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS 

fire apparatus accidents 
statistics (USSR)... 2247 

TRAIMNG 

(also see: education; firefighter 
training) 

TRANSFORMERS 

fire safety 
gas analyzers... 2 177 

TRANSFORMER STATIONS 

remote-controlled 
fire protection... 2194 

TRANSIT VEHICLES 

(also see: buses; subway cars) 

fire loads 
release rates... 2085 
systems behavior... 2085 

TRANSPORTATION 

fire safety 

methodology ... 2 1 98 
hazardous materials 

safe handling... 2324 
railroad tunnels 

firefighting...2286 



1-24 



SUBJECT INDEX 



TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES 

hazards identification 
placarding system... 2321 

TUGS 

fireboats 
equipme nt . . . 2220 

TUNNEL TESTS 

communication cables 
flame spread... 2029 
smoke production... 2029 

TURRETS 

fire fighting 
patents... 2222 

TUTOGEN FP 

foam concentrates 
fluoroprotei n s ... 2254 



u 

ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
mine fires 
spark ignition... 2076 

UNDERGROUND FIRES 

bulkheads 
foamed plastic... 2089 

UNDERLAYMENTS SEE: FLOOR 
COVERINGS 

UNIFORMS 

flight attendants 
flammability standards... 2 329 

UNITED KINGDOM 

textile industry 
fire statistics (1970- 1974)... 1928 

URBAN FIRES 

fire spread 
modeling... 1953 

USSR 

fire apparatus accidents 

statistics... 2247 
fire engineering stations 

activities... 1950 
fire investigation 

consultants. . .2228 



VALUES 

time delay 
pneumatic. 



.2150 



VALVES 

risers 
patents... 21 55 

VAPOR IGNITION 

fire extinguishers 
carbon dioxide... 1998 

VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 



VEHICLES 

(also see: apparatus) 

VENTILATION SYSTEMS 

combustion products 

mine fires... 2 192 
dampers 

design parameters... 2 108 
smoke removal 

compartment fires... 1962 

computer algorithms... 2 103 

Japan... 2 132 

VENTING SYSTEMS 

smoke dampers 
patents...2114 



w 

WALLBOARD 

sandwich structures 
fire resistant... 20 18 

WALLBOARDS SEE: CHIPBOARDS; 
FIBERBOARDS; GYPSUM 
BOARDS 

WALL COVERINGS 

compartment fires 
rate of development... 1952 

WALL FIRES 

polymethyl methacrylate 
burning rates... 1968 
pressure modeling... 1967 
thermal radiation... 1967, 1968 

WALL PANELS 

fire resistant 
patents. ..21 12 

WALL PENETRATIONS 

sealing methods 
fire testing... 2024 

WASTE RECEPTACLES 

extinguishers 
patents... 2 156 

WATER 

extinguishment 
cotton bat ting... 2259 

WATER-AIR JET PUMPS 

smoke removal 
shopping malls... 2 102 

WATER SPRAYS 

crib fires 

extinguishment . . .1959 
wood slab fires 

extinguishment. . .1958 

WATER SUPPLIES 

(also see: fire flows) 
fire flow demands 
cost allocations... 2263 

WEARING APPAREL SEE: 
CLOTHING 



patents... 2 159 

WETTING AGENTS 

(also see: surfactants) 
extinguishment 
cotton batting... 2259 

WIND TUNNELS 

extinguishants 

testing... 1949 
fire detectors 

testing... 1949 

WOOD 

autoignition temperatures 
fire hazards... 2006 

vertical sheets 
flame spread... 1956 

WOOD FIRES 

charring pyrolysis 
laser simulation... 1983 

WOOD SLAB FIRES 

extinguishment 
water sprays... 1958 

WOOL BALES 

fires 
causes... 2003 
extinguishment. . .2003 

WOOL FIBERS 

fire hazards 
characteristics . . . 2003 



YUGOSLAVIA 

fire statistics 
1975... 2345 



WEEDS 

fire prevention 



1-25 



SOURCE INDEX 



BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS, 
DISSERTATIONS 

ARSON: AMERICA' S MALIGNANT 

CRIME... 2292 
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES: 

AN OVERVIEW... 23 11 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS 

WITH MODERN 

ELEVATORS... 2273 
FIRE PERFORMANCE AND 

TESTING OF PLASTICS. ..1969 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. 

MODERN TRENDS FOR 

PETROLEUM AND 

PETROCHEMICAL 

PLANTS.. .2165 
FIRE STANDARDS AND 

SAFETY... 2325 
FUNDAMENTALS OF FIRE 

PREVENTION... 1939 
HIGHRISEIFIRE AND LIFE 

SAFETY... 2197 
HOW RELIABLE ARE AUTOMATIC 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS - 

CONCLUSIONS FROM AN 

ANALYSIS OF FALSE ALARMS 

IN THE BREMEN CONTAINER 

TERMINAL... 2042 
INFORMATION DIRECTORY 

1977... 1946 
LESSONS FROM FIRES IN THE 

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES... 1928 
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, HEALTH 

AND FIRE INDEX. VOL 1...2315 
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND 

TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF 

COMBUSTION 

PRODUCTS... 2297 
POS T- TENSIONING MANUAL... 2086 
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 

DESIGNERS' HANDBOOK. ..2019 
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF 

FIRE IN THE PRINTING 

INDUSTRY. ..2167 
PRINCIPLES OF FIRE 

PROTECTION 

CHEMISTRY... 1927 
RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF 

SAFETY ENGINEERING IN THE 

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. ..2168 
SECURITY AND FIRE PROTECTION 

YEARBOOK... 1924 
SMOKE PROTECTION OF MULTI- 
STORY BUILDINGS. ..2101 



CONFERENCES 

Textile Industry Technical Conf, 
Annual. Proc 
1976, May 6-7, Atlanta, GA 
Paper 
6/1-3. ..2184 
Transportation Conf, Intersociety, 4th, 
Papers 
1976, Jul 18-24, Los Angeles, 
CA...2198 
World Airports Conf, 5th, Proc 
1976, May 5-7, Brighton, England 
Pages 
21/1-21/8.. .2284 

JOURNALS 

Air Cosmos 

14(638):31, 48, 1976.. .2268 
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 

38(l):18-23, 1977.. .2230 
Am Water Works Assoc J 

68(4): 185-1 88, 1976.. .2263 
Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics 

29(341 ):48-49, 1976.. .2318 

29(341):50-52, 1976.. .1947 

29(340:52-53, 1976.. .2317 

29(340:53-55, 1976.. .2091 

29(340:55-56, 1976.. .2330 

29(340:57-65, 1976.. .2319 

29(340:66-67, 1976.. .2084 

29(340:68-69, 1976.. .2316 
Antincendio protez civ 

28(3): 191-192, 1976.. .2231 

28(4):259-261, 1976.. .2195 
ASCE Proc. J Struct Div 

108(ST5): 1047-1059, 1977... 2087 
Aviat, Space and Environ Med 

47(10:1177-1181, 1976... 2232 
Beton Herstellung Verwend 

26(7): 239-243, 1976.. .2334 
Betr Manage Ser 

17(11):102, 104, 1976.. .2253 
Brandaus 

84(12):485-488, 1976.. .2293 
Brandhilfe 

23(0:270-273, 1976;Brandhilfe...2255 

23(12):316, 1976.. .2255 
Brandschutz 

30(12):313-314, 1976.. .2288 

3(K12):315-316, 1976.. .2246 

30(12):317-318, 1976.. .1929 

30(1 2): 324-325, 1976.. .2122 

30(12):325, 1976.. .2254 

30(12):336, 1976.. .2188 
Brandvaern 

2(5):14-15, 17-18, 1976.. .2011 
Brewers Digest 



51(6):44-46, 1976.. .2213 
Build Stand 

46(2):44-51, 1977... 2024 

46(2):56-59, 80, 1977. ..1951 
Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim 

(170)115-116, 1976. ..1970 

(170):117-118, 1976.. .1952 
Cement (Amsterdam) 

27(4): 135- 140, 1976... 2025 
Coal Min Process 

13(8):66-67, 72, 1976.. .2012 
Combust Sci Technol 

14(1 ,2,3): 1-15, 1976.. .1958 

14(l,2,3):17-23, 1976.. .1959 
Commer Motor 

143(3654):55-58, 1976.. .2214 
Denpa Jiho 

(2):32-35, 1976... 2250 
Draegerheft 

(306):2-15, 1976.. .2235 

(306):23-27, 1976.. .2233, 2234 
Electro Rev 

68(28):705-706, 1976.. .21% 

68(33):800-802, 804-805, 1976.. .1930 
Elektriker 

15(7/8):183-184, 1976.. .2161 
Elektro Anz 

29(6):5 pages (special issue), 
1976... 2043 
Engineer (London) 

242(6270): 30-31, 34, 1976.. .2013 

242(6283/4):40-41, 1976. ..2169 
Eng J 

13(2):35-42, 1976... 2020 
Face au risque 

(125):25-48, 1976. ..1986 

(125):49-51, 1976.. .1966 

(125):59-63, 1976.. .2331 
Fire Chief 

20(1 1):33-35, 1976.. .2217 

20(10:36-38, 1976.. .2210 

20(10:39-44, 1976.. .2215 

21(0:60-62, 64, 66-67, 1977. ..2216 

21(3):36-38, 1977... 2205 

21(4):53-57, 1977. ..2294 

21(4):62-64, 1977... 2269 

21(4):65-70, 1977... 2289 
Fire Command 

44(0:16-17, 1977. ..2204 

44(0:18-21, 1977. ..2206 

44(3):24-25, 1977. ..2291 

44(4): 18-20, 1977... 2285 

44(4):24-25, 1977. ..2266 

44(4):26-28, 1977... 2079 
Fire Eng 

13(X3):21-23, 1977. ..2321 

130(3):27-28, 1977... 2236 

13(X3):53-54, 1977... 1942 



1-27 



SOURCE INDEX 



Fire Eng J 

36Q04):21-24, 1976.. .2208 

36(1 04): 25-27, 1976.. .2170 

36(104):29-31, 1976. ..2207 

36(104): 32-34, 1976.. .1941 

36(104):35-38, 1976.. .1940 

36(1 04): 40-41, 1976.. .1997 
Fire J 

7(X4):5-10, 1976.. .1934 

70(4): 27-29, 51, 1976... 2340 

70(4): 33-36, 1976... 1931 

7(X5):11, 1976... 231 2 

7(X5):37-42, 1976... 2341 

7(X5):45-48, 1976... 1932 

7(X5):53-55, 58-59, 1976... 2326 

70(6): 17-19, 1976... 2342 

70(6):23-29, 69, 1976... 2092 

70(6):41-44, 1976... 1933 

70(6):57-63, 1976.. .1948 

7(X6):66-69, 1976... 2093 

70(6):74-77, 82, 1976... 2339 
Fire Prev 

(118):11-15, 1977. ..2343 

(118):16-20, 1977. ..2199 

(118):21-24, 1977. ..2123 

(118):27-44, 1977. ..2344 
Fire Prev Sci Technol 

(16):4-16, 1977... 2038 

(16):17-22, 1977. ..2336 

(16):23-27, 1977... 2027 
Fire Prot Rev 

40(436):17, 19-20, 1977. ..2124 
Fire Technol 

12(3): 173-185, 1976.. .2227 

12(3): 186- 192, 1976.. .1987 

12(3): 193-203, 1976... 2290 

12(3):204-218, 1976.. .2014 

12(3):219-236, 1976.. .2039 

12(3):237-246, 1976... 2267 

12(4): 266-275, 289, 1976.. .2028 

12(4) .276-289, 1976.. .2274 

12(4):290-302, 330, 1976... 2088 

12(4):303-310, 1976...1965 

12(4):31 1-320, 1976.. .2102 
GIT 

21(l):30-33, 1977.. .2015 
Glueckauf 

112(20):1162-1163, 1976.. .2044 
Gorn elektromekh i automatika. Resp 
mezhved temat nauch-tekhn sb 

(28):41-43, 1976.. .2045 
Gornospasat delo 

(13):3-6, 1976. ..2191 

(13):6-8, 1976. ..2127 

(13)9-13, 1976.. .2126 

(13):14-16, 1976.. .2125 

(13):21-24, 1976.. .2046 

(13):24-27, 1976.. .2021 

(13):34-38, 1976.. .2237 
Hans a 

113(13):1170, 1976.. .2171 
Holzind 

29(9): 258-259, 1976... 2327 
Hwy Heavy Construct 

119{5):30-31, 1976.. .2322 
Hydrocarbon Process 

55(7):205-206, 208, 211, 214, 216, 
1976... 2094 

55(8): 182- 184, 1976.. .2095 



55(9):321-322, 324, 327-328, 331-332, 
335, 337, 1976.. .2096 

55(10)215-216, 218, 220, 222, 
1976... 2097 

55(11): 305-306, 1976... 2098 
Ind Tech 

(318):93, 95, 97-98, 101, 104, 107-108, 
111-112, 115-116, 119-120, 
1976... 21 72 
Iron Steel Eng 

53(6):69, 1976... 2047 
Izv Vyssch Uchebn Zaved. Gorn Zh 

(9):62-67, 1976... 2089 
J Combust Toxicol 

4(l):5-7, 1977. ..2306 

4(1):8-15, 1977. ..2304 

4(1): 16-20, 1977... 2299 

4(1):21-31, 1977... 2301 

4(l):32-55, 1977.. .2305 

4(l):56-60, 1977. ..2300 

4(l):61-68, 1977. ..2298 

4(l):69-78, 1977.. .2307 

4(l):79-86, 1977... 2302 

4(0:87-96, 1977... 2303 
J Consumer Prod Flammability 

4(0:5-28, 1977. ..2328 

4(0:29-39, 1977. ..1988 

4(0:40-59, 1977. ..2308 

4(0:60-113, 1977. ..1971 
J Fire Flammability 

8(0:5-25, 1977. ..1973 

8(0:26-37, 1977. ..2008 

8(0:38-40, 1977. ..1989 

8(0:41-58, 1977. ..1972 

8(0:59-94, 1977.. .1975 

8(0:95-114, 1977. ..2016 

8(0:115-130, 1977. ..1974 

8(0:131-134, 1977. ..1998 
Kagaku Kogyo 

2(X8):85-88," 1976.. .2173 
Kasai 

26(0:19-23, 1976.. .1954 

26(0:24-31, 1976... 2099 

26(0:37-39, 1976.. .2103 

26(0:40-45, 1976... 2 128 

26(0:46-65, 1976.. .1953 

26(0:66-68, 1976.. .2048 

26(2):73-84, 1976... 2286 

26(2):85-91, 1976... 21 30 

26(2):97-101, 1976.. .1960 

26(2): 122-1 26, 1976.. .2129 
KemialKemi 

3(5):234-235, 1976... 2332 
Khim prom 

(8):61 3-616, 1976... 2256 
Khlopk Prom 

(2):23-24. 1976.. .2131 
Klima Kaelteing 

4(10):361-366, 1976.. .2104 
K'o Hsueh Shih Yen 

(4):158-159, 1976.. .2257 
Krankenhaus Umsch 

45(9):646-648, 1976.. .2190 

45(9):653-654, 1976... 2189 
Kuki tyowa to reito 

16(5): 108-120, 1976.. .2132 

16(6):97-129, 1976.. .2174 

16(7):143-149, 1976.. .2051 

16(7)150-151, 1976.. .2050 



16(7):152-154, 1976.. .2105 

16(8): 107- 129, 1976.. .2049 
Kunstst 

66(12):810-814, 1976.. .1999 
Lab Data 

8(0:15-19, 1977... 2029 
Lebensm Ind 

23(6):267-268, 1976... 2323 
Lenzinger Ber 

(40):69-79, 1976.. .1935 

(40):80-86, 1976.. .2001 

(40V.88-95, 1976.. .1976 

(40):96-101, 1976.. .2238 

(40):227-239, 1976... 1990 

(40):240-247, 1976.. .1977 

(40):248-257, 1976... 2000 
Lub Eng 

32(10):539-541, 1976. ..2175 
Maschinenschaden 

49(4): 159- 161, 1976.. .2080 

50O):19-20, 1977. ..2193 
Med Leg J 

44(3):71-84, 1976.. .2271 
Mil Eng 

68(442): 100-101, 1976... 2211 
Mitsubishi Denki Giho 

5(X7):394-400, 1976... 2160 
Mitt Inst Bautech 

7(6):161-176, 1976.. .2106 
Mod Plant Oper Maim 

16(4):27-31, 1976. ..2107 
Motor Ship 

57(670:92-93. 1976.. .2133 
Netsu Kanri To Kogai 

28(4):40-47, 1976... 2176 
New Ships! Neubauten 

21(7/8):167-168, 1976.. .2052 

21(7/8):168-169, 1976.. .2053 

21(7/8): 169-170, 1976.. .2134 

21(7/8): 170-171, 1976.. .2258 
Nihon Jozo Kvokai Zasshi 

71(6):414-417, 1976.. .1936 
Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu 

25(1/2):1-15, 1975. ..2108 

25(l/2):17-23, 1975. ..1991 

25(l/2):25-37, 1975. ..1992 
Oesterr Feuerwehr 

3(X5):98-99. 100, 1976.. .1949 

30(1 2) :225 -226, 228-229, 1976.. .2040 
Oesterr Z Elektrizitaetswirtsch 

29(6):253-258, 1976... 2194 
Ohm: denki zasshi 

63(7): 109-1 14, 1976.. .2054 
Oil Colour Chem Assoc J 

59(10):363-368, 1976.. .2081 
Plastica 

29(10:382-390, 1976.. .1979 

29U2V.428-431, 1976.. .1980 
Plast Rubber 

1(0:42-43, 1976... 1978 
Pozhar delo 

(6):14-15, 1976.. .2179 

(9):20-22, 1976... 1950 

(9):23-24, 1976... 2002 

(9):24-25, 1976... 2247 

(9):26-27, 1976... 2003 

(10V.23-24, 1976.. .2228 

(10V.24-26, 1976... 2136 

(10):27, 1976.. .2137 



?S- 1-28 



SOURCE INDEX 



(10):28, 1976. ..2218 

(11):10-11, 1976.. .2219 

(10:24-25, 1976.. .2135, 2138 

(10:25-26, 1976... 1993 

(12):14, 1976. ..2082 

(12):23-24, 1976... 2109 

(12):24-25, 1976.. .2259 

(12):25, 1976... 2251 

(12):26-27, 1976.. .2139 

(12):26, 1976. ..2226 
Prof Saf 

21(7):25-30, 1976... 2324 
Progr Arc hit 

(9): 58-63, 1976... 2320 
Prom Stroit 

(8):25-28, 1976.. .2083 
Prot Civ Secur Ind 

(253):16-17, 1976.. .2110 
Protivpozarna Zastita 

16(9): 15-24, 1976... 2345 
Prz Bud 

48(5):220-223, 1976.. .2017 
Prz poz 

64(5):8-9, 1976... 2004 

64(6):17-20, 1976.. .2178 
Puranto Enjinia 

8(5):41-48, 1976.. .2181 

8(7): 17-23, 1976... 2180 

8(7):29-32, 1976.. .2182 

8(7):33-38, 1976.. .2055 

8(7):40-44, 1976.. .2177 

8(7):45-48, 1976... 2100 

8(7):52-56, 1976... 2162 
Rep Fire Res Inst Japan 

(42):2-10, 1976... 2260 

(42):11-18, 1976.. .2275 

(42):19-26, 1976.. .1994 
Rep Fire Sci Inst Japan 

(42):28-37, 1976...1961 
Rev Sci Instrum 

48(2):122-126, 1977.. .2056 
Rev Tech Feu 

17(157):38, 40-41, 1976.. .2239 

17(157):48-51, 1976.. .2183 

17(1 58): 26-27, 1976.. .1925 

17(158):53-55, 1976... 2270 
Safety Sea Internat 

(89):7-8, 1976... 2201 

(89):10-12, 1976.. .2142 

(89): 12, 1976... 2287 

(89):14, 17-18, 1976.. .2141 

(89):20-23, 26, 1976.. .2200 

(89):29-30, 32, 1976.. .2057 

(89):33-34, 1976.. .2140 
SBZ 

31(8):556, 1976.. .2143 
Schadenprisma 

5(4):71-75, 1976... 2059 

5(4):76-78, 1976.. .2163 

5(4):79-80, 1976.. .2005 

6(0:1-3, 1977. ..2058 

6(0:11-15, 1977.. .2335 

6(0:15-18, 1977.. .2337 
Ship World Shipbuild 

169(3915):264-265, 1976... 2220 
Sicherheitsing 

7(7):10-12, 14-16, 1976.. .2164 
Soda to enso 

27(3):85-97, 1976... 1995 



27(4):121-138, 1976.. .19% 

27(5): 147-1 59, 1976... 2006 
Tankstelle 

23(5):254, 1976.. .2144 
Tetsudo Doboku 

18(4):265-268, 1976.. .2202 

18(5):334-338, 1976.. .2090 
Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo 

33(5):167-173, 1976.. .2022 

33(5):185-186, 1976.. .2060 
Textilia 

52(4):71-77, 1976.. .1937 
Torf Prom 

(9):26-27, 1976... 2145 
Toshiba Rebyu 

31(6):535-539, 1976.. .21 11 
Ugol 

(8):59-62, 1976.. .2146 

(9):58-60, 1976.. .2192 
Uni-Inf Karlsruhe 

(0:10-11, 1977.. .2276 
VFDBZ 

26(0:5-9, 1977... 2272 

26(0:19-22, 1977.. .2185 

26(0:22-25, 1977.. .1943 

26(0:30-33, 1977.. .2261 

26(0:37-40, 1977.. .2277 
Voen Med Zh 

(5):27-30, 1976.. .2313 
Werkfeuerverband e V. Rundschreiben 

(95):2-4, 1977... 2186 

(95):4-ll, 1977.. .2062 

(95):12-16, 1977.. .2061 
World Oil 

183(2):35-39, 1976.. .2187 
ZS Magazin 

(12):26-27, 1976.. .2278 



PATENTS 

French 

2,273,562. 
US 

3,931,521. 

3,932,850. 

3,934,145. 

3,934,604. 

3,935,877. 

3,937,506. 

3,939,861. 

3,942,636. 

3,943,312. 

3,943,663. 

3,946,241. 

3,946,374. 

3,946,756. 

3,949,439. 

3,950,746. 

3,951,051. 

3,951,185. 

3,952,598. 

3,952,692. 

3,955,031. 

3,955,949. 

3,964,125. 

3,967,033. 

3,969,720. 

3,969,864. 

3,978,854. 

3,978,942. 



.2147 

.2064 
.2065 
.2067 
.2149 
.2265 
.2113 
.2264 
.2224 
.2221 
.2116 
.2070 
.2071 
.2155 
.2240 
.2066 
.2114 
.2148 
.2151 
.2069 
.2018 
.2118 
.2120 
.2112 
.2073 
.2119 
.2243 
.2281 



3,979,648.. .2121 
3,980,081... 2241 
3, 980, 139... 21 52 
3,980, 140... 21 59 
3,980,155. ..2280 
3, 980, 156... 2225 
3,980,272.. .21 17 
3,980,928... 2072 
3, 980,995... 2074 
3, 980,996... 2068 
3,980,997... 2063 
3,981, 102.. .2115 
3, 981, 301... 2245 
3,981, 302... 2244 
3, 982,608... 2279 
3, 989, 109... 2222 
3, 990,439... 2242 
3,990,516.. .2150 
4,003,395... 2153 
4,005,754... 2154 
4,007,793... 2223 
4,013, 127.. .2156 
4,026,385. ..2282 
USSR 
494,755... 2075 

REPORTS 

British Plastics Federation, London 

BPF 157/1. ..1981 
Brooke Army Med Center 

AD-A033 157/9GA...2314 
Brooks AFB 

AD-A034 843/3GA...2209 

AFHRL TR-76-60...2209 
Civ Serv Comm 

PB-261 704/1GA...2249 

PB-262 776/8GA...2248 

TM-76-12...2249 

TM-76-16...2248 
Coast Guard Res and Dev Center 

AD-A032 867/4GA...2023 

CGR DC- 14-76... 2023 
Consolidation Coal Co 

Bu Mines OFR- 129-76... 2076 

PB-261 292/7GA...2076 
Dayton Univ Ohio Res Inst 

AD-A033 682/6GA...2030 

AD-A033 683/4GA...2031 

AD-A033 989/5GA...2032 

FAA RD-76-1 20-1... 2030 

FAA RD-76-1 20-2... 2031 

FAA RD- 76-120-3. ..2032 
Fire Res Sta, Borehamwood, UK 

Fire Res Note 1063... 2077 
Fire Res Sta {UK) 

BRECP-1-77...2158 

BRECP-3-77...2157 

BRECP-7-77...2041 

BRECP-74-76...2262 
FMC Corp 

Bu Mines OFR-24-77...2078 

PB-263 577/9GA...2078 
Forsvarets Forskningsanstalt 

FOA C 20126-D6(A3)...1982 
Georgia Inst Technol...2333 

GIT SME-77... 2007 
Harvard Univ 

TR-19...1956 

TR-20...1955 



1-29 



SOURCE INDEX 

IIT Res Inst 1977, Jan 18-20, Philadelphia, PA 

AD-A035 999/2GA...2212 Pages 

IITRI J6339...2212 27-30, 1977. ..1938 

NAVTRAEQUIPC-74-C-0 1 52- 
1...2212 
INS Investigations Bureau Inc 

SFPETR-76-3...2295 
Nat Acad Sci 

AD-A033 028/2GA...2309 

NAS ACT/P-843-1...2309 
Nat Aeron and Space Admin 

NASA TN-D-8338...2009 
Nat Aviat Facilities Experim Center 

AD-A033 051 /4G A... 2203 

FAANA-76-12...2203 
Nat Bureau of Standards 

AD-A033 740/2GA...2329 

FAARD-75- 176... 2329 
Nat Fire Prev and Control Admin 

PB-263 461 /6GA... 1944 

PB-263 462/4GA...1945 
Nav Wpns Center 

AD-A034 217/0GA...2026 

NWCTP-5812...2026 
Ohio State Univ 

IH-5-76-1...2085 

PB-262 895/6GA...2085 
Picatinny Arsenal 

AD-A034 894/6GA...2033 

PATR-5015...2033 
Portland Cement Assoc 

R/D Bull No. RD 040.01 B... 2037 
Soc Fire Prot Engrs 

SFPETR-76-1...2283 

SFPETR-76-4...2296 

SFPETR-76-5...2252 

SFPETR-77-1...2229 

SFPETR-77-3...2346 
Univ Engrs Inc 

AD-A033 522/4GA...2034 

UE-308-FR...2034 

USCGD-95-76...2034 
Univ Karlsruhe, FRG 

ForschberT 149... 1962 
Univ Pittsburgh 

NBSGCR-77-85...2310 

SYMPOSIA 

Combustibility Symp, Annual, 5th, 
Papers 
1976, Apr 21-22, Atlanta, G A... 1926 
Combustion Symp, Internal, 16th, 
Proc 
1976, Aug 15-20, MIT, Cambridge, 
MA 
Pages 
799-807, 1977... 1963 
1281-1294, 1977. ..1957 
1329-1343, 1977... 1985 
1345-1354, 1977. ..1968 
1357-1371, 1977... 2036 
1373-1384, 1977.. .2035 
1385-1395, 1977.. .1964 
1423-1445, 1977... 2010 
1447-1457, 1977. ..1984 
1459-1470, 1977... 1983 
1489-1500, 1977. ..1967 
Reliability and Maintainability Symp, 
Annual, Proc 

1-30 



■I 



IH-5-76-1...2085 
IITRI J6339...2212 



" 



REPORT NUMBER INDEX 



N 



AD-A032 867/4GA...2023 
AD-A033 028/2GA...2309 
AD-A033 051/4GA...2203 
AD-A033 157/9GA...2314 
AD-A033 522/4GA...2034 
AD-A033 682/6GA...2030 
AD-A033 683/4GA...2031 
AD-A033 740/2GA...2329 
AD-A033 989/5GA...2032 
AD-A034 217/0GA...2026 
AD-A034 843/3GA...2209 
AD-A034 894/6GA...2033 
AD-A035 999/2GA...2212 
AFHRL TR-76-60...2209 



B 

BPF 157/1. ..1981 

BRECP-1-77...2158 

BRE CP-3-77...2157 

BRECP-7-77...2041 

BRE CP-74-76...2262 

BU MINES OFR-24-77...2078 

BU MINES OFR-1 29-76... 2076 



NAS ACT/P-843-1...2309 

NASA TN-D-8338...2009 

NA VTRAEQUIPC-74-C-01 52- 1 ... 22 1 2 

NBS GCR-77-85...2310 

NWCTP-5812...2026 



PATR 
PB-261 
PB-261 
PB-262 
PB-262 
PB-263 
PB-263 
PB-263 



5015. ..2033 
292/7GA...2076 
704/ 1GA... 2249 
776/8GA...2248 
895/6GA...2085 
461 /6GA... 1944 
462/4GA...1945 
577/9GA...2078 



R 



R/D BULL NO. RD 040.01 B... 2037 



c 



CGR DC-1 4-76... 2023 



SFPE TR 
SFPE TR 
SFPE TR 
SFPE TR 
SFPE TR 
SFPE TR 



76-1... 2283 
76-3... 2295 
76-4... 2296 
76-5... 2252 
77-1... 2229 
77-3... 2346 



FOA C 201 26-D6(A3)... 1982 
FAA NA-76-12...2203 
FAA RD-75- 176... 2329 
FAA RD-76-1 20-1... 2030 
FAA RD-76-1 20-2... 2031 
FAA RD-76-120-3...2032 
FIRE RES NOTE 1063... 2077 
FORSCHBER T 149... 1962 



TM-76-12...2249 
TM-76-16...2248 
TR-19...1956 
TR-20...1955 



u 



GIT SME-77...2007 



UE-308-FR...2034 
USCG D-95-76...2034 



1-31 



i 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Accid Anal Prev Accident Analysis and Prevention 

Acta Univ Upsaliensis Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis 

[Transactions of Uppsala (Sweden) University] 

Adv Fire Retard Text, Prog Fire Retard Ser Advances 

in Fire Retardant Textiles, Progress in Fire Re- 
tardancy Series 

Air Cosmos Air et Cosmos [Air and Space] 

Allg Forstztg Allgemeine Forstzeitung [General 

Forestry Gazetteer] 

Am Chem Soe, Div Org Coat Plast Chem, 

Prepr 

American Chemical Society, Division of Organic 

Coatings and Plastics Chemistry, Preprints 
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J American Industrial Hygiene 

Association Journal 

Am J Surg American Journal of Surgery 

Am Water Works Assoc J American Water Works 

Association Journal 

Amis- und Mitteilungsbl Bundesanst 

Materialpruef 

Amts- und Mitteilungsblatt der Bundesanstalt fuer 
Materialpruefung [Official Gazette and Communica- 
tions of the Federal Bureau for Materials Testing] 

Anesth Analg Anesthesia and Analgesia 

Anesthesiol Anesthesiology 

Ann Clin Lab Sci Annals of Clinical Laboratory Science 

Ann Inst Tech Batim Trav Publics Annates de VInstitut 

Technique du Batiment et des Travaux Publics 
[Annals of the Technical Building and Civil En- 
gineering Institute] 

Ann Mines Annales des Mines [Mine Annals] 

Ann Surg Annals of Surgery 

Antincendio protez civ Antincendio e Protezione Civile 

[Fire and Public Protection] 

Apave Revue technique du groupement des 

associations de proprietaires d'appareils a vapeur 
et electriques [Technical Review of the Group of 
Associations of Steam and Electrical Equipment 
Owners] 

Appl Ergon Applied Ergonomics 

Arch Mai Prof Med Trav Secur Soc Archives des 

Maladies Professionnelles, de Medecine du Travail 
et de Securite Sociale [Archives of Professional 
Diseases, Industrial Medicine and Public Safety] 

Arch Ophthalmol Archives of Ophthalmology 

Arch Surg Archives of Surgery 

Arch Termodyn Spal Archiwum termodynamiki i 



spalania [Archives of Thermodynamics and Com- 
bustion] 

Aromatikkusu Aromatikkusu [Aromatics] 

ASCE Proc. J Struct Div American Society of Civil 

Engineers. Proceedings. Journal of the Structural 
Division 

ASHRAE J American Society of Heating, Refrigerating 

and Air-Conditioning Engineers Journal 

ASME Trans. Ser C. J Heat Transfer American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers. Transactions. Se- 
ries C. Journal of Heat Transfer 

ASME Trans. Ser H. J Eng Mater Technol American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers. Transactions. Se- 
ries H. Journal of Engineering Materials and 
Technology 

ASTM Standardization News American Society for 

Testing and Materials. Standardization News 

Aviat, Space and Environ Med Aviation, Space and 

Environmental Medicine 

Bauplanung Bautech Bauplanung & Bautechnik 

[Building Design & Building Engineering] 

Bautechnik Bautechnik [Construction Engineering] 

BBC-Nachr.. Brown-Boveri und Compagnie — Nachrichten 
[Bulletin of the Brown-Boveri Company] 

Beratende Ing Beratende Ingemeure 

[Consulting Engineers] 
Berufsgenoss Berufsgenossenschaft 

[Employer's Liability Insurance] 
Beton Herstellung Verwend Beton-Herstellung und- 

Verwendung [Concrete Production and Use] 
Betonwerk Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik 

[Concrete Work + Finished Parts Engineering] 
Beton Zhelezobeton Beton i Zhelezobeton 

[Concrete and Reinforced Concrete] 
Betr Manage Ser Betriebs-Management Service [Plant 

Management Service] 

Bezop ekspluat elektromekh oborud v 

shakhtakh 

Bezopasnost ekspluatatsii elektromekhanicheskogo 
oborudovaniya v Shakhtakh [Safety of Operation 
of Electromechanical Equipment in Mines] 

Bezop tr prom-sti Bezopasnost truda v promyshlennosti 

[Occupational Safety in Industry] 
Boei Daigakko Rikogaku Kenkyu Hokoku Boei 

Daigakko Rikogaku Kenkyu Hokoku [Scientific and 

Engineering Reports of the Defense Academy of 

Japan] 

Bor'ba gazom, pyTyu i vybrosami v ugoPn 

shakhtakh 



1-33 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Bor'ba s gazom, pyl'yu i vybrosami v ugol'nykh 
shakhtakh [Prevention of Gas, Dust and Discharges 
in Coal Mines] 

Brandaus Brandaus [All Out] 

Brandforsvar Brandforsvar [Fire Protection] 

Brandforsvar, FoU-Brand Brandforsvar, FoU-Brand 

[Fire Protection, Research Bulletin] 

Brandhilfe Brandhilfe [Fire Assistance] 

Brandschutz Brandschutz [Fire Protection] 

Brandvaern Brandvaern [Fire Protection] 

Brand verhuetung Brandverhuetung [Fire Prevention] 

Brandwacht Brandwacht [Firewatch] 

Brauwelt Brauwelt [Brewing World] 

Brewers Digest The Brewers Digest 

Brit J Ind Med British Journal of Industrial Medicine 

Brown Boveri Mitt Brown-Boveri Mitteilungen 

[Communications from the Brown-Boveri Company] 

Build Serv Eng Building Services Engineers 

Build Stand Building Standards 

Bull Inf Sci Tech Bulletin d" Informations 

Scientifiques et Techniques, Commisariat a 
l'Energie Atomique [Scientific and Technical Infor- 
mation Bulletin. Atomic Energy Commission] 

Bull mens Chambre Commerce ind Meurthe- 

et-Moselle 

Bulletin mensuel de la Chambre du Commerce In- 
dustriel de Meurthe-et-Moselle [Monthly Bulletin of 
the Industrial Chamber of Commerce of Meurthe- 
et-Moselle] 

BVD/SPI Bull Brandverhuetungsdienstl Services 

de Protection Incendie Bulletin [Fire Prevention 
Service Bulletin] 

Can Cent Sci Tech Batim Cahiers du Centre 

Scientifique et Technique du Batiment 
[Communications of the Scientific and Technical 
Building Center] 

Can J Civ Eng Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 

Can Med Assoc J.... Canadian Medical Association Journal 

Cement (Amsterdam) Cement (Amsterdam) 

Cent Tech Bois. Bull Inf Tech Centre Technique du 

Bois. Bulletin dTnformations Techniques [Technical 
Center for Wood. Technical Information Bulletin] 

Cerberus Alarm Cerberus Alarm 

Chart Mech Eng Chartered Mechanical Engineer 

Chem Eng Chemical Engineering 

Chemik Chemik (Poland) [Chemist] 

Chem-Ing-Tech Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik 

[Chemistry-Engineer-Technology] 

Chem Tech Chemische Technik [Chemical Engineering] 

Civ Eng Civil Engineering (New York) 

Clin Res Clinical Research 

Coal Min Process Coal Mining and Processing 

Combust Flame Combustion and Flame 

Combust Sci Technol Combustion Science and 

Technology 

Commer Motor Commercial Motor 

Concrete Concrete 



Constr Specifier Construction Specifier 

Consult Eng Consulting Engineer 

Cour Norm Courrier de la Normalisation 

[Standardization Bulletin] 
Denki gakkai zasshi Denki gakkai zasshi [Journal of 

the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan] 

Denki kikansya Denki kikansya [Electrical Machinery] 

Denpa Jiho Denpa Jiho [Journal of the Radiowave 

Control Bureau] 
Denryoku to tetsudo Denryoku to tetsudo 

[Electric Lighting and Facilities in Railways] 
Densetsu kogyo Densetsu kogyo [Electrical 

Construction Engineering] 
Diesel Gas Turbine Progr Diesel and Gas Turbine 

Progress 
Dimensions in Health Serv .... Dimensions in Health Service 
Dimensions/NBS Dimensions I National Bureau of 

Standards 
DIN Mitt Deutsche Industrie-Normen Mitteilungen 

[German Industrial Standards Bulletin] 
Diteru Diteru [Detail: Magazine for Architects and 

Engineers] 

Draegerheft Draegerheft [Draeger Bulletin] 

Dtsch Ausschuss Stahlbeton Deutscher Ausschuss 

fuer Stahlbeton [German Reinforced Concrete Com- 
mittee] 

Dtsch Farben Z Deutsche Farben- 

Zeitschrift [German Paint Journal] 
Dtsch Mueller Z Deutsche Mueller Zeitschrift 

[German Miller Journal] 

Dupont Mag Dupont Magazine 

Electr Commun Electrical Communication 

Electr Contract Electrical Contractor 

Electron Des Electronics Design 

Electron Des News Electronics Design News 

Electron Ind Electronics in Industry 

Electron Power Electronics and Power 

Electro Rev Electro-Revue [Electrical Review] 

Elek-Prakt Elektro-Praktiker [Electrical Practitioner] 

Elektriker Der Elektriker [The Electrician] 

Elektro Anz Elektro-Anzeiger [Journal of Electrical and 

Electronic Engineering] 
Elektrotech Z Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift 

[Electrotechnical Journal] 
Elektr Stn Elektricheskiye Stantsii [Electrical Power 

Stations] 

Elettrotecn Elettrotecnica [Electrotechnology] 

Engineer (London) The Engineer (London) 

Eng J Engineering Journal 

Eng Min J Engineering and Mining Journal 

Environ Health Perspect Environmental Health 

Perspectives 

Exchange Exchange 

Face au Risque Face au Risque [Facing the Risk. 



1-34 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Journal of the French National Prevention and Pro- 
tection Center] 

Feuerwehr Die Feuerwehr [The Fire Service] 

Feuerwehrmann Feuerwehrmann [Firefighter] 

Fire Fire 

Fire Chief Fire Chief 

Fire Command Fire Command 

Fire Eng Fire Engineering 

Fire Eng J Fire Engineers Journal 

Fire Internat Fire International 

Fire J Fire Journal 

Fireline Fireline 

Fire Mater Fire and Materials 

Fire Prev Fire Prevention 

Fire Prev Sci Technol Fire Prevention Science and 

Technology 

Fire Prot Rev Fire Protection Review 

Fire Technol Fire Technology 

For Sci Forest Science 

Fune no kagaku Fune no kagaku [Marine Engineering] 

Gas Erdgas Gas- und Wasserfach, Gas-Erdgas 

[Gas and Water Technology, Gas - Natural Gas] 

Geriatrics Geriatrics 

Gig Sanit Gigiena i Sanitariya [Hygiene and Sanitation] 

GIT Glas-Instrumenten-Technik: Fachzeitschrift 

fuer das Laboratorium [Glass Instrument Engineer- 
ing: Professional Journal for the Laboratory] 

Glueckauf Glueckauj [Journal of Mining 

Engineering and Industry] 

Glueckauf Forschungsh Glueckauf-Forschungshefte 

[Glueckauf Research Journal] 

Gorn elektromekh i avtomatika Resp mezhved temat 

nauch-tekhn sb. Gornaya elektromekhanika i avto- 
matika. Respublikanskiy mezhvedomstvennyy te- 
maticheskiy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy sbornik [Mining 
Electro mechanics and Automation. Inter-agency 
Topical Scientific and Technical Digest of the 
Republics] 

Gornospasat delo Gorno-spasateV noye delo 

[Mine Rescue] 

Gornyi Zh Gornyi Zhurnal [Mining Journal] 

Gummi Asbest Kunstst Gummi, Asbest und Kunststoffe 

[Rubber, Asbestos and Plastics] 
Haikan gijitsu Haikan gijitsu [Piping Engineering] 

Hansa Hansa [Journal of Shipping, Ship Construction 

and Harbors] 
Heron Heron [Journal of the TNO for Building 

Materials and Building Structures, The Netherlands] 
Hessische Feuerwehr Z Hessische Feuerwehr-Zeitschrift 

[Hessian Fire Service Journal] 
HLH Zeitschrift fuer Heizung, Lueftung, Klimatechnik 

und Haustechnik [Journal of Heating. Ventilation. 

Air Conditioning and Household Engineering] 

HLK Heizung-Lueftung-Klima tisation [Heating, 

Ventilating, Air Conditioning] 
Holzind Holzindustrie [Wood Industry] 



Holzrundschau Holzyundsch.au [Wood Review] 

Hosp Top Hospital Topics 

Hwy Heavy Construe Highway and Heavy Construction 

Hydrocarbon Process Hydrocarbon Processing 

IEEE Proc Institute of Electrical and Electronics 

Engineers. Proceedings 
IEEE Spectrum Institute of Electrical and Electronics 

Engineers. Spectrum 
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng Institute of Electrical and 

Electronics Engineers. Transactions on Biomedical 

Engineering 

IEEE Trans Power Appar Sys Institute 

of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Transac- 
tions on Power Apparatus and Systems 

Ind Digest Industrie Digest [Industrial Digest] 

Ind Eng Industrial Engineering 

Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Dev Industrial and Engineering 

Chemistry, Product Research and Development 
Ind Miner Mine Industrie Minerale, Mine 

[Mineral Industry, Mines] 

Ind Res Industrial Research 

Ind Tech Industrie el Technique 

[Industry and Engineering] 

Ind Vernice Indus tria della Vernice [Varnish Industry] 

Inf Constr Informes de la Construccion 

[Construction News] 

Inf Process Manage... Information Processing Management 

Ing Digest Ingenieur Digest [Engineer's 

Digest/Materiels Nouveaux et Techniques Mondi- 
ales/Ingenieur Digest] 

Inst Marine Engs, Trans Institute of Marine Engineers. 

Transactions 

Instrum Control Syst Instruments and Control Systems 

lustrum Technol Instrumentation Technology 

Internat Fire Chief International Fire Chief 

Iron Steel Eng Iron and Steel Engineering 

ISA Trans Instrument Society of America. Transactions 

Instalador Instalador [Installers' Journal] 

Izv Vyssh Uchebn Zaved. Gorn Zh Izvestiya Vysshikh 

Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Gornyi Zhurnal [Bulletin of 
the Institutions of Higher Education, Mining Jour- 
nal] 

J Am Concr Inst Journal of the American Concrete 

Institute 
J Am Med Assoc Journal of the American Medical 

Association 

J Br Fire Serv Assoc and Ind Fire Prot 

Assoc Journal 

of the British Fire Service Association and the In- 
dustrial Fire Protection Association 

J Cell Plast Journal of Cellular Plastics 

J Chem Educ Journal of Chemical Education 

J Combust Toxicol Journal of Combustion Toxicology 

(Quarterly Supplement to the Journal of Fire and 
Flammability) 
J Consumer Prod Flammability Journal of Consumer 



1-35 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Product Flammability (Quarterly Supplement to the 
Journal of Fire and Flammability) 

J Faculty Eng, Univ Tokyo, Ser B Journal of the Faculty 

of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Series B 
[Tokyo Daigaku Kogakubu Kiyo, B (published in 
English)] 

J Fire Flammability Journal of Fire and Flammability 

J Fire Retard Chem Journal of Fire Retardant 

Chemistry (Quarterly Supplement to the Journal of 

Fire and Flammability) 

J For Journal of Forestry 

J Mines Met Fuels Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels 

J Mine Vent Soc S Africa Journal of the Mine 

Ventilation Society of South Africa 

J Occup Med Journal of Occupational Medicine 

J Pediatr Journal of Pediatrics 

Jpn Railvv Eng . Japanese Railway Engineering (in English) 
J Polym Sci: Polym Chem Ed Journal of Polymer 

Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition 
J Polym Sci: Polym Lett Ed .... Journal of Polymer Science: 

Polymer Letters Edition 
J Prestr Concr Inst Journal of the Prestressed Concrete 

Institute 

J Psychiatr Nurs Journal of Psychiatric Nursing and 

Mental Health Service 

J Soc Automot Eng Jap Journal of the Society of 

Automotive Engineers of Japan 

J Text Inst Journal of the Textile Institute 

Kagaku Kogyo Kagaku Kogyo [Chemical Industry] 

Kasai Kasai [Journal of the Japanese Association of 

Fire Science and Engineering] 
Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai ronbunshu Keisoku jido 

seigyo gakkai ronbunshu [Transactions of the 

Society of Instrument and Control Engineers] 

Kemia/Kemi Kemia/Kemi [Chemistry] 

Khim prom Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost 

[Chemical Industry] 
Khlopk Prom Khlopkovaya Promyshlennost [Cotton 

Industry] 
Klima Kaelteing Klima + Kaelteingenieur [Conditioning 

+ Refrigerating Engineer] 
Koatsu gasu Koatsu gasuj 'Journal of the Institute of 

Safety in High Pressure Gas Engineering (Japan) 

Kogyo yosui Kogyo yosui [Industrial Water] 

K'o Hsueh Shin Yen /Co Hsueh Shih Yen [Scientific 

Experiments] 
Kosoku doro to jidosha Kosoku doro to jidosha 

[Expressways and Automobile] 
Krankenhaus Umsch Krankenhaus Umschau [Hospital 

Review] 

Kriminalistik Kriminalistik [Criminology] 

Kuki tyowa to reito Kuki tyowa to reito 

[Air Conditioning and Refrigeration] 

Kunstst Kunststoffe [Plastics] 

Kunstst J Kunststoff -Journal [Plastics Journal] 

Kunstst Plast Kunststoffe-Plastics 



Lab Data Laboratory Data 

Lakokrasoch materialy i ikh primeneniye 

Lakokrasochnyye materialy i ikh primeneniye 

[Paints and Varnishes and their Application] 
Lebensm Ind . Lebensmittel-Industrie [Foodstuffs Industry] 

Lenziger Ber Lenzinger Berichte [Lenzing (Co) Reports] 

Lub Eng Lubrication Engineer 

Manage Sci Management Science 

Maschinenmarkt Maschinenmarkt [Machinery Market] 

Maschinenschaden .... Maschinenschaden [Machine Failure] 
Mat Consts/Mat Struct Materiaux el 

Constructions/Materials and Structures 

Mater Eng Materials Engineering 

Mater Plast Elastomeri Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 

[Plastic Materials and Elastomers] 
Medd fran Statens brandnamnd Meddelanden fran 

Statens Brandnamnd [Communications from the 

State Fire Administration] 

Med Leg J Medico-Legal Journal 

Med Sci Law Medicine, Science and the Law 

Melliand Textilber Melliand Textilberichte 

[Melliand Textile Journal] 

Mil Eng Military Engineer 

Min Congr J Mining Congress Journal 

Minn Fire Chief Minnesota Fire Chief 

Min Technol Mining Technology 

Mitsubishi Denki Giho Mitsubishi Denki Giho [Mit- 
subishi Denki Technical Review] 
Mitt Inst Bautech Mitteilungen des Instituts fuer 

Bautechnik [Communications of the Construction 

Engineering Institute] 
Mitt Inst Wasserbau Univ Stuttgart Mitteilungen des 

Instituts fuer Wasserbau der Universitaet Stuttgart 

[Communications of the Hydraulics Institute of 

Stuttgart University] 
Mod Plant Oper Maint Modern Plant Operations 

Maintenance 

Mod Plast Modern Plastics 

Motor Ship Motor Ship 

Naeringsmiddelindustrien Naeringsmiddelindustrien 

[Foodstuff Industry] 

Nat Saf News National Safety News 

Nav Eng J Naval Engineers Journal 

Nav, ports, chant Navires, Ports et Chantiers 

[Ships, Ports and Yards] 

Neftyanik Neftyanik [The Petroleum Worker] 

Netsu kanri to Kogai Netsu kanri to Kogai [Heat 

Management and Pollution Control] 

New Ships Neubauten New Ships/ Neubauten 

Nihon Jozo Kyokai Zasshi Nihon Jozo Kyokai Zasshi 

[Journal of the Society of Brewing, Japan] 

Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu Nihon Kasai Gakkai 

Ronbunshu 

[Bulletin of the Fire Prevention Society of Japan] 
Nihon kenchiku gakkai ronbun hokokushu Nihon 



1-36 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



kenchiku gakkai ronbun hokokushu [Transactions 
of the Architectural Institute of Japan] 

Not AICAP Notizario AICAP [Bulletin of the AICAP] 

Nuclear Saf Nuclear Safety 

Nucl Eng Des Nuclear Engineering and Design 

Nursing Homes Nursing Homes 

Oesterr Feuerwehr Oesterreichische Feuerwehr 

[Austrian Fire Service] 
Oesterr Z Elektrizitaetswirtsch Oesterreichische 

Zeitschrift fuer Elektrizitaetswirtschaft [Austrian 

Journal for the Electrical Industry] 

Office The Office 

Offshore Serv Offshore Service 

Ohm: denki zasshi Ohm: denki zasshi [Ohm Journal] 

Oil Colour Chem Assoc J Oil and Colour Chemists 

Association Journal 

Oper Res Operations Research 

Packs (Japan) Packs [Pakkusu] 

Paper Technol Paper Technology 

PCI J Prestressed Concrete Institute Journal 

Pediatrics Pediatrics 

Plaste Kautsch Plaste und Kautschuk 

[Plastics and Rubber] 

Plast Eng Plastics Engineering 

Plastforum Plastforum [Plastics Review] 

Plastica Plastica [Plastics] 

Plast Rubber Plastics and Rubber 

Plast Technol Plastics Technology 

Polizei Tech Verkehr Polizei-Technik-Verkehr 

[Police and Traffic Safety Engineering Journal] 
Polym Eng Sci Polymer Engineering and Science 

Polytech Tijdschr. Bouwkunde, Wegen en 

Waterbouw 

Polytechnisch Tijdschrift. Bouwkunde, Wegen en 
Waterbouw [Polytechnical Journal. Construction, 
Roads, and Hydraulics] 

Powder Metall Powder Metallurgy 

Power Eng Power Engineering 

Pozhar delo Pozharnoye Delo [Firefighting] 

Pozhar okhrana Pozhar nay a okhrana [Fire Protection] 

Pr Cent Inst Ochr Pr Prace Centralnego Instytutu 

Ochrony Pracy [Proceedings of the Central Occupa- 
tional Safety Institute] 

Prakt Anaesth Praktische Anaesthesie 

[Practical Anesthesiology] 
Pribory i sistemy upr Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya 

[Control Instruments and Systems] 
Proc West Pharmacol Soc Proceedings of the Western 

Pharmacology Society 

Prof Saf Professional Safety 

Progr Archit Progressive Architecture 

Prom energ Promyshlennaya energetika 

[Industrial Power] 
Prom Stroit Promyshlennoe StroiteV stvo [Commercial 

Building Construction] 
Prot Civ Secur Ind Protection Civile el Securite 



Industrielle [Public Protection and Industrial Securi- 
ty] 

Protivpozarna Zastita Protivpozarna Zastita 

[Fire Protection] 

Prz bud Przeglad Budowlany [Building Review] 

Prz poz Przeglad pozarny [Fire Review] 

PTT Tech Mitt Technische Mitteilungen der 

Schweizerischen Post Telephon- und Telegraphen- 
betriebe [Technical Information Journal of the 
Swiss Postal, Telephone and Telegraph Service] 

Publ Pers Manage Public Personnel 

Management 

Puranto Enjinia Puranto Enjinia [Plant Engineer] 

Q Rep Railw Tech Res Inst (Japan) Nihon Kokuyu 

Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyusho [Quarterly Reports of 

the Railway Technical Research Institute (published 

in English)] 

R/D Research and Development 

Radiol Prot Bull Radiological Protection Bulletin 

Rep Fire Res Inst Japan Reports of the Fire Research 

Institute of Japan [Shobo Kenkyushu Hokoku] 
Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan) Reports of the Fire Science 

Laboratory of Japan [Shobo Kagaku Kenkyushoho] 

Rev Beige Feu Revue Beige du Feu [Belgian Fire 

Review] 

Rev Ind Revue Industrielle [Industrial Review] 

Rev Sci Instrum Review of Scientific Instruments 

Rev Tech Feu Revue Technique du Feu 

[Fire Engineering Review] 

R Soc Health J Royal Society of Health Journal 

R Soc Med Proc Royal Society of Medicine Proceedings 

Rubber Age Rubber Age 

Ryusan to kogyo Ryusan to kogyo [Sulphuric Acid 

and Industry] 

Safety Sea Internat Safety at Sea International 

S Afr Min Eng J South African Mining and Engineering 

Journal 

Sangyo Anzen Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku Sangyo 

Anzen Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku [Research Re- 
ports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety] 

Sangyo kikai Sangyo kikai [Industrial Machinery] 

Sapeur pompier Sapeur pompier [Firefighter] 

SBB Nachrichtenbl Schweizerische Bundesbahn. 

Nachrichtenblatt [News Bulletin of the Swiss 
Federal Railway] 
Sb Nauch Tr Leningr Vyssh Inzh Mor Uch- 

shche 

Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov, Leningradskoye 
Vysshee Inzhenernoye Morskoe Uchilishche [Digest 
of Scientific Papers, Leningrad Advanced Naval 
Engineering Academy] 

Sb Tr VNII protivopozhar oborony Sbornik Trudov 

Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta 
Protivopozharnoy Oborony [Digest of Papers of the 
Ail-Union Fire Protection Research Institute] 

SBZ Sanitaer-Technik, Heizungs- und Lueflungsbau 



1-37 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



)Sanitary Engineering] Heating and Ventilation Con[ 
st ruction? 

Schadenprisma Schadenprisma [Damage Prism 

- Journal of Damage Prevention and Research] 

Schiff Hafen Schiff und Hafen [Ships and Ports] 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z Schweizerische Feuerwehr 

Zeitung [Swiss Fire Protection Journal] 

Science Science 

Seewirtsch Seewirtschaft [Maritime Affairs] 

Seisan kenkyu Seisan kenkyu [Monthly Journal 

of the Institute of Industrial Science of the Univer- 
sity of Tokyo] 

Seisan to denki Seisan to denki 

[Production and Electricity] 
Sharyo kogaku Sharyo kogaku [Railway Car 

Engineering] 

Sharyo to Denki Sharyo to Denki [Railway Car and 

Electrical Equipment] 

Ship World Shipbuild Shipping World and Shipbuilding 

Sichere Arb Sichere Arbeit [Labor Safety] 

Sicherh Bergbau, Energiewirt, Met Sicherheit 

Bergbau, Energiewirtschaft, Metallurgie [Safety in 
Mining, Power Industry and Metallurgy] 

Sicherheitsing Sicherheilsingenieur [Safety Engineer] 

Siemens Rev Siemens Review 

Siemens Z Siemens Zeitschrift [Siemens Journal] 

Sigumost Sigurnost [Safety] 

Soda to enso Soda to enso [Soda and Chlorine] 

South Build Southern Building 

Stahl Eisen Stahl und Eisen [Steel and Iron] 

Steir Feuerwehrbl Steirisches Feuerwehrblatt 

[Styrian Fire Services Journal] 
Str-vo truboprovodov StroiteV stvo 

truboprovodov [Pipe Construction] 
Sud Med Ekspert Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 

[Expertise in Forensic Medicine] 

Surg Clin North Am Surgical Clinics of North America 

Surg Forum Surgical Forum 

Tankstelle Tankstelle [Service Station] 

Tech Mitt Technische Mitteilungen [Technical 

Communications] 

Tech Mod Technique Moderne [Modern Technology] 

Technica (Switz) Technica (Switzerland) [Technology] 

Technocrat (Japan) Technocrat (published in English) 

Tech Ueberwach Technische Ueberwachung 

[Technical Security Supervision] 

Telecomm J Telecommunication Journal 

Telecomm J Australia Telecommunication Journal 

of Australia 

Tenside Deterg Tenside Detergents 

Tetsudo Doboku Tetsudo Doboku 

[Railway Civil Engineering] 
Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo Tetsudo 

Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo [Journal of Railway En- 
gineering Research] 
Text Chem Color Textile Chemist and Colorist 



Textilia Textilia [Textiles] 

Text Inst Ind Textile Institute and Industry 

Text Prax Int Textil-Praxis International [International 

Textile Engineering] 

Text Res J Textile Research Journal 

Tijdschr watervoor en afvalwaterbehandel... Tijdschrift voor 
watervoorziening en afvalbehandeling [Water 
Supply and Waste Treatment Journal] 

Tokyo daigaku kogakubu kiyo, A Tokyo daigaku 

kogakubu kiyo, A [Journal of the Faculty of En- 
gineering, University of Tokyo, Series A] 

Torf Prom Torfyanaya Promyshlennost [Peat Industry] 

Toshiba Rebyu Toshiba Rebyu [Toshiba Review] 

Tr Inzh-ekon Fak Rizh Politekhn In-ta Trudy 

Inzhenerno-Ekonomicheskogo Fakul'teta Rizhskogo 
Politekhnicheskogo Instituta [Transactions of the 
Faculty of Engineering Economics of the Riga 
Polytechnic Institute] 

Tr Vost Nil po bezop rabot v gorn prom- 

sti Trudy 

Vostochnogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta 
po bezopasnosti rabot v gornoy promyshlennosti 
[Transactions of the Eastern Scientific Research In- 
stitute for Industrial Safety in the Mining Industry] 

Trans AU Transactions of the AIJ 

Uch Zap Azerb in-ta Nefti i Khimii Uchenye Zapiski 

Azerbaidzhanskogo Instituta Nefti i Khimii 
[Scientific Papers of the Azerbaidzhan Institute of 
Petroleum and Chemistry] 

Ugol Ugol [Coal] 

Ugol Ukraina Ugol Ukraina [Ukrainian Coal] 

Uni-Inf Karlsruhe Universilaels-Information Karlsruhe 

[Karlsruhe University Bulletin] 

Unser Brandschutz Unser Brandschutz 

[Our Fire Protection] 

VDI Z Zeitschrift des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure 

[Journal of the German Engineers Society] 

Verfahrenstechnik (Mainz) Verfahrenstechnik 

[Process Engineering] 

Versicherungswirtsch Versicherungswirtschaft 

[Insurance Industry] 

Vet Med Small Anim Clin Veterinary Medicine and 

Small Animal Clinician 

VFDB Z Zeitschrift der Vereinigung zur Foerderung 

des Deutschen Brandschutzes [Journal of the As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Fire Protection 
in Germany] 

VGB Kraftwerkstechnik Vereinigung der 

Grosskraftwerksbetreiber - Kraftwerkstechnik 
[Association of Major Power-Rant Operators. 
Power-Plant Engineering] 

Voen Med Zh Voenno-Meditsinskiy Zhurnal [Military 

Medical Journal] 
Vopr ekon pozhar okhrane Voprosy ekonomiki 

v pozharnoy okhrane [Problems of Economics in 

Fire Protection] 
Werkfeuerverband eV. Rundschreiben... Werkfeuer\erband 



1-38 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



eVz Rundschreiben )Indiistrial Fire Brigade Associa[ 
tion Inez Circulars? 

West J Med Western Journal of Medicine 

Wiad Gorn Wiadomosci Gornicze [Mining News] 

World Oil World Oil 

YuatMi Gijutsu Yuatsu Gijutsu [Hydraulics Engineering] 

Yuatsuka sekkei Yuatsuka sekkei [Hydraulics and 

Pneumatics] 
Zem Kalk Gips Zement-Kalk-Gips [Cement- 
Lime-Gypsum] 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeit sschutz Zentralblatt 

fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz [Journal of 
Industrial Medicine and Occupational Safety] 

Zesz probl gorn Zeszyty Problemowe Gornictwa 

[Reports on Mining Research] 

Zh Vses Khim O-va Zhurnal Vsesoyuznogo 

Khimicheskogo Obshchestva imena D I Mendeleeva 
[Journal of the DI Mendeleev All-Union Chemical 
Society] 

ZS Magazin.... Zivilschutz Magazin [Civil Defense Journal] 



ft U. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1978 261-238/202 



1-39